in this way were Irving's works, Bunyan's famous allegory and other religious works.

"My next opportunity for obtaining good reading was at Case Library. I shall never forget the pleasure I took in selecting books from dear old Case. A membership ticket for one year at Case was then $3 and it was worth it. I could draw a book, two volumes if I wished, and could keep them four weeks by renewing them at the end of two weeks by postal card. I usually selected a heavy book. By 'heavy' I mean one that contained good substantial matter. In that way I had reading that would last me a month. This enabled me to read a little each day without interfering with my household duties.

"For a number of years my reading was along the line of history, which I read from the standpoint of many authors, such as Rawlinson, Wilkinson, Grote, Gibbon, Hume, Macauley, Bancroft, Draper and Buckle. The last two writers especially interested me, as they treated their subjects from a philosophical standpoint. From history I drifted to archaeology to the Mound Builders by many authors, and to Layard in Nineveh in Babylon. Then it was books on natural science. I read Humboldt's works, also books on astronomy and geology. I loved the translations from the French authors on scientific subjects.

'' After a time it came to me that I was sadly deficient in poetry. So I studied Shakespeare, Milton, Tasso, Dante. These were the great poets. Next I studied many of the English and American poets. Again I would have seasons when nothing would so delight me as books of travel. I have explored mines, climbed the mountains, traversed deserts. I have sailed every sea and visited every land on the globe in imagination.''

Mrs. Snow had almost reached middle life before she began to write for publication. She did so largely through the suggestion of friends, and her first articles were published in a magazine in Cleveland. Through acquaintance with Mr. M. E. Williams, for many years one of the most able editors of the Ohio Farmer of Cleveland, she began contributing to that and other farm journals of the country, not only specific articles relating to the farm, the home, the dairy, but also covering much wider fields. A series of sketches of the early history of the Township of Parma were published in the Cleveland Herald. Her first book review, prepared at the suggestion of John Hutchins, the Cleveland attorney, was on Tennyson's drama of Queen Mary and

appeared in the Cleveland Leader. She was also associated for a time on the staff of the Household Realm at Cleveland with such other women writers as Mrs. Ella Sturtevant Webb, Mrs. S. Louise Patteson and Agnes Warner McClelland, all members of the Cleveland Woman's Press Club. She also wrote occasional articles for the religious press, including the Western Christian Advocate and the Jewish Review and Observer. •

One of the healthful influences toward improving her ability as a writer she describes as follows: "Among my later day helpers along the line of correct writing, Mrs. Stella M. Collart, a successful writer of photoplays, is deserving of more than mere mention. Mrs. Collert and myself were near neighbors for a number of years, and as we both aspired to authorship, we together took a systematic course in grammar and rhetoric. We reviewed our school books, then studied such authors as Richard Grant White, Brander Matthews, Hamilton Mabie and others."

Others to whom she has attributed helpfulness in many ways in her literary career are Mr. A. E. Hyre, her cousin, W. R. Coates, and her many associates in the Cleveland Woman's Press Club and other organizations. Mrs. Snow is author of a short history of the Coates, Wilcox and Teachout families. Also women of Tennyson and a life of William McKinley, the preparation of which was suggested by Miss Anne C. Granger, to whom the book is dedicated.

Mrs. Snow became a member of the Cleveland Woman's Press Club in 1887 and was associated with all its leading members and also with the members of the Poet's Round Table, and in her memoirs she refers specifically to practically all the prominent women writers of Cleveland who were connected with these organizations in the past thirty years.

Mrs. Snow is frequently referred to as the pioneer in the field of parlor lecturers. To this she was also directed by the suggestion and interest of friends, and her first lecture was delivered on the West Side on the subject of Egypt, a country which was then attracting much interest. From that beginning her work extended to different quarters of the city, and eventually involved a long list of subjects, including some of the great figures of history and great works of literature.

Mrs. Snow was a member of one of the early Chautauqua classes held in the Village of Brooklyn, and since 1892 has been a prominent member of the woman's clubs of Cleveland. For her many activities in these clubs, including the Woman's Relief Corps, the Literary Guild and other organizations, repeated honors have been bestowed upon Mrs. Snow. About two years ago the Cleveland Woman's Club arranged to have an oil painting of Mrs. Snow made and given a place of honor in the clubrooms.

As already noted, her religious life and experience covers nearly fourscore years. As a girl she came under the influence of ministers of different denominations, and finally united with the Methodist Church at Brighton. When, after her husband's death in January, 1892, Mrs. Snow came to Cleveland to live with her daughter, Mrs. Brainerd, she united with St. John's Episcopal Church, her father's ancestors having been of that faith. In these two denominations Mrs. Snow has been active in the various church and missionary societies.

Without describing her life in further detail, it is obvious even from this brief sketch that Mrs. Snow has lived largely and with heart and mind open to the biggest and most vital things either within the scope of her intellect or in the performance of those commonplace duties that are unchanging and unchanged from generation to generation. A juster and higher tribute was never paid her than when on one of the occasions of public honor at which she was the guest someone wrote: '' Our old friend is the type of womanhood on which rests the best development of the nation."

Jesse K. Bkainerd. A long life signalized by associations both with the pioneer and modern epochs of Cleveland, characterized by high purpose and ideals and real success in business affairs was that of the late Jesse K. Brainerd, who died at his home in Cleveland October 5, 1911, when in his ninetieth year.

His parents, Cephas and Lydia (Edwards) Brainerd, were identified with the earliest settlement of Cuyahoga County, located about a century ago and establishing a home in Brooklyn Township, on land now included in the City of Cleveland. It was in the old village of Brooklyn that Jesse K. Brainerd was born August 17, 1822. As a boy he attended the district schools and the Brooklyn Village Academy, completing his education when about seventeen years old. For four years he taught school, but his real talents and incli

nations were for practical affairs. At one time he operated his father's farm, but left the farm to establish a general store at Independence. Ohio. He finally returned to manage the old homestead until after the death of his parents. Mr. Brainerd was one of the early factors in the oil industry, and was also in the real estate business, in both of which he showed unusual judgment and was successful himself and rendered an important service to his many clients. Mr. Brainerd was for many years identified with the National Screw and Tack Company of Cleveland and also the National Acme Manufacturing Company and the Cleveland Boat Manufacturing Company. He was always remarkable for his keen business judgment and force of character, and much of his success was doubtless due to the practice of a rule which he often advised young people to follow, that of saving something from their income every year as a provision against old age.

Mr. Brainerd was in one sense an old fashioned man, in that he sought no relations with fraternities or clubs. Outside of home his greatest interest was the Methodist Episcopal Church, and through his religion he expressed some of the best enthusiasm of his life. He was a liberal contributor to the church and also to the important charities of the city and no case of need was ever brought to his attention without receiving some practical helpfulness. He never missed a vote at presidential elections, and beginning his allegiance with the whig party he was a loyal republican until his death.

September 24, 1845, Mr. Brainerd married Miss Malina A. Saekett. They walked the pathway of life together for sixty-five years, and at the time of his death they were undoubtedly one of the very oldest couples in Cuyahoga County. The widow survived her honored husband about three years, passing away November 19, 1914.

She was born at Turin, New York, in 1825, and was twelve years of age when she came with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Edmund Saekett, to South Brooklyn, Cuyahoga County. She grew to womanhood in that vicinity, attended school there and became acquainted with the young schoolmaster whom she afterwards married. Her life was also extended through nearly ninety years and in that lifetime she had witnessed the old candle, the kerosene lamp, gas lighting and electricity, and as a girl her familiar household industries were spinning, weaving and cloth making. After her marriage she lived at Independence, Ohio, and she and her young husband, then a merchant, were among the social leaders of the town, and their home was noted for its liberal hospitality and also a place where many a sick and unfortunate one was carefully nursed and cared for. Mrs. Brainerd was devoted to her church, but the best of her character was expressed in devotion to her children and closest friends. After the death of her husband she lived with her son, Mr. C. W. Brainerd. Besides her children she was survived by seven grandchildren and five great-grandchildren.

Mr. and Mrs. Brainerd had three children: Mrs. Frances Josephine Gates, widow of Lafayette Gates, Eva Malina, wife of Edwin Stimson, and Charles W. Brainerd.

Charles W. Brainerd, only son of the late Jesse K. Brainerd, whose life has been reviewed on other pages, is one of the representative business men and substantial citizens of Cleveland, where he has spent most of his life, and among other business and banking connections is vice president of the National Screw and Tack Company.

He was born in Cuyahoga County in 1861, and received his early education in the public schools of Brooklyn Village. He also attended the Spencerian Business College. At the age of twenty he began his business career in an oil refinery in Pennsylvania, and was there three years. His first position with the National Screw and Tack Company was as office clerk. In 1893 he became secretary of the company and from that was promoted to his present office as vice president.

In 1886 Mr. Brainerd married Miss Bertha Snow, daughter of Jane Elliott Snow, one of the most prominent of Cleveland's women, whose noble career is sketched on other pages. Mr. and Mrs. Brainerd have two daughters, Mrs. Charles M. Lemperly, of Lakewood, and Mrs. A. D. Taylor, of Cleveland. The Brainerd home is in an ideal residence section of Cleveland at 12903 Lake Avenue in Lakewood.

Mr. Brainerd is a member of the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce, Clifton Club, First Congregational Church and in politics is a republican.

Mrs. Charles W. Brainerd is a fine example of the twentieth century American woman and as such deserves a few lines under her individual name in this publication. Mrs. Brainerd is essentially domestic, a lover of her

beautiful home, which she looks after with master hand, and at the same time is an enthusiastic worker in Red Cross and philanthropic affairs. One day in the week is devoted to '' canteen'' work for the United States Army, another to surgical dressings at the West Side Red Cross and odd moments are given to knitting. She is secretary of the Western Reserve Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, her membership in that patriotic order being due to the service her great-grandfather on the Snow side rendered as a fighting minute man in the battle of Bunker Hill. Mrs. Brainerd has done much to aid the practical work done at Camp Sherman and for the Belgian Relief. She is a member of the First Congregational Church on Franklin Avenue and active in its various interests. One of her special philanthropies for a number of years has been the Central Friendly Inn.

Bertha Snow, the name she bore until her marriage, was born in a farm home at Parma, Ohio. Her parents were W. C. and Jane Elliott Snow, and that she was nobly reared needs no other evidence than the name of her mother, one of Cleveland's best known women. She grew to womanhood amid surroundings peculiar to the rural life of Ohio, attending district schools, church and Sunday school at BrightonJ now South Brooklyn, and later was a student in Mr. Treat's School at Brighton and the West High School in Cleveland.

She taught several terms of school and on November 18, 1886, became the wife of Mr. Charles Brainerd. After their marriage they resided for a few years near Warren, Pennsylvania. In Cleveland their home for a number of years was on Clinton Avenue, until they removed to their present residence 12903 Lake Avenue in Lakewood. With her husband Mrs. Brainerd has traveled extensively in this country, both south, east and west. They have visited the Pacific coast three times and Yellowstone National Park twice. They have two daughters: Eva, Mrs. C. M. Lemperly, of Manor Park Avenue. Lakewood; and Genevieve. Mrs. A. D. Taylor, of South Boulevard, Cleveland Heights.

Hon. James Monroe was one of the distinguished Ohioans of the last century, and for nearly half a century his activities were identified with Oberlin College.

He was born at Plainfield. Connecticut, July 18, 1821, and died at Oberlin, Ohio, July 6, 1898, at the age of 77. He was reared in Ohio and completed his education in Oberlin College, where he graduated A. B. in 1846. During his senior year he had served as an assistant teacher in the college and was tutor from 1846 to 1848. In 1849 he graduated from Oberlin Seminary, and was awarded the degree Master of Arts in 1850. In 1882 the University of Nebraska conferred upon him the honorary degree LL. D. From 1849 to 1862 he was professor of rhetoric and belleslettres at Oberlin, and in the meantime had taken a prominent part in public affairs, using his gifts as an orator and his trained mind in combating the slavery traffic. He was elected a member of the lower branch of the Ohio Legislature and served from 1856 to 1859. and was a member of the State Senate from 1860 to 1862 and president of the Senate. He resigned his seat in the Senate in October, 1862, and likewise his chair at Oberlin to accept the United States Consulship at Rio de Janeiro, which he held from 1863 to 1869. For several months he was charge d'affairs ad interim. He early became a firm and fast friend of James A. Garfield, and when the latter was elected president he offered Professor Monroe the post of minister to Brazil. But the death of Garfield immediately prevented his taking this post. On his return to the United States Professor Monroe's services were again sought, and on the republican ticket he was elected to Congress for five successive terms, serving from March 4, 1871, to March, 1881. During that time he resumed his active connection with Oberlin College, serving as corresponding member for the Alumni on the Board of Trustees from 1873 to 1875. as member of the Board of Trustees from 1873 to 1874, and as Professor of Political Science and International Law in 1883-84. From 1884 until 1896, when he severed his active relations, just fifty years after he graduated, he was Professor of Political Science and Modern History. In that position he occupied what is known as the Monroe Professorship, a chair which was founded through a subscription of $50,000 raised for that purpose. Professor Monroe is remembered by all the older student body of Oberlin as a very eloquent speaker, a man of refined and cultivated manners and tastes, and of very splendid address and carriage. Though of studious nature, he was as much at home on the public rostrum as in his library, and he spoke with a depth of understanding and reserve force that always carried conviction.

He was an active member of the Congregational Church.

James Monroe married for his first wife Miss Elizabeth Maxwell, a native of Mansfield, Ohio. Their romance began while she was a student of Oberlin College, and she graduated there. They were parents of five children, three of whom are still living. The second in age was Mary K. Monroe, who died in October, 1917, at the old home in Oberlin, where she was long prominent in college affairs. One other child died in infancy. The living children are: Mrs. C. N. Fitch, wife of Rev. Mr. Fitch of New York City; Charles

E. , an attorney at Milwaukee, and William M., one of the prominent lawyers of Cleveland, elsewhere referred to. Professor James Monroe married for his second wife Miss Julia

F. Finney, of Oberlin, daughter of Col. Charles Grandison Finney, for many years president of Oberlin College and for whom a memorial building stands on the campus today. Mrs. James Monroe is still living at Oberlin.

William M. Monroe has for many years maintained a consistent record as a successful and expert patent attorney at Cleveland. During that time his services have been sought in many important cases involving the examinations for patent infringements, as solicitor of patents, and in other branches of his specialty.

Mr. Monroe was bor n at Oberlin, Ohio, son of Professor James and Elizabeth (Maxwell) Monroe, referred to on other pages. He was only two years old when his mother died. He grew Tip at Oberlin, attended the preparatory school and finished the sophomore year in Oberlin College. Coming to Cleveland, he entered the office of M. D. Leggett & Company, patent attorneys. He was with that firm about three years, industriously studying patent law and engineering. That preliminary training he has re-enforced by a constant study and an extensive experience built up on his private practice. He has always practiced alone, and his reputation is that of one of the leading patent attorneys of Ohio. For about twenty years he had his offices in the Society for Savings Building, but in 1916 moved to the Engineers Building. He is also interested in a number of manufacturing enterprises at Cleveland and elsewhere.

Mr. Monroe is a republican, a member of the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce, and he and his wife belong to the East Cleveland Baptist Church. The family spend their summer months in a beautiful home at Willoughby, Ohio.

October 26, 1897, in Cleveland, in the old Stewart home on Wilson Avenue, Mr. Monroe married Miss Ida May Stewart, daughter of the late William H. and Margaret (Doherty) Stewart. The history of her father's family appears on other pages. Mrs. Monroe was born on Laurel Street in Cleveland and finished her education in the Miss Mittleberger's School. Mr. and Mrs. Monroe have two sons, Stewart and William, both natives of Cleveland. They are ex-students of the Shaw High School, and William Monroe is now attending the Staunton Military Academy at Staunton, Virginia, of which Stewart Monroe is now a graduate.

Harvey Edward Hackenberg. There has apparently been an unbroken continuity in Mr. Hackenberg's progress and rise to important business responsibilities ever since he came to Cleveland more than thirty-five years ago. He is now one of the chief executive officers of the National Carbon Company, Incorporated, and has always identified himself in a public-spirited manner with Cleveland's larger movements in the direction of civic growth and expansion.

Mr. Hackenberg was born in Northumberland, Pennsylvania, March 8, 1864. He is a son of Albert Hackenberg, a native of Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania, and who is now living retired at Northumberland at the age of eighty-two. The mother, whose maiden name was Maria Brouse, died in 1914.

Mr. Hackenberg was educated in the public schools of his native town, and on leaving high school at the age of seventeen came immediately to Cleveland. For a brief time only he was merged with the rank and file of those who in comparative obscurity carry on the work of the world. From the latter part of 1881 to 1883 he worked as a clerk with the firm of Tuttle, Masters & Company, iron ore merchants. About this time Mr. Tuttle's withdrawal from the business led to the adoption of the firm name of Masters & Company. With this new firm Mr. Hackenberg continued about a year, when he entered into other relations.

In the winter of 1882 Willis U. Masters had formed a partnership with W. H. Boulton under the firm name of the Boulton Carbon Company. They began the manufacture of

electric lighting carbons. That industry was then in its infancy, lighting by electricity itself being little more than in an experimental stage. In 1885 Mr. Hackenberg was transferred to this company, becoming general clerk, a position he filled until 1888.

In 1886 the business was incorporated under the name of The National Carbon Company of Ohio, and in 1888 Mr. Hackenberg was elected its secretary. In 1899 several companies engaged in the same lines of manufacture, combined under the name of National Carbon Company of New Jersey, and on the first of February of that year Mr. Hackenberg was elected treasurer and had since held that office. On February 20, 1912, he was elected vice president of the company, and on March 18, 1912, was again elected secretary. May 1, 1917, the National Carbon Company, Incorporated, a New York corporation, succeeded the National Carbon Company of New Jersey, and Mr. Hackenberg continues with it in the capacity of vice president, secretary and treasurer.

Mr. Hackenberg has had at different times numerous relations with business enterprises at Cleveland and elsewhere, and is a director of the Union Commerce National Bank of Cleveland. He is a member of the Union Club of Cleveland, the Clifton Club of Lakewood, and the Westwood Country Club, and is identified with many organizations of a commercial character, including the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce, the Cleveland Chamber of Industry, Ohio State Board of Commerce, Cleveland Engineering Society, Electrical League and similar organizations.

Just recently Mr. Hackenberg completed a new home, "Oakcrest," at 12506 West Shore Drive in Lakewood. He married June 18, 1903, Miss Addie May Lawrence, daughter of the late O. C. Lawrence and a niece of the late Washington H. Lawrence, who up to the time of his death in 1900 was president of the National Carbon Company. Mr. and Mrs. Hackenberg are members of the First Baptist Church of Cleveland, and he is a member of the board of trustees.

William Harrison Stewart, a resident of Cleveland more than half a century, was for nearly forty years active in the service of the Pennsylvania Railway Company and was individually prominent in local business affairs.

He came to Cleveland with his parents in 1843, being at the time eight years of age. He was born at North Hero, Grand Isle County,

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