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The Reconstruction of Indiana Orchards

G. I. CHRISTIE, Purdue University

That the Indiana farmer is taking steps to check the rapid decline of the farm orchard is a fact pointed out in a recent report of Horticultural Extension activities of Purdue University. Last year more than 12,000 farmers of the state expressed their concern in the passing of the home orchard and appealed to the University for information and instruction on orchard management problems.

Every year thousands of Indiana fruit trees die from insect injury, disease, or neglect. In some parts of the state the farm orchard seems to be in danger of extinction. Among the prominent causes for this loss is the growing prevalence of San Jose scale and fire blight. Fruit trees that once thrived without attention must now be sprayed to produce fruit enough for pies for the farm family. The condition is a serious one, and no one realizes it more than the farmer to whom fruit is fast becoming a luxury.

The steady and growing demand from farmers for information on fruit production has led to well organized methods of disseminating horticultural information throughout the state. This extension service in orchard care consists of personal correspondence, short courses, farmers institutes, free bulletins, educational exhibits, and special demonstration meetings held in farm orchards.

Perhaps the most popular aid to the farmer has been the orchard demonstration. Such meetings are all day schools held in the orchard during the spring and fall months by a member of the Purdue Horticultural Department. The program of these demonstrations is studied to suit the needs of the community and to meet the demand for practical information on pruning and spraying fruit trees. The Purdue instructor on coming to the orchard puts on overalls, and does the actual work as a basis for the discussion of tree pruning, and control of orchard pests. Last year 86 orchard demonstrations were attended by 6,880 farmers. Following a meeting it is often possible to notice that a number of orchards are pruned and sprayed as a result of the aid to discouraged home orchard owners.

The Agricultural Extension Department of

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Purdue University has increased its corps of trained instructors with the hope that requests for orchard demonstrations may be met. The fall series of meetings, now being arranged, will be the largest ever held in any state.

Gala Day for the Raisin


Success? Well, even now, the book seller's boy, in his far eastern home, is telling his friends how he and Jack Roosa and all the rest of the crowd were presented with more raisins than they could half ways eat; and how, while he had often heard of folk "nibbling raisins," as we do peanuts or popcorn, he had not become addicted to any such habit, until he ate the kind of raisins they were given out there!

Then, by way of supplementing the subject and emphasizing his own veracity, the book seller's boy would step in and bring out a long stem of these raisins, a bunch, rather, and suggest that he had ordered a whole box sent home and would advise that you do the same.

Wherefore he and every other of the thousands of visitors to the big San Diego Exposition, upon Raisin Day, have become self-constituted, peripatetic advertisements for the fruit, have given orders for raisins, are getting the habit of eating raisins, in ways they had never eaten them before, and, in brief, are bringing to the fruit an impetus it has never known in all its long history.

All of which is due, of course, to the fore-thought of an enterprising raisin grower, who suggested the holding of a "Raisin Day" at the Fair. Not alone were raisins put on display then, in limitless quantities, used as decorative effects and the like; but. best of all, every visitor received raisins, and if the pretty girl in the photograph who stole off with her spoils of them, to await Jack Roosa and an hour of "sweet nothings" among the foliage, about the raisins, is any criterion, Raisin Day was one of the most successful, both to consumer, and producer of the dried fruits the big exposition will have known.

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ALL manner of things strange, curious, remarkable, have been shown the admiring throngs at San Diego's great exposition, of course, but not the least interesting of these, by a very great deal, are those having to do with fruits, well known or new, and the products, or industries, derived from the same.

Just for example: Off to the rear of the great building maintained by Alameda County, California, there was shown a unique form of improvised fruit frame designed primarily for drying prunes placed on display.

The frame consisted of a small table, upon which the drawer with the prunes had place. From each the four corners of this table there rose wee posts, or supports, these sustaining four slender crossbars or stringers, making a square shaped frame. Across this square surface, and about the sides of the frame, mosquito netting was stretched; or where the frame was for more permanent use, a thin meshed screen could be employed, and thus flies and other noisome insects be kept from the fruit, and sun and wind allowed to dry.

Inside the building, again, prune exhibits held first interest, and interesting tales were told as to these. To begin with, in the particular county, prunes are permitted to stay on the trees until they fall, of their own accord.

Prune trees blossom thereabouts March 25th, and anywheres up to 300 square miles of prune orchard, almost, could be seen at such time, "a stretch of bloom." These orchards greet the eye as a blanket of


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NEW PEACH-WILMA. Originated In the famous peach belt at Catawba Island. Ohio. Selection from several thousand Elberta seedlings, several hundred of which were tested in orchards. An Elberta type of peach both in foliage and fruit, but one week later. Heretofore our stock has been used In the <Iclnity where It originated. Offered to trade In limited quantity.

W. B. COLE, PainesviUe, 0.

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San Eiego Exposition, October 1915

Latterly, in this part of the state, it seems, the lye-solution aforesaid, long employed to crack the prune skin, as described is falling to disuse, since it has come to be recognized that while it does, of course, crack the skin and remove the bloom, hot water is quite as good, and cheaper far, since with its use, the prunes need no Juwt way you mm- It In AMERICAN FH1 l~


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Drying Prunes in California

water and other substance, such as will remove the bloom, and also crack the skin in such wise as to hasten drying, for all these prunes, substantially are sun-dried and time is a factor here.

In fact, the very next stage in the process with the prunes Is their spreading out on trays in the fields to dry; the drying process requiring at best seven days.

Fresh dried, the prunes are taken to neighboring warehouses, until all the crop is in, when they are packed and shipped.

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washing off, as they did with the other way.

Santa Clara County, California, today lays claim to 57000 acres just in prunes, and rest assured that her display at the fair did not lack in them. Prune trees, in full bloom, banner boughs of the prunes, with the bloom still on, greeted here upon every hand. For the best of these prunes, out there in the West, the grower receives about five cents the pound, the consumer pays from twelve and a half to twenty-five cents.


Utah, in her State Building at the Fa'tr. shows some cherries of note, while an ot)d. ity, by way of fruit displays, consists of some fine wild currants, apples, more prunes, canned fruits of other sorts, are here as well.

Follow the crowds and you find them to lead, ever so often, back to the Santa Clara (Calif.) Building, as well, and this when a coffee made of figs and prunes, reduced to a "cereal" is served. In looks, the "coffee" wheat added to the fruits themselves and is like our more usual sort, but there is It is taken preferably without milk, though one can add if he wish. So with a little sugar besides.

Attractive, in this building, is a grotto, its pillars of apricots, while more interesting, still, are some unique specimens of the Jordan almond, these like a butternut in their shape and arranged in half-moon designs in their boxes. The almonds of this type are most popular with confectioners, and mail, for the best part, from a ranch near Los Gatos. Grown originally from seed, this produces a very little tree, and that, in its turn, is grafted with other stock, in order to produce the nuts, as found. As a rule, these nuts are now sold by the kernal alone, and. thus offered, stand at a dollar the pound. The trees around Los Gatos blossom in the spring, say the middle of March, while the nut, which has a pod as to some peach, is gathered in the fall.


From Campbell, in Santa Clara County, some interesting specimens of Payne's new English walnuts have come, these nuts from two to two and a quarter inches long, and exposed, here at the fair, in rows, set under glass. The nuts sell, locally, at twenty-five cents the pound and are the results of cross fertilization of Payne's seedling and another plant. To this end the pollen of the one variety is taken and crossed, then the resultant plan, from this, has its pollen taken and crossed once more to yield the nut. For this work the pollen is shaken off the flowers onto paper spread to that end, there gathered and then placed on the other flowers.

Fruit of the spineless cactus is still enough of a novelty to attract many a visitor at the fair. One variety of his fruit is adapted to cattle almost alone, the other is for the human species. In the case of the latter, the meat is quite sweet and is filled with innumerable little seeds. The fruit is eaten both fresh and in jellies and jams. The Italian settlers of California are especially fond of it, and quantities of the cactus are raised near San Jose, on giant farms, with a view to sale to these folk almost alone.

Quite as interesting, in this same building at the fair, again, is the lemon-cucumber, which is eaten as an ordinary cucumber would be; but which resembles most a fair-sized peach, newly peeled, and tinged a pale yellow, to its flesh of white. This fruit is both mild to the taste and crisp, and while, in pounds per acre, its yield is not so large as that of cucumbers of the more

usual sort, it is particularly recommended as suitable for the average home-garden. THE GRENADA FIG

Not far from where the folk regale in the fig-wine, of the cereal taste, aforesaid, and where other visitors take snapshots of the walnuts and cucumber, an exhibit is made of another Santa Clara fruit product, the "Grenada fig". This confection is a mixture of fig and prune and raisins and nuts, ground and placed in candy form, or else done up in packages and cakes. In the form of round portions, tied with pale red and yellow ribbons, it is particularly appetizing and threatens to become as popular as pressed figs have so long been.

Over in the San Joaquin Valley Building, to continue on, a "seedless watermelon", so-called, is displayed, this not yet wholly seedless, it appears, but very nearly so. What is more, a wholly seedless watermelon is not desired by those growing the same since then there would be no seed by which to pass it on. The melon in question is raised by a Manteca man, a notable melon grower this many a year, and is no midget at that. It tips the beam at forty pounds; though the same man has put melons on display of 64 and 65 pounds each.

Out of Fresno County, beneath this same roof, there is sent the raisin product of a

single grape-vine that weighs full forty pounds. When it is recalled that it takes four pounds of grapes to make one of raisins such as these, the yield of his one vine of raisin grapes can well be figured out.

Apples, picked eight months before, and perfect still, are other points to interest here at the Fair, oherwheres they show an apple weighing thirty-two ounces in all and four inches in diameter. A great jar of strawberries tells another tale near; they came from a patch which two little girls cultivated and, depositing heir earnings, the maidens cleared $250 from their quarteracre farm.

These, though, are but a tithe the wonders, horticultural, of the Fair. Here, there, the otherwhere, one comes on them, so many such a volume would be required to tell of them and even then scant justice could be done.

In normal times Germany is the best market for Cartagena tagua, and Italy takes a smaller share but requires high-grade nuts. Prices ranged from $12 to $35 per ton during 1914. Cleaned nuts (shelled) bring as high as $75 to $90 per ton at times.

"A paper which Kivcm the hent vnlue to the render will stive the be»t vnlue to the ndvertlNer nM well. T don't think there In any nrinnnrMl nhoiit the nounilneMM of thin view." —H. Dumont, ChU-nRo, III.. In Printer'* Ink.

Wonderful Results With the Marshmallow

To create a flowering plant whose blossoms measure one foot across, and which is more than three times as large as the original common wild flower found in the vi cinity of New York City from which it has been developed, is an achievement which again brings the nursery firm of Bobbink & Atkins into prominence before the expert horticulturists of the country. This is the result of over seven years of experimental effort and the history of this development reads like Dumas' story of "The Rlack Tulip."

"We began," said F. L. Atkins, of this firm, "with the wild flower known as the Marshmallow and which as you know at this time of the year covers the New Jersey marshes in wild profusion.

"We selected the best specimens that could be found, took their pollen, and crossed then with the best examples we had of the Hibiscus Coccinea. The next year we took the healthiest specimens of this hybridization and fertilized them from each other. Each year this process has been continued, until about two years ago when we began to see the remarkable results."



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TO BE EFFECTIVE your horticultural printing and engraving calls for a knowledge of horticultural literature and practice as well as good printing and advertising; it also involves matters of a confidential nature.

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On the extensive nursery of this firm at Rutherford, N. J., only twelve miles distant from down-town New York, there are whole fields of this giant Marshmallow whose height ranges from six to nine feet, each stem, bearing a multitude of huge blossoms and each section of the fields a different tone of color.

The colors range from pure white, through the delicate varieties of pink to the deepest crimson. There are flowers of solid color. There are otthers which are white or pink, with a red center and others whose variations of shade resemble the Iris. The leaves are of enormous size, are of a rich glossy green, and in themselves form a unique decorative feature.

The New Hybrid Giant Flowering Marshmallow is the name by which it will hence


MarsemalloH, Bobbink & Atkins,
Rutherford, N. J.

forth be known. The intention of its growers was to produce a hardy annual plant and one of such size as to form a background for the extensive planting of floral gardens on estates and private grounds carried on by Bobbink & Atkins throughout the United States.

It is Mr. Atkins' opinion that this flower will give the necessary life and color in the garden and parks from the end of July up to the time of early frost, a period when there is a general dearth of bloom. Each plant is capable of bearing from thirty to fifty blossoms the season, and very little care will be required in its cultivation. As

one may see from the season of their blooming, very little moisture is required. With the coming frost the stem dies down, and, if cut off close to the ground, the plant being absolutely hardy, needs no protection: and its roots are quite undisturbed, shooting up with renewed vigor the following year.

New Oaks

In the proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, January-April, 1915, William Trelease describes two new varieties of oaks remarkable for their large acorns, Quercus Chiapasensis, found in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, like Q. Skinneri. having a hemispherical acorn 35 millimeters in diameter with a cupule 45 millimeters in diameter, and Q. Cyclobalanoides, also of Mexico, like Q. insignis, with an ellipsoid acorn 50 millimeters in diameter.

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Nursery Trade Notes From Western North Carolina

DEATH OF CHARLES T. COLLYER Charles T. Collyer, widely known throughout the South as a building and landscape architect, died at his home on Sunset Drive, in Asheville, N. C, September 14th, aged eighty-one years.

Mr. Collyer was born in London, England, but for twenty-eight years has been a resident of Asheville. He was architect for the State Insane Asylum at Morganton, N. C, also for similar state institutions in Tennessee and South Carolina. The grounds for Asheville's beautiful Riverside Cemetery and for Grove Park Inn were also laid out by him.

Besides his widow, the deceased is survived by three daughters: Mrs. E. W. McAdam and Misses Amy and Julia Collyer of Asheville. Pour sons, Charles Collyer, of Jacksonville; Leigh Collyer, of Charlotte; Arthur R. Collyer, of Dansville, Ky.; and Thomas A. Collyer, of Manchester, Ga., also survive him. On the morning of September 16th Mr. Collyer was laid to rest in Riverside Cemetery, itself a memorial of his genius.

BILTMORE NURSERY All who are interested in nursery work or beautiful natural surroundings regret to learn that Biltmore Nursery is gradually being closed out as one of the industries of the great Vanderbilt estate which Mrs. Vanderbilt does not wish to continue. The recent agricultural and horticultural fair held on the estate was unusually fine. Both Mrs. Vanderbilt and Miss Cornelia were present and enthusiastically interested in the arrangement, management, premiums, etc.

A NEW ENEMY FOR AZALEAS In collecting azaleas from woodlands for transplanting we have for some years found the stems of the older plants perforated by some insect, resulting in ugly bumps and swellings of the bark. The roots do not show any sign of molestation. So we decapitate the plants and in a year's time they have healthy young tops. Under nursery conditions we have never known any plants to have perforated stems. The insects evidently prefer woodland conditions.

Prof. Franklin Sherman, Jr., of our state department of agriculture, writes that while he has not positively identified the insect, "will say that it is close to a species (Lecaniodiaspis tessallata) which attacks the persimmon," and recommends kerosene emulsion.


Plainview Commercial Orchard

Plainview, Tex.—The Texas Land and Development Company has purchased 68,000 fruit trees from a nursery in Louisiana, Mo., to be planted on the commercial orchards around Plainview. This company is preparing 1,280 acres for orchards. In addition to the fruit trees they have also purchased 8,000 strawberry plants from Battle Creek, Mich., 3,000 grape vines from Fresno, Cal., and 1,000 forest trees of the nut variety.

The Florida Nursery and Trading Company, Mark Lanier manager, is incorporated in Florida; all its nursery lies in Florida, but the office is at Lockhart, Ala., although the place of business is at Paxton, Fla.

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JUMt say yon saw It In AMERICAN FRUITS.

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