Bantus, whom they have gradually driven southwards to and beyond the Tana river, are the least known of all the Somali peoples, the very names of most of the clans belonging to this warlike nation being still unrecorded in ethnological works. Along the banks of the Webi, of which they hold the south side, they are collectively called Gobron; farther south, that is, in the narrow peninsula comprised between the Webi and the Benadir territory on the seaboard, dwell the Tuni, most peaceful of all the Somali tribes, who, instead of the spear, go about armed only with a stick. The Rahanuin division also includes, according to Paulitschke, the Abgal people, who occupy the north side of the Webi. The Abgals, who are noted for their exceptional ferocity, still live at enmity with all the surrounding tribes, and are here and there even still opposed to the doctrines of Islam. All these fakidas are in a state of constant warfare with those of the Hawiya division.

The Hawiyas And Miikjans.

The Hawiyas, who aro dominant in Ogaden, that is, the great central territory of Sonvjli Land, are certainly the most powerful of all the Somali people. M. Revoil describes them as less bellicose than the other branches of the race, but at the same time more fanatical and more dangerous to foreigners. They belong to a distinct Mohammedan sect, which, to judge from their practices, seems in some way akin or analogous to that of the Wahabites in Central Arabia. According to tbe accounts received by Sottiro, the Hawiyas have a large infusion of Galla blood, to which may perhaps be attributed the fact that their complexion is of a lighter shade than that of the seaboard tribes. In the inland regions most of them appear to be settled agriculturists, which is doubtless due to the greater elevation of this region, which is also better watered and more fertile than the low-lying coastlands. In Ogaden, a land of pasturage and of cattle, they are on the contrary all nomads.

In several parts of their domain the Hawiyas are numerically in a minority. In fact in these districts they constitute a higher caste or political rulers, who regard with contempt the bulk of the inhabitants as belonging to alien tribes, or even to conquered races. Thus the Adone people, who occupy the southern parts of Ogaden, differ altogether from the Somali proper, and according to their language and social habits should rather be grouped with the Bantu populations. The Adone idiom is closely related to the Ki-Swaheli of the Zanzibar coastlands.

The two castes of the Yebirs and Tomals, who, like the European gipsies, are the fortune-tellers, blacksmiths, and tinkers of these regions, are also regarded as tribes of different origin from the true Hawiyas. The Yebirs are somewhat addicted to magic practices, such as manufacturing amulets, conjuring snakes, healing the sick, casting lots, and interpreting omens. They also take a leading part in all feasts and public ceremonies. The Tomals, called also Handads, forge the spear-heads; but although indispensable to the community they are kept beyond the precincts of the villages, and obliged to marry amongst themselves, being despised and feared as baneful magicians.

In still greater contempt are held the Midgans, called also Rami, that is to say "Archers," who are universally regarded us the lowest of the low. They worship trees and snakes, and eat all the prohibited food, such as fish, fowl, eggs, hares, and gazelles. Thev are also daring hunters, fearlessly attacking the lion and the elephant, whom they pierce with their poisoned arrows. Like the Yebirs, tho Midgans also practise medicine, and have the reputation of being extremely clever charlatans. According to the Somali legends, the lower castes are the issue of crossings between Abyssinian women and maleficent genii, while the Midgans are of still more degraded origin, their ancestors having been the slaves of these Abys


sinian women.

The Hashiyas.

The Hashiyo.S> or Northern Somali, more commonly known by the name of Aji, have evidentlv been most affected by contact and family alliances with the Arabs. So far as they arc concerned, the national traditions are to some extent justified and the Hashiyas may to a certain degree trace their genealogies back to the Koreish familv of the Hashims, one of whose warriors, named Arab, is supposed to have emigrated to Africa towards the end of the twelfth century, or less than six hundred years after the Hegira. His residence, which became the capital of a powerful empire, is said to have been discovered at Zeila, or in the vicinity of that place.

The Hashiyas are subdivided into two main groups, respectively named Tarud (Darode), that is, the "Banished," and Ishak, from two descendants of Arab. From Tarud are descended the Mijertins, most famous of all the Hashiya nations, comprising some thirty tribal groups under the common suzerainty of a boyhor, or sultan. To the Ishak branch belong the Issa, or better E'issa, and the Gadabursi, who occupy the shores of Tajurrah Bay and the districts about Zeila and Berbera, and are consequently of all the Somali people the best known to Europeans. With the same branch are grouped the Habr Tol, Habr Ghar Haji, Habr Awal, and the other tribes whose name is preceded by the word habr. In the Somali language this word habr has the meaning of "grandmother," "venerable matron," and seems to indicate a faint reminiscence of a previous social system in which descent was reckoned only through the female line, as is still the case amongst most African populations. If this conjecture be correct, traces of the matriarchal state would thus still survive amongst these fierce Somali populations who at present treat their women with so much contempt. It is noteworthy that amongst the three above-mentioned Habr tribes are found the very finest specimens of the Somali type.

The south-western Hashiyas—Ghirri, Bersub, and Bertiri—appear to be allied to the Gallas, and jointly with the Jerso, one of the tribes of this nation, they even constitute a worm, or political confederacy, worra being a Galla word meaning "clan," or "family." In this region commercial relations and the development of social intercourse between the conterminous tribes have arrested the devastating wars which almost everywhere else are incessantly carried on between the Somali and Galla populations.

The Easteun Gallas.

The Gallas, who give themselves the general designations of Oromo, that is "Men," or " Brave," and Ilm-Orma, that is, "Sons of Men," are more commonly known to their Somali enemies by the appellation of Durr. that is, "vile," or "abjtct." But although thus despised by the neighbouring Somali people, the Gallas greatly surpass them in intelligence, love of industry, peaceful habits, and trustworthiness. They are also far more numerous, thanks to the fertility of their plains, whose light reddish soil they diligently cultivate.

According to the Egyptian officers, who till recently held command in the city of Harrar, there was a population of several millions in the province of the Upper Webi annexed to the Khedival possessions. Paulitschke, however, while confirming the reports regarding the extremely dense population of this region, reduces to about 1,-i00,000 the probable number of north-eastern Gallas concentrated in the Upper Webi basin. The southern districts, that is, the valleys watered by the streams flowing to the Juba and the Tana, are also very thickly peopled. The Gallas who dwell beyond the limits of Ethiopia, properly so called, that is, on the slopes draining to the Indian Ocean, cannot in any case be estimated at less than three millions. On the other hand, the whole of the Somali territory contains a population of scarcely one million, of whom about 100,000 belong to the great Mijertin nation. The Somali occupying the coastlands along the Gulf of Aden between the Jebel Karoma and the Gan Libash, are estimated by M. Kevoil at scarcely more than 30,000 altogether.

Nevertheless in these incessant border feuds, the aggressors are invariably the numerically inferior Somali tribes. These fierce nomads, who go about constantly armed and ready for the fight, and who are always lying in ambush to fall unawares on the foe, have naturally a great advantage over the sedentary Gallas, occupied chiefly with the cultivation of their durrah fields. But on the verge of the desert stretching north of the Harrar Mountains some of these Galla tribes have, as nomad pastors, adopted the habits and customs of their hereditary enemies. In order to resist the aggressors, who are attracted chiefly by the love of pillage and the hope of plunder, the Oromo have'in many places been obliged to abandon their fertile plains and settled habitations, or else sink to the position of serfs, mere " hewers of wood and drawers of water" to the rapacious Somali marauders. In the extreme southern regions they have already ceased to defend the territory comprised between the rivers Juba and Tana. But in the northern districts they still show a bold front to the enemy, and here the river Errer, a main branch of the Webi or Harrar, has not yet been crossed by their adversaries. Strict watch is constantly kept against the raiders by the Enniya tribe all along the frontiers of the conterminous domains.

In any case the Gallas certainly vindicate their claim to the national desig

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