Experimental Political Science and the Study of Causality: From Nature to the Lab
Increasingly, political scientists use the term 'experiment' or 'experimental' to describe their empirical research. One of the primary reasons for doing so is the advantage of experiments in establishing causal inferences. In this book, Rebecca B. Morton and Kenneth C. Williams discuss in detail how experiments and experimental reasoning with observational data can help researchers determine causality. They explore how control and random assignment mechanisms work, examining both the Rubin causal model and the formal theory approaches to causality. They also cover general topics in experimentation such as the history of experimentation in political science; internal and external validity of experimental research; types of experiments - field, laboratory, virtual, and survey - and how to choose, recruit, and motivate subjects in experiments. They investigate ethical issues in experimentation, the process of securing approval from institutional review boards for human subject research, and the use of deception in experimentation.
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analysis approach artiﬁcial assumptions baseline Battaglini behavior beneﬁts candidates causal effect Chapter choices choose construct validity deception decision deﬁne Deﬁnition department or agency dictator game difﬁcult discuss effect of information election empirical environment equilibrium estimate ethical evaluate Example experimentalists external validity ﬁeld experiments ﬁnancial incentives ﬁnd ﬁrst movers ﬁve formal model game-theoretic Gerber given harms human subjects identiﬁcation ignorability of treatment iments independent individual inﬂuence informed consent interaction Internet involved laboratory experiments manipulation measure methods observational data ofﬁcers outcomes Palfrey participate payoffs players political science political scientists possible potential predictions probability problem procedures propensity scores public goods game questions random assignment randomly received recruited relationship response Rubin Causal Model sample second mover session signiﬁcant signiﬁcantly speciﬁc statistical strategy subject pool subpart survey experiment target population theoretical theory tion trust game turnout types ultimatum game uninformed unobservable voters voting