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brated by the publication, in 1815, of his Relation d'un voyage fait cl ljomlres en 1814.; ou parallele de la chirurgie angloise avec la chirurgie franchise—a book which had considerable influence in diffusing in each country a knowledge of what had been done in the other, in spite of the crude and superficial views on many points which it presented. His tm -t important contributions to the art were in plastic surgery, particularly in staphylorrhaphy, which he first performed in 1819, and in suture of the ruptured perineum, which he first performed in 1832. He
Sve the first distinct course of lectures on surgical anatomy in 1812. is most important literary work was his Quarante annies de pratique chirurgicale, of which but two volumes were published, the first, relating to plastic surgery, appearing in 1854, and the second, on diseases of the arteries, in 1855.
Jean Nicolas Marjolin (1780-1850) was prosector of anatomy in 1806, and in 1816 became second surgeon of the Hotel Dieu, but soon retired to avoid unpleasant association with Dupuytren. In 1819 he became professor of surgical pathology. He was a good surgeon and extremely popular as a teacher, but was not distinguished as an operator. His name remains connected with the form of malignant degeneration of chronic ulcer of the leg known as the "warty ulcer of Marjolin."
Jacques Lisfranc (1790-1847) studied at Lyons and Paris and graduated in 1813, after which he served for a short time in the army and then settled in Paris. In 1825 he became second surgeon at La Pitie, and a short time afterward, on the death of Beclard, he became the chief surgeon at this hospital. He sought to reduce operative surgery to mathematical rules, and his name is connected with methods of partial amputation of the foot, of amputation at the wrist, the shoulder-joint, and the hip, and with methods ot resection of the head of the humerus, for removal of the lower jaw, for excision of the rectum, and for amputation of the neck of the uterus. He was an excellent operator and clinical teacher, but envious of the greater success of some of his contemporaries, particularly Dupuytren and Velpeau, and died dissatisfied with himself and with every one around him. His principal publications arc— Clinique chirurgicale de Vh&pital de la Pitie (3 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1841-43) and Precis de medecine opiratoire (3 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1845-48).
Louis Joseph Sanson (1790-1841) was a pupil and friend of Dupuytren. After serving in the army from 1812 to 1815, he returned to Paris, and in 1825 became the second surgeon of the Hotel Dieu. In 1836 he succeeded Dupuytren as professor of clinical surgery, winning the place by concours. The first forty years of his life were a continued struggle with poverty, and his subordination to Dupuytren prevented him from obtaining the reputation to which his skill as a diagnostician and operator entitled him. His principal work was the Xouveaux iiiments de pathologir mMico-chirurgicale, par Roche et Sanson (4 vols., 1824; 3d ed. 1833), of which he wrote all the surgical part.
Jules Germain Cloquet (1790-1883) came to Paris in 1810 and became preparer for the museum of the School of Medicine. He published a valuable series of anatomical observations on hernia in 1817, and a magnificent work on human anatomy, containing a large number of plates, which is still classic; in 1831 he became professor of surgical pathology, and succeeded Dubois in the chair of clinical surgery in 1833, which position he retained until 1850. He contributed a large number of papers on anatomical and surgical subjects to the journals, and devised a number of new instruments.
Joseph Souberbielle (1754-1846) studied at Paris under Desault and entered the army. He took his degree in 1813, after which he remained in Paris, devoting himself chiefly to lithotomy, and especially to the suprapubic method. He was a relative of Frere Come and of his nephew Baseilhac, and inherited their instruments and reputation. He is said to have performed the suprapubic operation over twelve hundred times.
To this period belongs the introduction of lithotrity, with which are especially connected the names of Civiale, Leroy (d'fitiolles), and Hcurteloup.
Jean Civiale (1792-1867) studied at Paris, graduating in 1820, and made a specialty of the diseases of the urinary organs, and especially of lithotrity, which he successfully performed on a living human subject in January, 1824. In 1828 a special section for those afflicted with calculus was set apart for him in the Hospital Necker, and his practice became enormous. He had much mechanical ingenuity and dexterity, but he was neither a speaker nor a writer, and the greater part of the numerous publications which appeared under his name were really written by Jourdan, Boisseau, Begin, and others. In his first book, Nouvelles considerations sur la retention d'urine, etc. (1823, p. 115), he referred to a report of Pouteau that "haricots blancs" had passed from the stomach into the urinary bladder, etc., and said : "Si les faits rapportes sont exacts, ces corps suivent-ils le torrent de la circulation?" Some kind friend pointed out the blunder to him before the edition was put on the market, and he cancelled the greater part, but a few had been sent out as presentation copies, and these are now regarded as curiosities in medical literature.
Jean Jacques Joseph Leroy (d'Ftiolles) (1798-1860) studied at Paris, graduating in 1824, prior to which he had devised a three-pronged instrument for seizing and perforating a stone in the bladder, and his whole life was mainly devoted to this branch of surgery and to bitter contests as to priority of invention. He was not, however, a pure specialist, and was a much more scientific man than Civiale. The list of his publications is a long one, but they are comparatively brief papers.
Charles Louis Stanislaus Hcurteloup (1793-1864), son of Baron Nicolas Hcurteloup, a distinguished French army surgeon, studied in Paris, graduating in 1823, and almost immediately turned his attention to the subject of lithotripsy and to criticism of the work of Civiale and Leroy (d'Etiolles). He greatly improved the instruments used in lithotripsy, and is said to have spent one hundred and fifty thousand francs in perfecting his inventions. From 1828 to 1832 he was in London, and published there his Principles of Lithotrity (1831).
To this period also belong Delpeeh and Lallemand of Montpellier.
Jacques Mathieu Delpeeh (1777-1832), a native of Toulouse, graduated at Montpellier in 1801, after which he studied in Paris. In 1812 he obtained, by concours, the chair of surgery at Montpellier, and soon became celebrated as an operator and as a clinical teacher. In the height of his fame he was assassinated by a patient whom he had treated for .some disease of the genitals. His principal contributions to surgery relate to hospital gangrene and to orthopaedia. He first pointed out that tubercular disease of the vertebrae was the frequent origin of Pott's disease of the spine, insisted on the importance of the fibrous tissues in connection with deformities, and in 1816 performed subcutaneous section of the tendo Achillis with the avowed intention of thus excluding the air and obtaining union by first intention. The successor of Delpech in the chair of clinical surgery was Michel Serre (1799-1849), who graduated at Montp?llier in 1825, and who published his Traite de la riunion immediate, etc., in 1830, and his Traite sur Cart de restaurer leu difformUis de la face, etc., in 1842.
Claude Francois Lallemand (1790-1853), a native of Metz, studied at the Military Medical School of that place, and at the age of thirteen entered the army medical service. In 1811 he went to Paris and became an assistant to Dupuytren ; in 1819 he was appointed professor of clinical surgery at Montpellier; and after the death of Delpech he was the chief surgeon in the south of Prance. In 1823 he lost his place for ten months through clerical intrigues, but was replaced by the Council of Public Instruction. He is best known as the author of Des pertes seminales inrolontnires (3 vols., 1836-42), of which several English translations were published. He devised the method of autoplasty by bending without twisting the flap, and the method of treating erectile tumors by the insertion of needles.
In the third period (1835-47) come Gerdy, Velpeau, Blandin, A. Be'rard, Laugicr, Jobert, Amussat, and Vidal.
Pierre Nicolas Gerdy (1797-1856) studied in Paris under the most adverse circumstances of poverty and sickness, and in 1828 became second surgeon to La Pitie, where he was under the orders of Lisfranc, who gave him very few opportunities. In 1831 the surgeons of the hospitals were placed on an equal footing, the position of surgeon-inchief being abolished. In 1833, as the result of an intrigue of Dupuytren to suppress Velpeau, Gerdy became professor of the principles of surgery in the faculty, and in 1839 was appointed surgeon to La Charite, taking the place of Guerbois. The list of Gerdy's works is a long one, but he was a physiologist rather than a surgeon, and his most important surgical publication was his Traite des bandages et des pansements (2 vols., 1837-39).
Alfred Armand Louis Marie Velpeau (1795-1867), the son of a blacksmith, whose trade he learned, studied at Tours, where he received the diploma of officio- de sante, and in 1820 came to Paris, and soon became assistant preparer for Cloquet. He graduated in 1823, and published his Traite d' anatomic chirurgicale, the first complete and systematic work in which the details of regional anatomy were throughout considered with reference to their surgical relations. In 1828 he became surgeon to the Hospital St. Antoine, and in 1830 to La Pitie, where he remained until 1834, when he was elected to the chair of clinical surgery in the faculty left vacant by the death of Boyer. In 1832 he published his Nnuceaux iiiments de mideeinc ophatoire (3 vols. and atlas), the largest and most complete work on this subject which had yet appeared. The English translation of this by Townsend, with notes of Valentine Mott (New York, 1847), and especially the latest edition, with additions by G. C. Blackman (New York, 1856, 3 vols. and atlas), is a great storehouse of historical data relating to the principal operations of surgery up to that date. In 1854 he published his Traite den maladies du sein, a large book, characterized by Trelat as the most original, personal, and probably the most durable of his works, and which must not be confounded with his Petit traiU des maladies du sein, published in 1838 as a reprint of his article in the Dietionnaire de medecine, and which was translated into English by Parkman in 1840. He made no great discoveries or improvements, yet he contributed greatly to the progress of surgery between 1825 and 1855, and especially in surgical anatomy, the pathology of pyaemia, the diagnosis of tumors, and the diseases of the breast. A man of strong common sense, an indefatigable worker, a conscientious and conservative critic, an excellent teacher and operator, his lessons were followed by crowds of pupils, including many who became distinguished surgeons in other countries as well as in France.
Philipp Frederic Blandin (1798-1849) graduated at Paris in 1824, in 1828 became a surgeon to the Hospital Beaujon under Marjolin, and in 1841 succeeded Richerand in the chair of operative surgery. He also became surgeon to the Hotel Dieu. Blandin was not a great surgeon nor a great teacher, and there is little in his writings which is of interest at the present day, but he was a sensible, practical, honest man who did good work in his time.
Auguste Berard (1802-46) studied at Paris, graduating in 1829, became a surgeon of the Central Bureau by conconrs in 1831, and, subsequently, surgeon to the hospitals St. Antoine, Salpetriere, Necker, and La Pitie, and in 1842 succeeded Sanson as professor of clinical surgery in the faculty. The student part of his life was one of great poverty, shared by his brother, P. Berard, who devoted himself to physiology. A. Berard wrote some excellent concours theses, many articles in the Dietionnaire de mMecine, and began, with Denonvilliers, a Compendium de chirurgic pratique, of which only a portion was issued at his death. His contributions to surgery relate to the treatment of fractures, continuous irrigation of wounds, erectile tumors and varices, staphylorrhaphy, etc. He was a skilful operator and an excellent teacher.
Stanislaus Laugier (1799-1872), a pupil of Dupuytren, graduated at Paris in 1828, became surgeon to the Hospital Necker in 1832, to the Hospital Beaujon in 1836, professor of clinical surgery in the faculty in 1848, and surgeon to the Hotel Dieu in 1854, succeeding Roux. He first called attention to the discharge of serous fluid from the ear in certain fractures of the skull, and was the first to propose suture of divided nerves. He was a prudent, quiet, conservative surgeon and a good teacher, but he wrote little and his name is now almost forgotten.
Antoine Joseph Johert (1799-1867) studied at Paris, graduated in
1828, was appointed a surgeon of the Central Bureau by concours in
1829, and surgeon to the Hospital St. Louis in 1831.' In 1853 he became surgeon to the Hotel Dieu, and in 1854 succeeded Roux as professor in the faculty. His childhood and student-life were spent in great poverty, at times in actual destitution; his subsequent life was a very unhappy one, in spite of the honors and wealth to which he attained; he became gloomy and eccentric, and ended his days in an asylum for the insane. Lacking in preliminary education and in oratorical gifts, his success was due to the novelty and importance of his contributions to plastic surgery and to the surgery of the female organs of generation. He was a better writer than speaker, and wrote much; his Memoire sur les plaies du canal intestinal, published in 1826, before his graduation, was based upon the experimental method of Hunter, and demonstrated the importance of producing union between the serous surfaces. His most important works were—Trade de chirurgie plastique (2 vols. and atlas, 1849), Traiti des fistules vesico-uUrines, etc. (1852), and De la reunion en chirurgie (1864).
Jean Zulema Amussat (1796-1856), the son of a country physician, entered the army medical service in 1814, after which he studied at Paris, graduating in 1826. He did not become a professor in the faculty or surgeon to a great hospital, but he commenced private teaching even before he graduated, and he communicated most of his discoveries to the Academy of Medicine, which granted him prizes for his contributions on lithotrity, on the torsion of arteries, on the entrance of air into the veins, on lumbar colotomy, etc. He wrote much, but his papers were never collected.
Auguste Theodor Vidal (de Cassis) (1803-56) studied at Marseilles and Paris, graduating in 1828, soon after which he became connected with the newly-founded Gazette des h6pitaux. He never became a professor or connected with a great surgical clinic, and, being a sarcastic journalist and rather bitter critic, he made few friends. His reputation as a surgeon rests upon his Trade de pathologie externe (5 vols., 1838-41), which was a popular manual and reached a fifth edition in 1860. He invented serres-fines, was the first to inject a solution of nitrate of silver into the uterine cavity, and contributed largely to our knowledge of syphilis, successfully opposing Ricord, the great authority of the day, in some important points relating to this disease.
Joseph Gensoul (1797-1858) studied at Lyons and Paris, graduating in 1824, and in 1826 became chief surgeon of the Hotel Dieu of Lyons, where he soon acquired celebrity as a bold and skilful operator. He first (in 1826) excised the entire upper jaw, in 1827 he removed the parotid gland, and, first in France, excised half of the lower jaw, and he first treated varices with caustic. He wrote very little, his chief publication being his Lettre chirurgicale sur quelaues maladies graves du sinus maxiUaire et de Cos maxillaire inferieur (1833).
Amedee Bonnet (1802-58) studied at Paris, where he graduated in 1832, and in 1833 obtained the position of surgeon to the Hotel Dieu at Lyons by concours, after which he became a professor in the school, and was soon celebrated as a teacher. His principal publications are—Trade des sections tendineuses et musculaires dans la. strabisme, la myopie, etc. (1841), Trade des maladies des artieulations (2 vols., 1845), and TraiU de thtrapeidique des maladies artieulaires (1853), which latter remain as valuable contributions to the surgery of the joints.
Charles Gabriel Pravaz (1791-1853) studied at Paris, graduated in 1824, and devoted himself to orthopaedic surgery, associating himself with Jules Guerin in a private orthopaedic hospital. In 1835 he settled in Lyons. His principal contributions to surgery relate to orthopa'dia