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abuses according al-Hakim al-Khoei al-Najaf al-Nasiriyya Allies amnesty April Arabs arrested artillery attacks Baath Party Baghdad Basra bombs border Chamchamal civilians conﬁrmed conﬂict Dahuk demolished difﬁcult displaced persons embargo executed ﬁ'om ﬁghters ﬁghting ﬁgures ﬁre ﬁred ﬁring ﬁrst ﬁve ﬂed ﬂeeing government of Iraq Grand Ayatollah helicopter gunships homes hospital Human Rights humanitarian inﬁltrated inside Iraq Iran Iranian Iraq’s Iraqi government Iraqi soldiers Iraqi troops Irbil Karbala killed Kirkuk Kurdish Kurdish rebels Kurdistan Kurds looting loyalist troops March March 9 marshes Middle East Watch northern Iraq November 13 ofﬁce ofﬁcers ofﬁcials Patrick Cockburn pesh merga population rebel-controlled zone rebel-held zone rebellion refugee camp regime Republican Guard residents revolt Rights in Iraq Saddam Hussein security forces Shatt al-Arab shelling Shi'a Shi’a shrines speciﬁc Suleimaniyya tanks thousands told MEW Turkey U.N. Special Rapporteur UNHCR uprising villages Washington Post York
Page 34 - ... the passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.
Page 33 - Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause...
Page 33 - To this end the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons: (a) violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture...
Page 33 - Protocol shall not apply to situations of internal disturbances and tensions, such as riots, isolated and sporadic acts of violence and other acts of a similar nature, as not being armed conflicts.
Page 34 - ... an attack which may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated.
Page 15 - Iraq allow immediate access by international humanitarian organizations to all those in need of assistance in all parts of Iraq and to make available all necessary facilities for their operations; 4.
Page 38 - But there's another way for the bloodshed to stop. And that is for the Iraqi military and the Iraqi people to take matters into their own hands — to force Saddam Hussein, the dictator, to step aside, and to comply with the United Nations resolutions and then rejoin the family of peace-loving nations.
Page 34 - The civilian population and individual civilians shall enjoy general protection against the dangers arising from military operations. To give effect to this protection, the following rules shall be observed in all circumstances. 2. The civilian population as such, as well as individual civilians, shall not be the object of attack.
Page 38 - The New York Times, February 16, 1991.) As early as August 11, 1990, the president had hinted of his desire to have Saddam Hussein ousted: "No, we're not prepared to support the overthrow, but I hope that these actions that have been taken will result in an Iraq that is prepared to live peacefully in a community of nations. And if that means Saddam Hussein changes his spots, so be it. And if he doesn't, I hope the Iraqi people do something about it so that their leader will live by the norms of international...