Cross-cultural Pragmatics: The Semantics of Human Interaction
This book challenges the approaches to human interaction based on supposedly universal 'maxims of conversation' and 'principles of politeness,' which fly in the face of reality as experienced by millions of people crossing language boundaries (refugees, immigrants, etc.) and which cannot help in the practical tasks of cross-cultural communication and education. In contrast to such approaches, this book is both theoretical and practical: it shows that in different societies, norms of human interaction are different and reflect different cultural attitudes and values; and it offers a framework within which different cultural norms and different ways of speaking can be effectively explored, explained, and taught. The book discusses data from a wide range of languages and it shows that the meanings expressed in human interaction and the different 'cultural scripts' prevailing in different speech communities can be clearly and intelligibly described and compared by using a 'natural semantic metalanguage,' based on empirically established universal human concepts. As the book shows, this metalanguage can be used as a basis for teaching successful cross-cultural communication, including the teaching of languages in a cultural context.
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semantics and pragmatics
Description of contents
Cultural values reflected in speech acts
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acceptance addressee American analysis appear applies attitude Australian boys Chapter characteristic clear clearly close component concept Consider constructions context contrast conversational convey course culture described devices direct discussion emotional English example expected explication expression fact feel feel something bad formula grammar hand happen human idea illocutionary force illustrated imperative implies important indirect individual interaction interesting interjections interpreted Italian Japanese kind language less linguistic linked meaning natural offer one's particles particular pattern perhaps person phrase Polish positive possible pragmatics present proposed question range reference reflected represented request respect response Russian seems seen semantic sense sentences similar situation social someone sound speaker speaking specific speech acts suggest tautologies tell things thought tion true universal utterance verb want to say whereas