Archaeological Survey

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Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 31, 2002 - History - 273 pages
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One of the questions that non-archaeologists often ask us is how we find archaeo logical sites. Today we often provide a pat answer about random or systematic sam pling, or perhaps about fieldwalking. This does not do justice to what archaeologists actually do, or to the body of theory and methods we have built up. After decades of carrying out surveys with intuitive designs, in the 1960s some archaeologists began to deal more explicitly with the design of archaeological surveys. Some seminal articles on aspects of archaeological survey design followed over the next two decades but, unlike excavation methods, archaeological survey has received no comprehensive treatment that could serve as a guide to survey practitioners. The main purpose of this book is to fill this gap. In addition, most archaeologists have been reluctant to discuss aspects of survey other than sampling and a few of the factors that influence detection probability. They have also almost completely ignored the large body of literature on search theory that cognate fields have generated. In an attempt to put archaeological survey on a consistent theoretical "and methodological basis, I have drawn on research in archaeology, math ematical earth sciences, and operations research. This will result, I think, in some sur prises for archaeologists, who have sometimes struggled to identify and understand sur vey problems that other fields had already studied intensively.
 

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Contents

1 A BRIEF HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY
2
12 Field walking in Britain
3
13 Early Air Reconnaissance
4
16 Diyala and Uruk Surveys Iraq
5
17 The Basin of Mexico Project
6
19 Survey in North American Forests
7
111 Intertidal and Shallowlake Survey
8
2 SURVEYS UNIQUE CONTRIBUTION TO ARCHAEOLOGY
10
PURPOSIVE SURVEY PROSPECTION
133
1 PROSPECTING
134
111 Location of Upper Creek Villages in Alabama
135
114 Search for the Submerged City of Helike
136
13 Exploiting Structure in Landscapes
137
14 Exploiting Structure in Target Interrelationships
138
161 Early History of Predictive Modelling
139
162 Assumptions of Predictive Modelling
140

3 SURFACE DISTRIBUTIONS AND BURIED LANDSCAPES
11
31 Models of Cultural Distributions
12
311 The Monument Model
13
313 The Uniform Distribution
14
314 The Modal Bullseye or Friedegg Model
15
3141 Mathematical Models for Clusters of Artifacts
16
3142 Contagious Distributions
17
315 The Palimpsest Model
18
316 The Offsite or Intersite Model
19
317 The Distributional or Nonsite Model
20
319 The Paleolandscape Model
22
THE GOALS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY
27
11 Prospection
28
12 Statistical Survey
30
123 Estimating Densities of Artifacts on the Landscape
31
125 Estimating Human Population Size or Growth Rate
32
128 Estimating the Range or Diversity of Archaeological Materials
33
13 Surveying for Spatial Structure
34
14 Surveys with Multiple Goals
35
15 The Issue of Methodological Consistency
36
16 Summary
38
THE DISCOVERY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL MATERIALS BY SURVEY
39
11 Method of Inspection
40
112 Visual Inspection of Aerial Photographs with Groundchecks
41
113 Survey by Test Pits Divoting Coring or Augering SST
42
114 Geophysical Survey
44
1144 Seismic Survey
45
12 Visibility
46
13 Obtrusiveness
48
131 The Constituents of Archaeological Distributions
49
133 Constituent Removal by Chemical or Mechanical Destruction
54
135 Obtrusiveness in Geophysical Survey
55
14 Distance from Target to Sensor
56
141 The Law of Clean Sweep or Definite Detection
57
142 Inversecube Law
58
15 Geometry of Sites or Artifact Clusters
59
16 Intensity or Density of Effort
60
17 Resolution
62
18 Coverage
63
110 Crew Training Experience and Motivation
65
1101 Training and Briefing Team Members
66
1104 Accounting for Variability
67
2 ESTIMATING DISCOVERY PROBABILITIES
68
3 POSTDEPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT SPATIAL PATTERN
72
31 Artifact Displacement or Sorting by Erosion
73
4 SUMMARY
74
UNITS SAMPLING FRAMES AND EDGE EFFECTS IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY
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2 BOUNDARIES OF THE SURVEY AREA
76
21 PhysicalGeographical Boundaries
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22 HistoricalPolitical Boundaries
78
25 Oversize Boundaries and Group Territories
79
26 Edge Effects
80
3 TYPES SHAPES AND ORIENTATION OF UNITS
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311 Site Size Shape and Orientation
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32 Geometrical Spatial Units
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322 Edge Effects on Parameter Estimates
85
323 Cost Effects of Unit Size
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34 Arrangement of Units
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342 Transects
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3422 Intersecting Transects
90
3423 Undulating Transects
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3424 Retiringsquare Pattern
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344 Nested Arrangements
94
41 Size of Units
95
42 Optimal Arrangements Sizes and Spacing
96
421 Optimizing the Arrangement of Systematic Point Grids
97
422 Optimizing the Arrangement of Continuous Parallel Transects
100
424 Optimizing the Spacing of Systematic Point Grids
101
4241 Optimal Spacing of Point Grids at a Fixed Cost
102
425 Optimizing the Spacing of Parallel Transects
105
4251 Optimal Spacing of Transects Taking Costs and Value into Account
106
4252 Spacing Transects within Polygons
107
4253 Retiringsquare Pattern
108
4262 Balancing the Costs and Benefits of Polygon Size
109
43 Influences on Detection of Spatial Pattern
110
5 CONCLUSIONS
112
SAMPLING SPACE STATISTICAL SURVEYS
113
112 Stratified Sampling
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113 Systematic Sampling
116
12 Complications in Geometric Spatial Samples
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123 Crosscutting Stratification
118
13 Cluster Sampling and Element Sampling
119
14 Sampling with Point Samples
121
15 Sampling Geomorphic and Cultural Features or Places
122
2 SAMPLE SIZE AND ESTIMATION
124
23 Optimal Allocation for Stratified Samples
126
231 Neyman Allocation
127
232 Minimizing Variance on a Fixed Budget
128
233 Minimizing Cost for a Fixed Variance
129
24 Sequential Sampling
130
32 Estimating the Number of Archaeological Sites
131
35 Estimating Changes in Regional Population or Settlement Area
132
163 Steps in the Use of Inductive Predictive Models
141
1632 Creating the Model
142
1634 Applying the Model
143
17 Using Geophysical Remote Sensing
144
18 Adaptive Sampling Strategies
145
3 BAYESIAN PROSPECTION AND OPERATIONS RESEARCH
146
31 Search Patterns
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311 Search for the Chesapeake Flotilla
148
32 Optimal Allocation
149
321 Simplified Examples of Optimal Allocation
150
33 Incrementally Optimal Searches
152
41 Discrete Search Games
153
421 Exponential Spiral Search Trajectories
154
SURVEYING FOR SPATIAL STRUCTURE
155
11 Settlement Patterns and Settlement Systems
156
12 Central Places and Settlement Lattices
157
122 Huntergatherer Landuse Models
158
125 Settlementlattice Models
159
126 Ranksize Models
160
13 Dendritic and Other Networks
161
14 Earthwork Patterns
163
15 Trend Surfaces Clustering and Isopleth Maps
164
16 Distributional Archaeology
165
2 THE CASE FOR TOTAL SURVEY
167
22 The Presampling and Largesite Bias Arguments
168
312 Surveying for Settlement Lattices
169
313 Survey for Ranksize Analysis
170
314 Surveying Dendritic Networks
171
315 Landscape Survey
172
321 Surveying with Central Place and Sitecatchment Models
173
323 Survey for Ranksize Analysis
174
325 Landscape Survey
175
CULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND SITE SIGNIFICANCE
177
11 The Objectives of Cultural Resource Management
178
122 Responsibility to Archaeological and Other Heritage Resources
179
2 REGIONAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS BY FIELD SURVEY
180
22 Satisfying Clients and Regulations
181
231 What Are Predictive Models and Sensitivity Models?
182
232 Do Sensitivity Models Create Bias?
183
31 Kinds of Significance
184
312 Public Recreational and Educational Significance
185
313 Historical Significance
186
315 Ethnic Significance
187
32 Measuring Significance
188
4 ADMINISTRATIVE ETHICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF CRM
189
41 Government and Institutional Regulation of Surveys
190
412 English Legislation
191
413 Canadian Legislation
193
42 Professional Organizations and Selfregulation
194
423 The Institute of Field Archaeologists IFA
195
44 Reporting Requirements
196
SURVEYING SITES AND LANDSCAPES
197
11 Locating Transects and Staying on Course
198
12 Intertidal Surveys
199
2 COMMON ATTRIBUTES OF SITES
200
22 Site Function and Site Hierarchies
201
25 Site Environment
202
3 EXAMINING SITES AND COLLECTING OR RECORDING ARTIFACTS
203
32 Site Chronology
204
33 Documenting Site Features
206
34 Sampling or Stratifying the Site
207
35 To Collect or Not to Collect
208
36 Test Excavations
209
4 DOCUMENTING NONSITE OR OFFSITE MATERIAL CULTURE
210
42 Quadrat Mapping
211
44 Recording Geographical Information and Formation Processes
212
5 INTERTIDAL SURVEYS
213
61 Control for Artifact Detection
214
62 Control for Accuracy of Artifact Attributes
215
7 CONCLUSION
216
EVALUATING SURVEYS
217
12 Assessing the Impact of Visibility Intensity and Other Specific Factors
218
13 Estimating Detection Probabilities of Informal Surveys
219
2 ASSESSING THE EXHAUSTION OF A REGION
220
3 EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SAMPLING
223
4 ASSESSING THE RELIABILITY OF CREW OBSERVATIONS
224
5 ASSESSING BIAS IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF FINDS
226
6 ASSESSING VARIATIONS IN COLLECTION METHOD
227
SURVEYING THE FUTURE
229
2 INVESTIGATING HIDDEN AND NEGLECTED LANDSCAPES
230
22 Wetland Survey
231
3 SURVEY METHOD AND TECHNOLOGY
232
4 MATHEMATICAL APPROACHES TO SURVEY THEORY AND EVALUATION
233
5 CONCLUSION
234
HEALTH SAFETY AND PRACTICAL MATTERS IN FIELD SURVEY
235
12 Educating Team Members
236
16 Risk of Encountering Highvoltage Lines Toxic Waste or Explosives
237
19 Insurance
238
23 Sampling Equipment and Supplies
239
BIBLIOGRAPHY
241
INDEX
265
Copyright

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Page 250 - International Congress on Science and Technology for the safeguard of Cultural Heritage in the Mediterranean Basin, CNR ed.
Page 242 - EB, and Fawcett, C., 1983. Man-land relationships in the ancient Wadi Ziqlab: Report of the 1981 survey.
Page 246 - Dancey. (1998). The value of surface archaeological data in exploring the dynamics of community evolution in the middle Ohio Valley. In: AP Sullivan III, (Ed.), Surface archaeology.
Page 245 - A selection of samplers: comments on archaeo-statistics', in Mueller, JW (ed.) Sampling in Archaeology (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 258-74.
Page 241 - Altschul, JH 1990. Red flag models: The use of modelling in management contexts. In Allen, KMS, Green.
Page 243 - Bernick, K., ed., 1998. Hidden Dimensions: The Cultural Significance of Wetland Archaeology.

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