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or two previous to his appearing in Boston, and had been organist of Grace Church, in New York City; but, as he was and is more of a concert player than a church organist, and as no other place but Boston contained a concert organ, his first appearance may be credited to the latter city. Mr. Morgan had a firstclass reputation in England, previous to his coming to this country; and, as he was the first real concert organist heard here, and was a really fine performer, his playing made a great "sensation." I use the word "sensation"' advisedly, as there were some things connected with his appearances at that time that were decidedly " sensational," to say the least.

The organist's bench in the old Tremont Temple was in a very prominent position, in full view of the audience, the consequence being that the performer's feet and lower limbs could be seen with great distinctness, as he sat at the instrument. Mr. Morgan also heightened the scenic effect of this part of his appearance by wearing either white or very light-colored trousers. Not only this, but, on seating himself at the key-board to begin his performances, the audience were treated to the following unheard-of proceeding. The performer was seen to take in his hand a large piece of chalk; and, elevating one foot, he proceeded to cover the bottom of the boot with the substance, afterward proceeding in the same manner with the other member. This took some time; and, at the end of this extraordinary operation, the feelings of the audience were worked up to a high pitch of awe and expectancy. However, Mr. Morgan had an excuse for this bit of sensational business in the fact that the old Temple organ pedal action was exceedingly stiff, and required nearly the whole weight of the player's body, in order to put the keys down; and the use of the chalk was to prevent the feet slipping.

But it was decidedly a new revelation to hear the bass and, frequently, pretty rapid basses, too, played by the feet! Not only was this a great novelty, but Mr. Morgan's selections were something entirely new to his hearers. Previous to his coming, hardly anything had been heard at organ recitals but overtures, marches, and extempore playing, with perhaps an occasional selection from a mass by Haydn or an oratorio, played without pedal obligate But the new performer treated us to a large number of real organ compositions,— Bach's and Handel's organ works, Mendelssohn's sonatas, etc. Besides, his manner of performing orchestral arrangements as overtures, slow movements from symphonies, selections from masses and oratorios, etc., was entirely new to us. His tempos were taken faster in overtures and other rapid movements than we had been accustomed to, thereby giving much greater brilliancy to his performances and putting organ playing on an entirely new level.

He was exceedingly quick in changing his "combinations," and his selections of stops were generally in excellent taste. He has always had a great reputation as a "pedal player"; but I think that his "pedal

work," although excellent, was no better than that given us by other organists since that time.

As I remember his programmes, he did not perform many of the great works of the masters for the organ; but whatever he did play was done exceedingly well, and with great neatness of execution, both with hands and feet. The American organists are under very great obligations to Mr. Morgan for having shown them at a time when they needed it, what could be accomplished on a large organ by the hands and feet of a master.



Has it ever occurred to you that this is an extremely dangerous age that we live in? The whole inventive genius of man is bent in the direction of shortening processes for doing all things. This is the age of the steam-engine, the telegraph, the telephone, the patent reaper, the sewing-machine, the type-writer. This is the age of rapid progress, when fortunes are made and lost within a week; when steamers vie with each other to reach their destined ports in shorter and shorter periods of time; when short cuts to knowledge are being put before the public to enable those who have been the ignorant poor, and have suddenly become the ignorant rich, to gain an intellectual varnish which may pass current in what is termed "society"; when patent methods of every description are promulgated, for the sole purpose of putting money into the pockets of some unscrupulous persons, who have discovered that mankind, as a rule, love the marvellous, and will eagerly swallow anything in that line, regardless of the absurdities therein contained. In fact, this might with propriety be termed the "American Age," so greatly is it affected by the American spirit. Fifty years ago, the school-boy found on his maps nothing but "Unexplored Region" west of the Mississippi River, and a journey from New York to St. Louis was quite a circumstance. At that time, the traveller was well content to progress by means of stage-coaches; and if at the close of a day he found himself fifty miles nearer his destination, he was well content. If a man acquired the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, he passed for rich; and fifteen hundred dollars a year meant opulence. If a servant girl received a dollar a week for her services, she felt that she was well paid: and the work given in return was intelligent and faithful. And in those days, while it was not so much the fashion for young ladies to study music in its various branches with the idea of a professional career, yet, when they did, they fully expected to spend a long time on such education. It was but seldom that one went to Italy for the purpose of study; but if she did go, she found really excellent teachers, who were faithful and conscientious, but took as much time for

(Contimttd on page 177.)

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It is astonishing that more works are not written upon the connection of music and medicine. There is not a doubt that different instruments affect the nerves of both performer and auditor differently. The effect of music upon the insane is also but hazily understood. The use of music in curing the bite of the tarantula and also in certain forms of St. Vitus' Dance is acknowledged; but the cases are not adequately recorded, and many details are lacking. Decidedly, a good work on music in its medical aspect would be a boon to both science and art; and we trust that a thorough book of this kind may soon be written.

those who desire to discard symmetry as a prelude to running riot in expression.

It is always dangerous for the student, in hearing a new instrumental composition, to fasten too many meanings to the work. Music may always stand upon its merits, as music, without being obliged to show a passport or a definite meaning to its every bar. The wonderful sforzando strokes in the Schubert symphony in C, the sudden changes in the unfinished symphony, are not the less graphic because they do not picture something definite. The habit of seeing too deeply into a millstone, or finding more meaning in a work than the composer put into it, is always a dangerous one, and has misled, not only amateurs, but at times such eminent writers as Marx, Grove, and others into meaningless rhapsodies, which become ludicrous when read in sober, quiet judgment.

It has become the fashion in music for every neophyte to discard the forms which have, during centuries, grown up by the labors of such great masters as Bach, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, and announce that forms are fetters, and that no man can give free vent to the expression of his ideas, if he is fettered down to a set routine. These young radicals quote Schumann, Wagner, and Liszt very glibly; but, to all such, we would recommend a study of the life and works of Robert Franz. This great genius has achieved all his greatest effects within the very strictest forms, and his compositions (chiefly Lieder) will always stand as a rebuke to

One of the great difficulties with which the earnest teacher of musical theory is obliged to contend is the fact that so few composers have adapted a united method of writing. The long slur, the sextolet, the sharp, the trill, and many other points of notation, are so differently employed by various composers as to greatly add to the difficulties encountered by the teacher, and at times to lead to totally opposite readings. If our art were an obscure or an ancient one, these faults might be excused; but, in a science which has its fixed laws and which finds its place in every drawing-room, such aberrations are scarcely to be con doned, and should speedily be remedied.

A Music Master is wanted for a college in England, who shall possess all the cardinal virtues and Christian graces, with broadest culture in every direction. The opportunities for the exercise of all gifts are remarkable; and the shekels would bring, in the American market, about two hundred dollars a year, with a contingent possibility of a few shillings extra. We copy the conditions from an English paper, for the benefit of any who might like to know of such an opportunity : —

He must be a man of influence, communicant, and proved disciplinarian. In school time, he is to give special boys two lessons a week each on piano or violin; to train all the boys in class-singing, as required; to prepare capable boys for Local Musical Examinations, and to fill up time {if any) with elementary non-musical work. Out of school time, he will be required to train chapel choir twice a week; to play in chapel on Sunday; to get up a school concert each term; to take dancing practice one hour a week; to take house duty at the rate of not more (probably less) than two days a week; generally to help head master or school in musical matters as desired, and to regulate choice of acquaintance as head master may wish. He may be dismissed by the head master at any time without giving reason or notice: if, with notice, such notice to be six weeks; if, without notice, three weeks' stipend will be given as solatium. Candidates are to enclose photograph, stating age, height, details of experience, and what is their knowledge of and interest in school games. The payment for this work is £\o a term, with 15J. for each pupil above twenty.


One feature of the Wagner Concerts lately given in Mechanics' Hall has been commented on more or less indirectly in various quarters, but has not yet, as it seems to me, been recognized in its full artistic importance. This was the evident, complete, enthusiastic, and self-forgetting devotion of the three Wagnerian singers — Frau Materna, Herr Winkelmann, and Herr Scaria — to the artistic side of their task. One could not but feel sure that each and all of them were far more interested in doing justice to Wagner, and in pushing forward the Wagner propaganda, than they were in their individual success with the public. I, for one, find a greater contrast between the earnestly artistic attitude of these Wagnerian singers and the attitude toward his task and the public' habitually assumed by the ordinary great opera singer than I do between Wagner's works and the works of any other notable writer for the lyric stage,— say between such very dissimilar things as Tristan und Isolde and Lucia di Lammcrmoor. I must own that I was nothing but sorry when Frau Materna's letter was published, in which she spoke contemptuously of the •' false Italian School." Not that it was either unnatural or unpardonable in Frau Materna to assume such a position; for she is a Wagnerian through and through, from both sentiment and conviction, and, as Emerson says, it is hard to assert anything strongly without seeming to deny everything else. Very likely, it would have been impossible for the great artist to have given herself up so whollv and enthusiastically to the Wagnerian school, if she had not been so fully persuaded of its entire and, so to speak, exclusive Tightness. One does not feel like arguing with genius about its one-sided instincts; for they are often a great, efficient element in that energy and enthusiasm, without which genius can do little. Such partialities are useful in bringing genius and talent to a focus. Thus, I was not sorry that Frau Materna should have felt or expressed herself as she did concerning the Italian or any other school, onlysorry that her letter should have been published; for its publication tended to give additional authority to a position which I consider both false in itself and dangerously false from the importance it has assumed in modern critical thought. It is especially concerning matters musical that the notion has become dangerously prevalent of late that a so-called school — that is an a-sthetic point of view, theory, hypothesis, system, call it what you will — is of more importance than individual productive power and genius. This notion is essentiallv iconoclastic and subversive in its tendencies. Push it to its logical conclusion, and the garlands with which we bedeck the triumphant work of some new genius are but the funeral wreaths which we have snatched from the new-made grave of his predecessors' labors. In art, the theory is as nothing, when compared to the man. The power to do is what vivifies and inspires far more than the power to think and plan.

Yet there is one bit of truth in what Frau Materna wrote. There is something "false," and essentially and perniciously false, in operatic art as we know it to-day, and as the world has known it for a long time. The attitude of the singer toward his art is false. The opera singer thinks but too constantly of himself, of the impression which he personally produces upon the public. Here is the poison which has been eating into the very vitals of Italian opera, and which will surely enough be the death of it, unless some potent antidote be found. The only practical answer Italians can make to the ultra, exclusive, and senselessly bigoted Wagnerians. who prate about theories of musico-dramatic art to-day, would be a performance of Donizetti's Lucia, Rossini's Semiramide, or Bellini's Sonnambula, given in the same sincere, self-forgetting, and devoted spirit in which the great Wagnerian singers sing the scenes from Tristan and the A'ibelungen.


June is a glorious month for the enjoyment of outdoor life, and especially so, if one hies himself away to the woods and streams of mountain regions.

The other day, we wished to inspect the arrangements for the forthcoming Musical Festival at Weirs, on Lake Winnepesaukee, and were tempted to the grand regions beyond, which are so easily and pleasantly reached by the winding ways of the Boston, Concord, Montreal, and White Mountains Railway. Lake Winnepesaukee is very picturesque in every part, embosoming some two or three hundred islands among which the natty steamer "Lady of the Lake" makes daily excursions during the summer between Weirs, Centre Harbor, and Wolfboro.

At the former place is a celebrated camp ground: and on the hill opposite, overlooking the lake, are the premises of the New Hampshire Veterans Association, with numerous cottages, a pleasant auditorium in a grove, and an immense dining-hall.

The latter, somewhat in the form of a Greek cross, is being transformed into a concert-room, a terraced platform for the chorus occupying what might serve as a "chancel," so arranged that singers will look right out upon the lake. The sides can be thrown open for ample ventilation, and everything will be arranged with a view to the convenience and comfort of those who take part in the Festival.

We published in June Herald the general announcements, since which the management have issued circulars giving particulars in detail, which can be had on application to any of the committee.

Mr. Henry G. Blaisdell, of Concord, general manager, is visiting various points, and with great zeal and energy organizing forces in a way which would seem to compel success.

With the unsurpassed Carl Zerrahn as conductor, the fine array of eminent soloists, Mrs. Martha Dana Shepard, pianist, and Mr. Blaisdell's most excellent orchestra, it will be strange if all the choral forces of New Hampshire and contiguous portions of adjoining States do not rally in such numbers as to warrant larger plans for the future.

If people from the regions south of Lake Winnepesaukee wish to make the most of the trip, let them start a few days earlier, take the morning express from Boston, enjoy a good dinner at the Pemigewasset House, Plymouth, N.H., reaching the lively and pleasant village of Littleton for tea at Thayer's Hotel, a particularly clean and well-kept home, where "there is rest for the weary'' on this "side of Jordan." It will be difficult to find a better place for head-quarters from which to diverge to various points of special interest, the drives in every direction being fine, and even a short walk to Oak Hill giving an exquisite view of the great mountain ranges. A little over an hour by rail brings one to Kabyan's, a valley leading to the base of Mt. Washington.

The Mt. Pleasant House, a little east of Fabyan's, gives still better view of the mountains and the full length of the Mt. Washington Railway; and, though not so large as the Fabyan, is a delightful home in every respect. Four miles further is the Crawford, at the head of the wonderful Crawford Notch; and no tourist can afford to miss a drive to Mt. Willard and clown the Notch at least as far as the l; VVilley House.''

The return should be made by the Narrow Gauge road from Bethlehem Junction to the Profile House in Franconia Notch, then by beautiful carriage drive through the entrancing scenery of this Notch to the Flume House, on at pleasure to North Woodstock and by the new Pemigewasset Valley Railroad back to Plymouth and Weirs.

Such a trip will fit one the better to appreciate and enjoy the grand music of the Festival and the quiet restfulness of the lovely lake.

Take the Herald's advice, and arrange accordingly.


If one examines the characters of any of the great composers, it will be found that each of them has a streak of humor, or at least geniality, running through it; and that, in many cases, this has found its vent in music at one time or another. To picture briefly the humorous side of the music of some of the great composers will be the aim of this article. Certainly, in the sedate and earnest John Sebastian Bach one would scarcely expect to find a playful mood; and, in his severe contrapuntal works, it would seem to be hopeless to search for a humorous side. Yet even he left behind him some purely humorous musical works. Two rather lengthy cantatas—The Peasant's Cantata and The Coffee Party (Der Kaffee-klatcli) — represent the comical side of the works of Bach. It must be confessed, however, that the humor is rather ponderous and Johnsonian. In the latter, for example, a father tries to wean his daughter from her constant attendance at gossiping coffee parties (the coffee party is, in Germany, somewhat like the sewing circle in

America), and promises her a husband, if she succeeds in breaking the habit. The music is of the most florid, contrapuntal order, and is not, in any essential respect, different from the more serious works of the master. Haydn gave vent to his humorous musical ideas in such works as the Toy Symphony, where many of the parts are rendered by children's toy instruments: the Surprise Symphony (mit dent Paukenschlag). where a sudden and violent drum-stroke produces a very humorous effect. The Choice of a Conductor. a little cantata composed for a club, was also filled with playful touches. Mozart often descended to purely humorous music, and dearly loved to make a joke in tones. One of his greatest efforts in this direction is called the Musical Joke Bin Musikalischer Spass — for two violins, viola, bass, and two horns. In this, he pictures the efforts of an ambitious but ignorant leader of a small country orchestra, composing a symphonic work for his band. All the crudities of a half-formed composer are present in the work. Sudden and misplaced cadenzas of the most florid character occur in the violin part; the brasses burst in forcibly whenever there is a dearth of ideas; and, finally, in an endeavor to end the work with a fugue, the poor composer nearly meets with total shipwreck. The exposition of the fugue is pompously made; but there the ideas stop, and the brasses cover up the composer's ignominious retreat. It is one of the most humorous pieces of instrumental music ever written, but of course can only be thoroughly appreciated by the educated musician.

Not all of Mozart's jokes were so innocent. One of his most skilful works and, in fact, one of the finest three-voiced canons ever written —Lectu Mihi — is insufferably vulgar and coarse in its humor.

Beethoven gave no entire composition in the humorous style, if we except op. 52, No. 1, where he writes a thoroughly comic song, with some fourteen verses to it, entitled "Urian's Travels round the'World"; but, in his fifth, sixth, and eighth symphonies, we can find touches of humor, which find especial vent when he introduces either the contrabasses or the bassoons. He greatly enjoyed joking with the latter instrument. What, for example, can be more ludicrous than the performance of the intoxicated bassoon player of the village band in the third movement of the sixth symphony, or what more quaint and odd than the elephantine grace of the bassoon passages in the eighth symphony

The composers of Germany have always had one species of musical jest among themselves in the composition of enigma-canons, where one phrase only was given, and the distance of the imitations, the interval of time before their entrance, the style of the imitating voices (whether in augmentation, diminution, contrary, or direct) were left for the puzzled recipient to discover. A whole series of finely constructed canons for pianoforte, for four hands, by Weitzmann, were recently published in Germany in this enigmatical manner.*

• Another often used musical jest was the beginning of a fugue or other instrumental piece with the letters of some friend's name. Thus, there are works beginning B. A. C. H. (German B), G. A. D. E , etc.

The intense and combative Wagner also, at times, enjoyed joking in tones. His burlesque work, A Capitulation, can, however, scarcely produce a laugh, .since there was so much bitterness in it that the wit was all turned to gall. But in his Mastersingers of Nurepnbcrg he gives many humorous instrumental touches. The entrance of the toy-makers to the disagreeable stopped tones of the trumpets, the tapping of Hans Sachs during Beckmesser's Serenade, the parody of the noble Preislied, with an atrocious steel-harp accompaniment,— all these are legitimate musical jokes.

In modern days, few of the composers descend from their pedestal to enjoy such tricks as these; yet, only recently, a great success was made at the Apollo Concerts in Boston by a pure bit of musical fun, composed by America's great composer, John K. Paine. It was a fine musical setting forth of the virtues of a patent medicine. The certificate of the sufferer's release from rheumatism is given with an impressive, mysterious agitato. The price of the medicine is heralded in pure contrapuntal style, and a figure from Beethoven's Egmont Overture is laid under contribution to swell the chorus of praise at the end. This is the only very recent instance of a great composer at play; but we feel sure that the various examples which we have given will prove to our readers that even the greatest of composers do not always think it necessary to hedge their music in with awful dignity, but believe that

"A little nonsense now and then
Is relished by the best of men,"

and by musicians also.



It is sometimes amusing, oftener vexatious, to see the manner1 in which choirs "lead *' a congregation, when the latter are graciously permitted to sing a hymn. Instead of helping the people, giving them a strong impulse, and binding all together for a grand chorus, the choirs and organists quite generally go off "on their own hook," leaving the audience to catch up, if they can.

An organist or choir master has yet much to learn, if he does not know that the tempo in such cases should be adjusted to the more deliberate movement of a large body of singers. Very often, the choir hope, by leaving the congregation in the lurch, to discourage all attempts at congregational singing, and so enjoy, unmolested, the display of themselves. This is not only in bad taste musically, but it is a discourtesy amounting, in many instances, to downright impertinence. Churches and congregations have some rights that choirs are bound to respect; and, when the latter assume to dictate to the former in this matter, the old question is revived as to " whether the dog wags the tail or the tail wags the dog." If the church and the

pastor are employed and paid by the choir and organist, then the latter have undoubted right to grant or withhold the privilege of singing one or two hymns in a service.

There must be reciprocity in this matter. When the choir sings alone, let the response be found in the hearts of the worshippers, as in the prayer of the officiating minister; and, when all are to sing, let the choir carefully study how they can best inspire and guide the assembly so as to make the service intelligent and impressive.

Questions And Answers.

(letters must be accompanied by the address of the writers, in order to secure any attention.)

\V. C. W.— i. If a person sings bass while his voice is changing, would it be a bass voice when it i» fully changed?

A ns.— Not of necessity; and only gentle singing for one's own pleasure is safe at such a time,

2. Should a person (young) cultivate his voice while it is changing, or wait until it is changed?

Ans.— The expression "cultivate the voice" implies an amount of vocal work which would be unsafe during the transition period; and one would, in nearly every case, be far wiser and secure better results, to wait a year or two.

A. S G.— i. Permit me to call your attention lo what I Iwlieve to be an error in your answer to " B. A. A.," in a former number of the Herald. As the letters " G. P." appear in every case when the primo and secundo have a measure rest at the same time, I have therefore understood and taught that it means " General Pause," in order that the performers may be forewarned, and understand that both are to rest. There is a mark provided for a pause, beyond the rhythmic value of the measure; namely, T*% and no other seems necessary.

Ans.— While it is true that Pausa Generale denotes a pause or rest for all the performers, taste often suggests that such a pause be slightly lengthened, though this is not, perhaps, plainly required by the letters "G. P."

2. Allow me to call the attention of organists needing music for voluntaries to the Organist's Quarterly Journal, edited by Dr. William Spark, and published by Novello. Ewer & Co. It should not be confounded with an American imitation. This journal contains literally hundreds of fine pieces, *' from grave to gay, from lively to severe," ai;d is very useful to those who do not wish to impose their own lucubrations upon a congregation.

Ans.— The above named publication has not met our eye; but the well known reputation of its editor would >eem a sufficient recommendation, even without the strong indorsement of our correspondent. The implied condemnation of literal improvisations meets our hearty approbation. Why, of all instruments, the noble organ, in a consecrated piace and at an hour that should be sacred, is the only one thus shamelessly treated is a mystery. Long-suffering congregations should protest against the aimless wandering about over the organ keys, varied only by a purposeless change of stops, with which the unprotected public is so often tired out. Only those few organists who have an unmistakable talent for improvising should venture on so dangerous a performance, as nothing more clearly shows a lack of musical ability than the extempore playing (?) which now desecrates so many churches.

3. Will you kindly inform me where 1 may find, printed, all the rules for the effects of the slur, with illustrations?

Ans.— We know of none such, save in manuscript.

4. Why does William Mason {Mason and HoadUy's Method for Piano) give a different rule for the short appoggiatura from that found in other works on the subject? 1 His rule amounts to saying that the time of the grace note comes out of the preceding note. I can find neither justification nor explanation of the rules therein given.

Ans.— We know of no other musician who would adopt such a rule. Its effect would be, almost inevitably, to give the grace note undue prominence, as though it were one of the notes of the melody, of equal importance with the others; whereas it is not, strictly speaking, one of the melodic notes, but merely an ornament of another note.

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