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educational works, treatises on the mental, moral, and political sciences, on philology, religion, mathematics, philosophy, and national economy, etc., of novels and tales, dramas, poems, lyric and epical. 'The Book of the Rose,' a collection of dramatic and lyric pieces, is his best known work. 'It's All Right' and 'The Palace,' novels, 'Araminta May' and 'Skallnora's Will,' tales, are also popular. *

Alpuche, Wenceslao (al-po'che). A Mexican poet (1804-41). His first poems, published when he was little more than a youth, brought him great popularity. The best among his works are: 'Hidalgo' and the odes: 'Independence' and 'The Return from Exile.'

Aleop, Rlchard (al'sgp). An American poet and scholar; born at Middletown, Conn., Jan. 23, 1761; died at Flatbush, L. L, Aug. 20, 1815. In conjunction with Theodore Dwight he edited from 1791 to 1795 the Echo, a satirical journal. Among his works are: 'The Charms of Fancy '; ' A Monody on the Death of Washington' (1800); and the translations entitled •The Enchanted Lake of the Fairy Morgana' (1808), and Molina's 'Geographical, Natural, and Civil History of Chili.'

Altamirano, Ignacio Manuel (al-ta-me-ra-' no). A Mexican poet, orator, and journalist; born in Guerrero, about 1835; died in Italy, Feb. 1893. He wrote 'Clemencia'; 'Julia', etc. He held political office, rose to the rank of colonel in the army during the French invasion, and was of pure Indian blood, said to have been descended from the ancient Aztec monarchs.

Altaroche, Marie Mlchel (al-ta-rosh'). A French poet and journalist (1811-84), studied law in Paris, then turned to journalism and in 1834-48 was editor-in-chief of the Charivari, which owed to his witty articles a good deal of its brilliant success. In 1850-52 he managed several theatrical enterprises. His works include: 'Political Songs and Verses' (1835); 'Democratic Tales' (1837); 'Adventures of Victor AugeroP (1838), an imitation of Louvet's famous 'Faublas' romance.

Alvarez do Orlente, Fernan (al'va- reth do o-re-en-te). A Portuguese poet (1540-99) of the school of Camoens. His life-work, 'Lusitania Transformed,' is a pastoral romance in the manner of Sannazaro's 'Arcadia,' composed of prose and poetry and containing elegies, sonnets, and idyls of such beauty as to have caused some of them to be ascribed to Camoens.

Alvin, Louis Joseph (al-van'). A Belgian poet and art critic (1806-87); became secretary (1830), then chief, of a department in the ministry of public instruction, member of the Belgian Academy in 1845, and chief librarian of the royal library in Brussels in 1850. Among his works are: 'Sardanapalus,' a tragedy (1834); 'The Anonymous Pamphleteer,' a comedy (1835); 'Re-Contemplations' (1856), a satirical imitation of the romantic style.

Alxinger, Johann Baptist von (alk'sing-er). An Austrian poet (1755-97), especially esteemed for his chivalrous epics in the manner of Wieland: 'Doolin von Mainz' (1787) and'Bliomberis' (1791).

Amalle, Marie Frlederike Auguste (ama'le-e). A German dramatist (1794-1870), who wrote under the pseudonym "Amalie Heiter." She was Duchess of Saxony, sister of King John of Saxony. Comedies and dramas of simple conception, but careful delineation of character, and well adapted for the stage, have given her eminence, among them : ' The Uncle'; 'The Prince's Fiancee'; 'Primogeniture '; 'The Young Lady from the Country'; and • The Agriculturist.'

Ambros, August Wilhelm (am'bros). A notable Austrian writer on music; born at Mauth, Bohemia, Nov. 17, 1816; died in Vienna, June 28, 1876. He was trained for the civil service and served in it with distinction; but his aptitude for music, and particularly for the criticism and literature of music, led him in another direction, and he rose to eminence as the author of 'The Limits of Music and Poetry,' besides numerous essays and studies connected with art. His masterpiece, however, he left unfinished: 'The History of Music,' a work which cost him many years of labor and which he carried only to the fourth volume. He attempted musical composition, but in it won no popularity.

Ambrose, Saint (am'broz). One of the fathers of the Latin Church; born at Treves, Gaul, probably 340; died at Milan, April 4, 397. He became bishop of Milan in 374. His writings include: • Of the Duties of the Clergy' (in imitation of Cicero's 'Of Duties'); 'Hexaemeron '; hymns, etc. He is supposed to have been the author of the style of singing known as the 'Ambrosian Chant.' Works, Milan, 6 vols., 1875-86.

Ambrosius, Johanna (am-bro'zi-6s). A German poet and story writer; born at Lengwethen, East Prussia, Aug. 3, 1854. Daughter of an artisan, and married in 1874 to a peasant's son by the name of Voigt, she led the hard life of a peasant woman till in middle age she wrote verses, which were published in a weekly newspaper; their success led to the publication of other poems and stories of hers, which have had extremely wide circulation. *

Ames, Charles Gordon. An American Unitarian clergyman and writer; born at Dorchester, Mass., Oct. 3, 1828. He has published 'George Eliot's Two Marriages' (1886); 'As Natural as Life'; 'Studies of the Inner Kingdom'; and is distinguished as a preacher.

Ames, Mrs. Eleanor Maria (Easterbrook). An American writer; born in 1830. She is a resident of Brooklyn, N. Y. Under the pseudonym of "Eleanor Kirk" she wrote: 'Up Broadway and Its Sequel' (1870); 'Information for Authors' (1888); 'Perpetual Youth.'

Ames, Fisher. A famous American orator and statesman; born at Dedham, Mass., April AMES —

9, 1758; died there, July 4, 1808. Admitted to the bar in 1781, he became a Member of Congress in 1789, where he gained a national reputation by his oratory. Two of his finest efforts were in support of John Jay's treaty with Great Britain, and a eulogy on Washington before the Massachusetts Legislature. He was elected president of Harvard College in 1804, but declined. A brilliant talker, he was distinguished in conversation for wit and imagination, while his character was spotless. His works consist of orations, essays, and letters, 2 vols., 1854.

Ames, Mary Clemmer. An American writer; born in Utica, N. Y. , in 1839; died in Washington, D. C., Aug. 18, 1884. She was a frequent contributor to the Springfield Republican, and afterwards to the New York Independent. Married to and divorced from the Rev. Daniel Ames, she became in 1883 the wife of Edward Hudson at Washington. Among her works are the novels 'Victoria' (1864); 'Eirene' (1870), and 'His Two Wives' (1874); a volume of 'Poems' (1882); and biographies of Alice and Phcebe Cary.

Ames, Nathaniel. An American physician and humorist; born in Bridgewater, Mass., in 1708; died at Dedham, Mass., July 11, 1764. He was a resident of Dedham, Mass. From 1725 to 1764 he published an Astronomical Diary and Almanac, which enjoyed great popularity on account of its wit .

Amlcis, Edmondo de (a-me'ches). A distinguished Italian writer; born at Oneglia in Liguria, Oct. 21, 1846. From 1865 till the occupation of Rome by the Italian army he was in the military service of King Victor Emanuel's government; then he returned to civil life at Turin, devoting himself wholly to literature, in which he had already won distinction by several graphic sketches of camp life. Among his writings of this kind the most noteworthy are: 'Army Life' (1869) and • Recollections of 1870-71.' Of novels we have from his pen: 'The College Friends'; 'A Great Day'; 'The Paternal Home' (1872), and 'Cuore' (Hearts), published in English as 'The Heart of a Schoolboy.' His works of travel — including 'Spain'; 'Recollections of London'; ' Holland '; ' Constantinople'; ' Recollections of Paris '; 'Morocco' — have had a very wide circulation, and have been translated into several languages. He has published also a volume of 'Verses.' *

Amiel, Henri FredeTlc (a-me-el'). A distinguished Swiss essayist, philosophical critic, and poet; bor n at Geneva, Sept. 27, 1821; died there, March 11, 1881. He was for five years a student in German universities, and on his return home became professor of philosophy in the Geneva Academy. He is author of several works on the history of literature, as 'The Literary Movement in Romanish Switzerland' (1849); 'Study on Mme. de Stael' (1878); and of several poems, among them 'Millet Grains' (1854). But his fame


rests principally on the 'Journal,' which appeared after the author's death. *

Amman Daniel. A distinguished American admiral and author; born May 15, 1820, in Ohio. He entered the United States Navy July 7, 1836. He was executive officer of the North Atlantic blockading squadron at the outbreak of the Civil War. From 1861 to 1865 he rendered signal service in the attacks on Port Royal, Fort Macallister, Fort Fisher, and both the ironclad attacks on Fort Sumter. On June 4, 1878, he was retired with the rank of rear-admiral. He was the designer of the Ammen life-raft and harbor defense ram. Among his works are: 'The Atlantic Coast' (1883); 'The Old Navy and the New'; 'Navy in the Civil War' (1883).

Amory, Thomas (am'o-ri). An English memoir writer; born 1691 (?); died Nov. 25, 1788. He has been called the "English Rabelais." He wrote: 'Memoirs Containing the Lives of Several Ladies of Great Britain, etc.' (1/55);

'Life of John Buncle, Esq.' (1756-66); etc.

Amory, Thomas Coffin. An American lawyer, politician, biographer, and poet; born in Boston, 1812; died 1889. He held municipal office in Boston for many years. He wrote: 'Life of James Sullivan, with Selections from his Writings' (2 vols., 1859); 'Military Services and Public Life of Major-General John Sullivan' (1868); 'General Sullivan Not a Pensioner of Luzerne' (2d ed. 1875); 'The Transfer of Erin' (1877); 'Life of Sir Isaac Coffin' (1886); and two poems: 'The Siege of Newport' (1888) and'Charles River' (1888).

Ampere, Jean Jacques Antoine (on-par'). A French literary historian (1800-64), son of the physicist Andre' M. Ampere. He became professor in Marseilles, then at the Sorbonne, and in 1833 at the College of France in Paris, being elected member of the Academy in 1847. His best work is 'Literary History of France before the XII. Century' (1840).

Amyntor, Gerhard von (a-min'tor), pseudonym of Dagobert von Gerhardt. A German novelist and poet; born at Liegnitz, Silesia, July 12, 1831. He entered the army in 1849, took part in the campaigns of 1864 and 1870-71 as a major, was severely wounded in the former and resigned in 1872; settled in Potsdam in 1874. His principal works are: 'Peter Quidam's Rhine-Journey' (1877), an epic; 'Songs of a German Night Watchman' (1878); 'The New Romancero' (1880), poems; 'The Priest' (1881), an epic; novels: 'It Is You' (1882);

'A Problem ' (1884); ' Praise of Woman ' (1885); and 'Gerke Suteminne' (1887), a historical romance.

Amyot, Jacques (a-me-o'). A French author (1513-93), famous for his translations from the Greek, which, owing to their elegant style, are considered classical literature. They are: the 'Theagenes and Chariclea' of Heliodorus; • Seven Books of Diodorus Siculus '; the 'Daphnis and Chloe ' of Longus; the 'Parallel

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Lives' and the 'Morals' of Plutarch. The most noteworthy among these is the translation of 'Plutarch's Lives,' which was used by Corneille as a source for his antique tragedies, and by Shakespeare (in its English version by Sir Thomas North) for some of his plays.

Anacreon (a-nak're-on). A renowned lyric poet of Greece; bor n at Teos in Ionia, 562 (?) B. C.; died 477 B. C. He enjoyed the patronage of Polycrates, autocrat of Samos; and while at his court, composed most of the odes in praise of wine and women which won for him pre-eminence among singers. A few of his authentic compositions have come down to us: under his name as many as 68 extant poems circulate, but the authorship of many of these is extremely doubtful. *

Anagnos, Mrs. Julia Rowana IHowe)

(a-nag'nos). An American iioet and litterateur, daughter of Julia Ward Howe; born in 1844; died in 1886. In 1870 she married M. Anagnos, superintendent- of the Perkins Institute for the Blind, Boston, Mass. She wrote ' Stray Chords' (1883) and 'Philosophic Quaestor' (1885).

Anaxagoras (an-aks-ag'o-ras). A famous Greek philosopher of the Ionic school; born at Clazomena.% 500 (?) B.C.; died 428 B.C. He explained eclipses and advanced physical science. In philosophy, he taught that the universe is regulated by an eternal sclf-existent and inf1nitely powerful principle, called by him mind; matter he seems to have asserted to be eternal, what is called generation and destruction being merely the temporary union and separation of ever existing elements; he disproved the doctrine that things may have arisen by chance. Fragments of his 'Treatise on Nature' are still in existence.

Anaximander (an-aks-i-man'der). A Greek philosopher of the Ionian school; born at Miletus, about 611 B.C.; died about 547 B.C. He was a friend and pupil of Thales of Miletus, and is said to have written the first philosophical work in Greek prose. His system of philosophy declared that the principle, or substance, out of which all things arise and to which they return, is "immortal and imperishable," being in nature intermediate between air and water. He is reputed to have invented the sun-dial.

Anaximenes (an-aks-im'e-nez). A Greek philosopher of the Ionian school; born at Miletus, and lived in the 6th century B.C. He was probably a pupil of Anaximander. He held that air is the original substance, from which, by thickening and thinning, all other elements, as fire, water, earth, are produced. But little is known of him, there being extant but a single fragment of his lost work 'On Nature.'

Ancelot, Jacques Arsene Polycarpe (orislo'). A French dramatist (1794-1854), whose first success was the tragedy 'Ix1uis IX.' (1819). In 1841 he was elected a member of the Academy. His works include: 'Fiesco'

(1824), a successful imitation of Schiller's play; 'Maria Padilla' (1838); 'Marie of Brabant,' an epic (1825); 'Six Months in Russia,' a medley of prose and verse (1827); 'The Man of the World,' a novel (1827); 'Familiar Epistles' (1842), satires of great elegance of style. His wife Marguerite Louise Virginie, nee Chardon (1792-1875), was frequently his co-laborer and also the author of plays and novels. Of the former, 'Marie, or the Three Epochs' (1836) is the best; of the latter, 'Renee de Varville' (1853) and 'The Banker's Niece' (1853) found most favor.

Anczyc, Vladlslav Ludvlg (an'tsich). A Polish dramatist (1823-83), who lived mostly at Cracow, and wrote national plays which became very popular. The best among them are: 'The Peasant-Aristocrats' (1851); 'The Inhabitants of Lobsov' (1854); The Raftsmen' (1875); 'The Peasants' Emigration' (1876); besides which he wrote 'Tyrtaeus,' a poetical tale (1883), and many juvenile works, partly under the pseudonym "Kasimir Goralczyk."

Andersen, Hans Christian (iin'der-sen). An eminent Danish poet and story writer; torn at Odense, April 2, 1805; died Aug. 4, 1875. Having lost his father early in childhood, the boy received his elementary education in a charity school. He traveled in Germany, 1828, making the acquaintance of Chamisso and Tieck; then he made tours in France, Italy, and the' East. His impressions of Italy are embodied in 'The Improvvisatore' (1835), the work which first gave him fame at home and abroad. In the same year appeared 'O. T.,' a novel of life and nature in the North. 'Only a Fiddler' (1837) is founded on the experiences of the author's early life. 'The Poet's Bazar' (1842) is inspired by the impressions of Oriental travel. He is seen at his very best in 'The Picture Book w ithout Pictures.' Among his dramatic compositions are: 'The Mulatto,' a romantic play which was received with high popular favor; 'The Flowers of Happiness,' a comedy; 'Raphaella,' a romantic drama; 'Ahasuerus,' designed to emphasize certain problems of philosophy; 'The Two Baronesses,' a comedy of Danish life. In the English-speaking world Andersen's great fame will ever rest upon his stories for children, the celebrated 'Wonder Tales.' *

Andersen, Karl. A Danish poet; bor n in Copenhagen, Oct. 26, 1828; died there, Sept. 1, 1883. Among his epic and lyrical productions are: 'Strife and Peace' (1858); 'Pictures of Travel' (1864); 'On the Arno and the Ganges' (1865); 'Light and Shade' (1868); 'Romances and Songs' (1880). In the prose tale, 'Over Cliff and Surf (1883), he described admirably nature and life in Iceland, where he spent his youth; but his most popular work is 'Genre Pictures' (1876-81), seven collections of scenes from daily life.

Anderson, Mary. See Navarro, Mary (Anderson) de.

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Anderson, Rasmus Bjorn. An American author; born in Albion, Wis., Jan. 12, 1846, of Norwegian parents. He was educated at Norwegian Lutheran College, Decorah, Iowa; becoming professor of Scandinavian languages in the University of Wisconsin in 1875-84, and United States minister to Denmark in 1885. His books include: 'America not Discovered by Christopher Columbus' (1874); 'Norse Mythology' (1875); 'Viking Tales of the North' (1877); 'Translation of the Younger Edda' (1880).

Anderson, Robert. An English dialect poet; born in Carlisle, Feb. 1, 1770; died there, Sept. 26, 1833. He was a mill hand who produced delightfully humorous and gracefully pathetic verse in his native Cumbrian dialect; typical examples being 'The Impatient Lass,' 'Lucy Gray.' and 'The Lass abuin Thirty.'

Andrea, Johann Valentin (iin-dra'e). A German theologian and satirist (1586-1654). He traveled as the tutor of young noblemen through France, Switzerland, and Italy in 1607-14; became court preacher at Stuttgart in 1639, and abbot of Adelberg in 1650. The chief among his writings, partly in Latin, partly in German, full of ingenious thought, are: 'Turbo' (1616), a dramatic satire on the scholarship of his day; 'Menippus' (1617), 100 satirical dialogues; 'Spiritual Pastime' (1619).

Andrelni, Giovanni Battista (an-dra-e'ne). An Italian comedian and poet; born in Florence, 1578; died in Paris about 1650. From his sacred drama 'Adam' (1613), Milton is by some supposed to have derived the idea of • Paradise Lost.'

Andrews, Charles McLean. An American historical and descriptive writer; born in Connecticut, 1863. He is professor at Bryn Mawr College. He has written: 'Historical Development of Modern Europe'; 'River Towns of Connecticut'; 'The Old English Manor.'

Andrews, Christopher Coiumbus. An American diplomat and writer; born at Hillsborough, N. H., Oct. 27, 1829. He was brevetted major-general in the Civil War, was minister to Sweden from 1869 to 1877, and consul-general to Brazil from 1882 to 1885. Among his numerous works are: 'Minnesota and Dakota' (1857); 'Practical Treatise on the Revenue Laws of the United States' (1858); 'History of the Campaign of Mobile' (1867); 'Brazil, its Condition and Prospects' (1887).

Andrews, Elisha Benjamin. An American historical and economical writer; born at Hinsdale, N. H., Jan. 10, 1844. After serving in the Civil War, finishing his college and theological education, preaching about a year at Beverly, Mass., being president of a university in Ohio, professor in Newton Theological Institute and Brown and Cornell Universities, he became president of Brown University (1889). He went as one of the United States commissioners to the monetary conference at Brussels in 1892.

He has written : ' Institutes of our Constitutional History, English and American' (1887); 'Institutes of General History' (1889); 'Institutes of Economics' (1889); 'History of the United States'; 'History of the Last Quarter-Century in the United States.'

Andrews, Ethan Allen. An American educator and lexicographer; born at New Britain, Conn., April 7, 1787; died there, March 24, 1858. He was professor of ancient languages at the University of North Carolina, 1822-28; edited the Religious Magazine with Jacob Abbott, whom he succeeded as principal of the Young Ladies' School in Boston; but his chief work was compiling classical text-books. He edited the well-known ' Latin-English Lexicon' (1850), based on Freund; and 'Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar' (with Solomon Stoddard; 65th ed. 1857) was for many years the leading one in America.

Andrews, James Pettit. An English historian and antiquary; born near Newbury, Berkshire, about 1737; died in London, Aug. 6, 1797. lI is principal works were: 'A Collection of Anecdotes, etc., Ancient and Modern' (1789); 'History of Great Britain, etc.' (179495); 'Henry's History of Britain, Continued' (1796); etc.

Andrews, Jane. An American juvenile-story writer; born in Massachusetts in 1833; died in 1887. Among her stories for children, which have enjoyed great popularity, are: 'Seven Little Sisters who Live on the Round Ball that Floats in the Air' (1876); 'The Stories Mother Nature Told'; 'The Seven Little Sisters Prove their Sisterhood' (1878); 'Ten Boys on the Road from Long Ago to Now' (1885); 'Only a Year and What it Brought' (1887).

Andrews, Stephen Pearl. An American miscellaneous writer; born at Templeton, Mass., March 22, 1812; died at New York, May 21, 1886. He was a prominent abolitionist, practiced law in the South, and settled in New York in 1847. He paid much attention to phonographic reporting, and also to the development of a universal philosophy which he called "Integralism," and of a universal language, " Alwato." Besides numerous works relating to these subjects, he wrote: 'Comparison of the Common Law with the Roman, French, or Spanish Civil Law on Entails, etc.'; 'Love, Marriage, and Divorce '; 'French, with or without a Master'; 'The Labor Dollar' (1881); 'Transactions of the Colloquium' (a society founded by himself and his friends for philosophical discussion, 1882-83). He contributed to the London Times and other papers, and was a member of the American Academy of Arts and .Sciences and the American Ethnological Society.

Andrleux, Francois Jean Stanislas (ondre-e). A French poet and dramatist; born in Strasbourg, May 6, 1759; died in Paris. May 9, 1833. Practicing law in Paris at the outbreak of the Revolution, he became a zealous

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adherent of the latter, and in 1798 was elected to the Council of the Five Hundred. In 1795 he was elected a member, and in 1823 secretary for life, of the Academy. His forte is the poetical tale, in which he aims at classical purity of language and prosody. The most noted are: 'The Miller of Sanssouci' (1797);

'Fenelon's Walk '; and ' The Trial of the Senate of Capua.' Of his dramatic work may be mentioned the comedies 'The Heedless' (1787); • Moliere with his Friends ' (1804); 'The Comedian' (1816); and the tragedy 'Junius Brutus' (1794)

Andronlcus, Llvius (an-dro-ni'cus). An early Roman dramatic poet and actor; born at Tarentum, about 284 B. C.; died about 204. A Greek by birth, captured in war and sold as a slave in Rome, he was afterward freed, and became a teacher of Latin and Greek. His plays, mostly tragedies, with a few comedies, were translated from the Greek. They were first played in Rome, 240 B. C.

Aneurin. A famous Welsh bard of the 6th century. Of his epic and songs we possess the 'Godolin,' which is believed to be a description of one of the last great battles of the native Britons with the Saxon invaders. The poem as it has come down to us contains nearly 1,000 lines, but it is not complete and lacks unity. The sense is obscure, and several passages are capable of various interpretations. *

Angell, James Burrlll. An American educator, diplomatist, and writer; born at Scituate, R. L, Jan. 7, 1829. He was graduated from Brown University in 1849, and professor of modern languages there from 1853 to 1860. From 1860 to 1866 he was editor of the Providence Journal. He was president of the University of Vermont from 1866 to 1871. In 1871 he became president of the University of Michigan. He was minister to China from 1880 to 1881, and is now minister to Turkey. Among his works are: 'Manual of French Literature' (1857); 'Progress of International Law' (1875).

Angelo, Michel. See Mlchel Angelo.

Angeius Silesius (iin'je-lus si-le'shi-us), pseudonym of Johannes Schemer. A German mystic and sacred poet (1624-77), brought up in the Lutheran faith, but in 1053 embraced Catholicism, in 1661 was ordained priest, and in 1664 became councilor of the Prince-Bishop of Breslau. His poems, some of which are exquisite sacred lyrics, appeared collected as 'Spiritual Joys' (1657) and 'Cherubic Wanderer' (1675).

Angely, Louis (an'je-li). A German dramatist (1787-1835). He was for several years a favorite comic actor in Berlin, and skillfully adapted to local conditions a number of French comedies, among which the most popular were:

'Schoolboy Pranks'; 'The Journey at Common Expense'; 'Of Seven the Ugliest'; 'The Artisans' Festival'; 'Seven Girls in Uniform.'

Anicet-Bourgeois, Auguste (a-ne-sa' bbrzhwa'). A French dramatist; bor n in Paris, Dec. 25, 1806; died there, Jan. 12, 1871. He wrote about 200 comedies, vaudevilles, melodramas, often in collaboration with Barbier, Ducange, Feval, Labiche, and others; while on the other hand he is the real and sole author of some of the best plays ascribed to the elder Dumas (for instance 'Teresa,'' Angele,' ' Catherine Howard'). Among his own productions the following deserve mention: 'The Venetian' (1834); 'The Poor Girl' (1838); 'Stella' (1843).

Annunzlo, Gabriele d {an-non'tse-o). An Italian novelist and poet; born on the yacht Irene in the Adriatic, near Pescara, in 1864. Educated at Prato; went to Rome in 1880; and is one of the most conspicuous Italian writers of the day. He abandoned Italian traditions for the modern French realism. His poems and novels are brilliant but sensual, the later works pessimistic. They include: 'Pleasure' (1889); 'The Triumph of Death' (1894); 'Maidens of the Crag'

(1895). Among his poems are: 'The New Song' (Rome, 1882); 'Interludes of Verse' (1883); and 'Marine Odes' (1893). *

Ansbach, Elizabeth, Margravine of. See Craven, Lady.

Anslo, Relmer (ans'lo). A Dutch poet; born at Amsterdam, 1622 or 1626; died at Perugia, May 16, 1669. He is an imitator of Vondel, and one of the foremost Dutch poets of his time. He went to Italy and livej for many years in Rome, where he wrote his finest poems. His most famous work is 'The Plague at Naples,' and the next in importance 'The Eve of St. Bartholomew,' both epics.

Anspach, Frederlck Rinehart. An American clergyman and religious writer; born in central Pennsylvania, Jan. 1815; died in Baltimore, Md., Sept. 16, 1867. He was educated at Pennsylvania College and the Lutheran Theological Seminary. His works include: 'Sons of the Sires' (1854); 'Sepulchres of the Departed' (1854); 'The Two Pilgrims' (1857).

Anstey, Christopher. An English poet (1724-1805). He was a gentleman of fortune, and wrote 'The New Bath Guide' (1766), humorous letters in rhyme describing life at that fashionable watering-place. These became famous, and Smollett borrowed largely from the work for ' Humphrey Clinker.' He also wrote 'An Election Ball and Other Verses' (1776).

Anstey. F., pseudonym of Thomas Anstey Guthrie. An English humorist; born in Kensington in 1856. He graduated from Cambridge in 1875, was called to the bar in 1880, and joined Punch staff in 1887. He is the author of: 'Vice Versa' (1882); 'The Giant's Robe' (1883); 'The Black Poodle' (1884); 'The Tinted Venus' (1885); 'The Pariah' (1889); 'Voces Populi' (1890); 'Mr. Punch's Pocket Ibsen' (1893); and 'Puppets at Large' (1897).

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