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north to Florida and southern Illinois (vicinity of Cairo); Mexico (both coasts, including Lower California) and Guatemala; Cuba;

Jamaica 198. A. rufa Bodd. Reddish Egret.

c*. Color entirely pure white, at all ages; size of A. rufa. Hab. Gulf coast, from Florida to Texas, and south to Honduras and Guatemala (both

coasts); Cuba —. A. pealei Bonap. Peale's Egret.

a*. Culmen equal to or longer than tarsus, the latter less than one and a half times as long as the middle toe (without claw). b1. Wing more than 8.00; culmen and tarsus more than 3.00.

Adult with an occipital tuft of several moderately lengthened lanceolate, compact-webbed feathers; jugular feathers broadly lanceolato, with compact webs, and distinct outlines; scapular plumes lengthened, straight and hair-like, extending to a little beyond the tail; color never wholly white. (Subgenus Hydranassa Baikd.) Adult: Head, neck, and upper parts bluish plumbeous, the lanceolate plumes with a chalky or glaucous cast, the color darker on head and neck; plumes of occiput and nape rich maroon purplish, the longer feather among the former whito; jugular plumes rich maroon purplish and plumbeous-blue; chin and upper part of throat pure white, continued in streaks, mixed with rufous and plumbeous, down the fore-neck; "train" (i.e., scapular plumes) light drab; lower parts plain white. Young: Head and neck chiefly light rusty, the malar region, chin, and throat pure white; fore-neck streaked white and rusty; lower parts, rump, and upper t,ail-coverts pure white; upper parts (except rump, etc.) plumbeous, the back tinged and the wingcoverts spotted with rusty. Length 23.00-28.00, wing 8.3510.80, culmen 3.30-4.15, tarsus 3.20-4.15. Eggs 1.78 X 1-29. Hab. Warmer portions of eastern North America, north, casually, to New Jersey, Indiana, etc.; whole of Mexico (including Lower California) and West Indies.

199. A. tricolor ruficollis (gosse). Louisiana Heron. Wing not more than 8.00; culmen and tarsus less than 3.00.

Adult with scapular plumes and feathers of top of head moderately lengthened, lanceolate, soft, and with compact webs; jugular plumes broad, soft, and blended; color never white. (Subgenus Butorides Blyth.)

c1. Neck maroon-chestnut, rufous, or rusty.

d1. Head and neck (except top of former) uniform chestnut-rufous, without white markings on throat and fore-neck; wing-coverts very narrowly edged with rusty. Young: Plumage nearly uniform rusty brown. Wing 6.40-7.00, culmen 2.20-2.75, tarsus 1.85-2.30. Hab. Cuba. A. brunnescens Gundl. Brown Heron.1

1 Ardea brunnetcem "Guiidl. MSS.," Lemb. Aves de Cuba, 1850, Si, pi. 12. Butorides brunnetceni Baird. B. N. Am. 1858, 677 (in text).

cP. Throat and fore-neck striped with whitish.

Adult: Whole top of head glossy dark bottle-green or greenish black; rest of head, with greater part of neck, rich chestnut, varying in tone from cinnamon to maroon; scapular plumes plumbeous, or glaucous, glossed with green, and with whitish shafts; wing-coverts metallic bottle-green distinctly bordered with buff or whitish; innermost primaries tipped narrowly with whitish; lower parts plain grayish. Young: Much like adult, but top of head usually streaked anteriorly with rusty; sides of head and neck streaked with ochraceous or buff, on a duller rusty ground; lower parts whitish, striped with dusky; light borders to wing-coverts broader, the two or three median rows of coverts marked with wedge-shaped spots or streaks of white. Length 15.50-22.50, wing 6.30-8.00, culmen 2.002.55, tarsus 1.75-2.15. Eggs 1.50 X 114. Hab. Whole of temperate North America, West Indies, Middle America, and northern South America, to Colombia and Venezuela; north to Ontario and Oregon; Bermudas.

201. A. virescens Linn. Green Heron.

c*. Neck ash-gray.

Otherwise much like A. virescens. Hab. South America, except northern portion.

A. striata Linn. Streaked Heron.

Genus NYCTICORAX Stephens. (Page 126, pi. XXXVIL, figs. 1, 2; pi.

XXXVIII., fig. 1.)


Common Characters.Adults.- Prevailing colors bluish gray, black, and white, the head (except just after breeding season) ornamented with several very much lengthened narrow white plumes; bill black, and iris i-eddish. Young, brownish, striped longitudinally with white. Eggs pale bluish green.

a1. Culmen about as long as the tarsus; gonys nearly straight, and lateral outlines of bill slightly concave; tarsus but little longer than middle toe; scapulars broad, blended. (Subgenus Nycticorax.)

Adult: Top of head, back, and scapulars uniform glossy greenish black; forehead, sides of head, chin, throat, and lower parts generally white, often tinged with delicate cream-yellow ; neck (except in front) and 6ides pale ash-gray; wings, rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail, deep ash-gray. Immature (second year ?): Similar to adult, but scapulars and interscapulars dull ash-gray, like the wings, and white of forehead obscured by

1 Ardca ttriata Linn., S. N. ed. 10, i. 1758, 144. Butvridct ttriatut Ridow., in B. B. A R. Hist. N. Am. B. i. 18S4, 51.

blackish of crown; colors generally more sombre, with median lower parts less purely white. Young: Above light brown, tinged with cinnamon (especially on quills), each feather (except quills and tailfeathers) marked with a median tear-shaped or wedge-shaped stripe of white, the quills with small white spots at tips; tail-feathers plain ashgray; sides of head and neck, and entire lower parts, striped with grayish brown and white, the chin and throat plain white medially, length about 23.00-26.00, wing 11.00-12.80, culmen 2.80-3.10, tarsus 3.10-3.40, middle toe (without claw) 2.65-3.10. Eggs 2.01 X 1-47. Hab. Nearly the whole of America, except Arctic regions.

202. N. nycticorax naevius (bodd.). Black-crowned Night Heron. a1. Culmen much shorter than tarsus (only a little longer than middlo toe); gonys convex, and lateral outlines of bill straight, or sometimes even perceptibly convex; tarsus much longer than middle toe; scapulars lengthened, narrow (but not pointed), somewhat loose-webbed. (Subgenus Nyctherodius Reich.) Adult: Top of head and elongated patch on side of head, white, the first often stained with rusty brown, and in freshly-killed or living specimens deeply tinted with delicate primrose-yellow; rest of head black; plumage in general bluish plumbeous, plain beneath, but on upper parts striped with black. Young: Above sooty grayish brown, streaked with dull white or pale buff, the streaks more wedge-shaped on wing-coverts; lower parts soiled whitish, striped with brownish gray. Length 22.0028.00, wing 10.50-12.65, culmen 2.50-3.00, tarsus 3.10-4.20, middle toe 2.20-2.55. Eggs 1.96 X 1.42. Hab. Whole of tropical and subtropical America, including West Indies; north regularly to Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, and North Carolina, irregularly or casually much farther.

203. N. violaceus (linn.). Yellow-crowned Night Heron. Order PALUDICOLiE—The Cranes, Rails,


a1. Size very large (wing 17.50, or more); head partly naked and warty in adult, or else with ornamental plumes; hind toe small, much elevated; middle toe less than half as long as the tarsus. (Suborder Grues.)

Gruidae. (Page 134.)

a'. Size medium to very small (wing less than 14.50); head entirely feathered, or else with only a frontal "shield" naked; hind toe lengthened (nearly as long as the first division of the middle toe), inserted nearly on a level with the anterior toos; middle toe nearly as long as the tarsus. (Suborder Balli.) bl. Wing 11.00-14.20; first quill shorter than seventh, its inner web very narrow, except near end; tail-feathers well developed, firm.

Aramidae. (Page 135.)

b*. "Wing less than 10.00; first quill longer than sixth, its inner web normal; tail-feathers almost rudimentary (nearly hidden by the coverts), soft; bill and feet very variable in form Rallidae. (Page 136.)

Family GRUIDiE.—The Cranes. (Page 134.)


(Characters same as those given for the Family) Grus. (Page 134.)

Genus GRUS Pallas. (Page 134, pi. XXXIX., figs. 1, 2.)


(Nest on ground in marsh or wet meadow. Eggs pale olive or olive-buffy, spotted with brown, reddish brown, and purplish gray.)

a1. Tarsus 11.00, or more; bill stout, its depth through the base about one-fourth the length of the culmen; distance from posterior end of nostril to base of upper mandible much more than one-half the distance from anterior border of nostril to tip of upper mandible. Adult with plumage white, and cheeks naked.

Adult: Plumage pure white, the quills black. Young: General color white, but this overlaid by patches of light cinnamon or rusty, the upper parts chiefly of this color; head entirely feathered. Length 50.00-54.00, extent 92.00, wing 22.00-25.00, culmen 5.35-5.80, depth of bill at base 1.40, tarsus 11.00-12.00, middle toe 4.25. Eggs 4.04 X 2.50. Hab. Interior of North America north to the Saskatchewan, south to Florida and central Mexico.

204. G. americana (linn.). Whooping Crane, a*. Tarsus 10.00, or less; bill more slender, its depth through base less than onefourth the length of the culmen; distance from posterior end of nostril to base of upper mandible less than one-half the distance from anterior end of nostril to tip of upper mandible. Adult deep slate-gray or brownish, the cheeks normally feathered.

Adult: Entire plumage slate-gray, varying from a bluish or plumbeous shade to brownish, sometimes tinged or even extensively washed with rusty, the primaries darker, the cheeks and throat paler, sometimes almost white. Young: Entirely brown, more or less washed, especially on upper parts, with tawny cinnamon or rusty; head entirely feathered. b'. Larger: Length 40.00-48.00, wing 21.00-22.50 (21.83), culmen 5.156.00 (5.47), depth of bill at base .95-1.10 (1.01), tarsus 9.90-10.65 (10.25), middle toe 3.40-3.60 (3.50), bare part of tarsus 4.60-5.00 (4.78). Eggs 3.98 X 2.44. Hab. United States, chiefly from Mississippi Valley west to Pacific coast, south into Mexico, and eastward along Gulf coast to Florida and Georgia.

206. G. mexicana (mull.). Sandhill Crane. b1. Smaller: Length about 35.00, wing 17.50-20.00 (18.70), culmen 3.044.20 (3.61), depth of bill at base .70-.80 (.77), tarsus 6.70-8.44 (7.57), middle toe 2.60-3.36 (2.91), bare portion of tibia 2.90-3.50 (3.13). Eggs 3.66 X 2.28. Hab. Northern North America, from Hudson's Bay to Alaska, migrating south through western United States, east of Rocky Mountains, to Mexico.

205. G. canadensis (linn.). Little Brown Crane.

Family ARAM ID.®.—The Courlans. (Page 134.)


(Characters same as those of the Family) Aramus. (Page 135.)

Genus ARAMUS Vieillot. (Page 135, pi. XXXVIII., fig. 2.)


Common Characters.—Prevailing color dark brown (the quills and tailfeathers glossed with purplish), the head and neck (sometimes back and lower parts also) striped with white. Nest on bushes or clumps of rank grasses or reeds along side of marsh or stream.

a1. "White stripes extending over back, wing-coverts, and lower parts. Young similar to adult, but white stripes much narrower and less sharply defined, and

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