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absorption acceleration angles assumption atoms calculate centre charge circular polarization coefficient components considered constant contains corresponding deduced denote density determined dielectric displacement differential direction distance effective electric force electromagnetic field electromagnetic mass element of volume equal equations ether expression fix our attention flow of energy force acting force H formulae frequency function given instant integral J. J. Thomson kinetic energy large number lines of force magnetic field magnetic force magnitude mean value metal molecules motion moving system negative electrons observed particles perpendicular phenomena Phys plane polarization ponderable body potential propagation quantities radiation ratio refraction refractive index relative rays represented result rotation scalar scalar potential spectral lines sphere suppose surface system x temperature theorem theorem of corresponding theory of electrons translation triplet unit of volume vector velocity wave-length waves
Page 230 - I cannot but regard the ether, which can be the seat of an electromagnetic field with its energy and its vibrations, as endowed with a certain degree of substantiality, however different it may be from all ordinary matter.
Page 230 - Kaufmann's results that was pointed out in § 1791)) agree in the main with those which we have obtained in the preceding pages, the chief difference being that Einstein simply postulates what we have deduced, with some difficulty and not altogether satisfactorily, from the fundamental equations of the electromagnetic field. By doing so, he may certainly take credit for making us see in the negative result of experiments like those of Michelson, Rayleigh and Brace, not a fortuitous compensation of...
Page 8 - ... mechanism that is at the bottom of the phenomena. It is by this necessity, that one has been led to the conception of electrons, ie of extremely small particles, charged with electricity, which are present in immense numbers in all ponderable bodies, and by whose distribution and motions we endeavor to explain all electric and optical phenomena that are not confined to the free ether.
Page 252 - To transfer these components to 0 and at the same time to introduce only couples whose vectors are parallel to the axes, we proceed in two steps. Thus to transfer, say X, we introduce at P', the foot of the perpendicular let fall from P on the plane zx, two...
Page 213 - Vol. 19 , p. 487.) His conclusion was unambiguous and was stated in italics: 'The results of the measurements are not compatible with the fundamental assumption of Lorentz and Einstein.' Lorentz's reaction: 'It seems very likely that we shall have to relinquish this idea altogether.
Page 1 - You all know this theory of Maxwell, which we may call the general theory of the electromagnetic field and in which we constantly have in view the state of the matter or the medium by which the field is occupied. While speaking of this state, I must immediately call your attention to the curious fact that, although we never lose sight of it, we need by no means go far in attempting to form an image of it and, in fact, we cannot say much about it.
Page 10 - This rapid review will suffice to show you that the theory of electrons is to be regarded as an extension to the domain of electricity of the molecular and atomistic theories that have proved of so much use in many branches of physics and chemistry. Like these, it is apt to be viewed unfavourably by some physicists, who prefer to push their way into new and unexplored regions by following those great highways of science which we possess in the laws of thermodynamics, or who arrive at important and...
Page 230 - It would be unjust not to add that, besides the fascinating boldness of its starting point, Einstein's theory has another marked advantage over mine. Whereas I have not been able to obtain for the equations referred to moving axes exactly...
Page 10 - JJ Thomson, Indications relatives a la constitution de la matiere fournies par les recherches recentes sur le passage de 1'electricite a travers les gaz, Rapports du Congres de physique de 1900, Paris.
Page 219 - Lorentz wrote, It is scarcely necessary to say that Rayleigh 's and Brace's observations were conducted in such a manner that a double refraction in which one of the principal directions of vibration would be parallel to the earth's motion could manifest itself. As I mentioned already, the results were invariably negative, though Brace's means of observation were so sensitive that a difference between principal refractive indices of 1O12 could not have escaped him.