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modern tribe of the Taymounees,7 which appears to retain almost unchanged the appellation of the ancient inhabitants.

(xiii.) The Pactyans.—Herodotus has two nations of Pactyans, one inhabiting a portion of Armenia,8 and the other adjoining upon India.' It is the latter with which we are here concerned. Their country is said to have been upon the Upper Indus, and to have contained the city of Caspatyrus,10 which most writers are inclined to identify with the city of Cashmere." If this identification be approved, Pactyica must be regarded as the Cashmere valley, or perhaps as that region, together with the valley of the Indus above Attock.,s The name Pactyan has been thought to be connected with the word Pushtun, or Puhtan," the title by which the Aftghans call themselves.

(xiv.) The Sattagydians are a people entirely unknown to all the classical writers except Herodotus. Yet it is certain that in the time of Darius they were a nation of considerable importance. They are mentioned in the Achaemenian Inscriptions wherever a list of the subject people is given;" and we are further told that they were among the tribes which revolted from Darius in the earlier portion of his reign." Their exact situation can only be conjectured. Herodotus, by uniting them in the same satrapy with the Gandarians," who dwelt in Cabool and on the Upper Indus,17 shows that they must be sought towards the extreme east of the empire; and Darius, by attaching them in all his lists to the Arachosians, leads us to the same conclusion.18 They probably were the chief inhabitants of the high tract extending from Cabool to Herat in one direction, and from Sirpool to the banks of the Helmend in another. The Inscriptions even seem to extend them eastward to Margiana, or the district of Merv, They may perhaps be represented by Ptolemy's Paropamisadse, or occupants of the mountain-chain of Paropamisus, whom he places between Bactria and Arachosia.1 Their name is said to have signified "the pos

1 This resemblance of name may be merely B It is said that boats might descend the

accidental, for the Taymounees cannot be Jelum from the lake Wnlur, a little below

traced very far back in Oriental history. Cashmere (Diet, of Gr. and Kom. Geograph.

Their country was traversed in several direc- vol. i. p. 558), and that Herodotus may

tions by Gen. Ferrier, who found it to con- have been mistaken about the direction in

sist of a series of mountains, valleys, and which the stream ran.

small plains, well watered towards the east 13 Malte - Brun, Annales nouvelles des

by beautiful lakes and rivers, but becoming Voyages, torn. ii. p. 344, et seqq.

drier and more desert towards the west. '* Beh. Inscr. col. i. par. 6; Persep. Inscr.

On the south it terminates abruptly in a par. 2; Nakhsh-i-Kustam lnscr. par. 2.

range of high mountains, which present their ls Beh. Inscr. col. ii. par. 2.

steep side to the broad plain of Seistan at ls Herod, iii. 91.

their base, forming a very marked limit "See vol. i. p. 555, and infra, p. 176.

between the high and the low country. (See >8 The Arachosians are placed by Ptolemy

Ferrier, pp. 273, 274.) west of the Sarangians and north of the

8 Herod, iii. 93. Gedrosians; they are bounded on the east

9 Ibid. ch. 102. by the valley of'the Indus. There can be

10 Ibid, and compare iv. 44. little doubt that their country was the

11 See Dr. Smith's Geographical Dictionary, modern Candahar, or the tract lying upon sub voc. Caspatyrus, and compare Bahr's the Arachotus (UrghandaV) river. (See Excursus ad Herod, iii. 102; and supra, Wilson's Ariana Antiqua, pp. 156, 157.) vol. ii. p. 408, note i. l Geograph. vi. 18.

sessors of a hundred cows," * an appellation sufficiently indicating the pastoral character of their country."

(xv.) The Gandarians are a very remarkable people, and held in ancient times a very prominent position among the tribes dwelling between India and Persia. All the early Sanscrit authorities give the name of Sindhu Gandhdra to the country lying upon the banks of the Upper Indus and its tributaries ere they issue from the mountains ; * and the term Gandhdra continues to be applied to the Cabool country in the writings of the Arabian geographers,* down to the 12th or 13th century of our era. This then appears to have been the primitive country of the Gandarians, and may be regarded as their proper abode in the time of Darius, of Hecateus, and of Herodotus.6 Hence, at a very early date, they seem to have sent out colonies,7 which accompanied the first Arian emigrants, and settled partly on the northern frontier of Sogdiana, where we find them as Oandari," partly in Khorassan, where we meet with a town called Gadar.8 In later times a second movement took place on a grander scale. The Gandarians of Sindhu Gandhdra, pressed upon by the Yue-Chi, a Tatar race, relinquished their ancient abodes, and migrated westward, in the fifth or sixth century of our era, carrying

* See Sir H. Rawlinson's Persian Vocabulary, ad voc. TlIATAGUSH.

3 The region in question is formed by a fen-like radiation of no fewer than five mountain-ranges from a point in the great latitudinal chain of Asia, a little to the west of Cabool. The most northern of these ranges has a direction from S.E.E. to K.W.W., the most southern from N.N.E. to S.S.W. The Murgcmb, Jleri-rud, and Helmend, occupy the valleys between the ranges. Gen. Ferrier gives the following description of this country as seen from the highest of the ridges, the Siah'koh, which bounds the valley of the Heri-rud on the south:—

"Standing actually on the highest point of the ridge I felt an indefinable sensation of admiration at the splendid sight thrown in bold relief at my feet There was much variety in the magnificent view, and it was possible to see already the details of it. In the horizon, and at thirty parsangs from us, was the grand peak of Tchalap, which, capped with its eternal and unchanging snows, seemed to reach the heavens. The high mountains which we had crossed in our ascent looked mere hillocks compared with the distant giant. The district we had traversed between us and Sirpool was but a spot on the surface of the country spread out before us; and the chain on which we stood stretched E. and W. to a distance that exceeded the powers of vision to measure. An infinity of lower chains diverged from the principal, and (I may say) imperial range, decreasing gradually in height towards the north, leaving lovely and productive valleys

between them, with here and there an encampment of the black tents of the nomadic inhabitants, and luxuriant verdure intersected by streams of water shining in the sun like threads of silver. All this had such animation about it that I felt riveted to the spot by the entrancing pleasure of contemplating it." (Caravan Journeys, p. 238.)

4 See Wilson's Ariana Antiqun, p. 131 et seqq., and his remarks in the Asiatic Researches, vol. XT. p. 103. Compare Lassen's Indische Alterthumskunde, p. 422, and his Memoir on liactrian history, translated in the ninth volume of the Bengal Asiatic Journal (part i. p. 473, et seqq.).

6 As Beladhori, Mass'oudi, Abu Rihan, Edrisi, and Abulfedn (see Sir H. Rawlinson's Persian Vocabulary, p. 126).

8 Darius specially attaches the Gandarians to the Indians, connecting them also with the Sattagydians and the Sacans (supra, vol. ii. p. 403, note 6). Hecatseus calls them (8vos 'IfSav (Fr. 178), and places the city Caspapyrus in their country (Fr. 179). Herodotus, by uniting them (vii. 66) with the Parthians, Chorasmians, Sogdians, and Bactrians, seems to give them a northern rather than a southern emplacement.

7 Supra, vol. i. p. 555, note l0.

8 Compare Ptolem. Geograph. vi. 12; Plin. H. N. vi. 16; Pomp. MeL i. 2.

9 Isid. Char. p. 7 fHudson). The Persian form of the name Gandaria, it must be remembered, is Gadara (Beh. Inscr. col. i. par. 6, &c).

with them their sacred vessel—the water-pot of Fo—regarded as the most holy relic of Buddhism, which they transported from the Upper Indus to the vicinity of the Arghandab.10 To this new country they carried also their name, and here it still remains in the modern Candahar, the appellation alike of the province and the capital.

The Gandarians seem to be more properly regarded as an Indian than as an Iranian tribe. Hence the expression of Hecatous, rdvtiapai, 'lvdwv Wvoc,'1 and hence the attachment of Gandaria to India in the lists of Darius.18 So Strabo regards Gandaris, or Gandaritis, as a part of India ;18 and Ptolemy includes the Gandaree among his Indian nations.'* Their name among the later and less careful writers became confused with that of the Gangaridoe, or inhabitants of the country about the mouths of the Ganges "—an additional proof that their Indian connexion was undoubted. Like the other hill-tribes of these parts, they seem to have been a warlike race; and it is not improbable that they were included among the Indians whose services were retained by Mardonius after the retirement of Xerxes." It is curious that they do not appear among the opponents of Alexander, Bince he must have marched through their country on his way to the Indus.

(xvi.) The Dadicae are joined closely with the Gandarians by Herodotus, being not only immediately attached to them in the list of satrapies,1' but also united with them under the same commander in the army of Xerxes." No other writer speaks of the Dadicae under this name. It has been conjectured" that they are the Daradrae of Ptolemy,' who seem to be the Derdae of Strabo^ and the Dardaj of Pliny ;8 but etymological considerations forbid this identification. Ptolemy seems really to indicate the country of the Dadicae by his Tatacene, which he places in Drangiana, towards its north-western limits.4 Probably they had been brought by emigration to this region in the time of the Egyptian geographer, having previously dwelt further to the east, perhaps about Ghuznee and the course of the Ghuznee river, where they would have been in contact with the Gandarians; or at any rate in some part of the Paropamisus.5 It is conjectured that the modem Tats, or Tajiks, who form the bulk of the agricultural population in Eastern Persia, are the inheritors of their name, and (possibly) to some extent their descendants.*

(xvii.) The Aparyt.83 are, perhaps, scarcely a distinct race. They have been properly enough compared with the Paryetae of Ptolemy,7 whose name simply meant "mountaineers," from the

10 Sec the notice of this migration in Sir Bornan Geography, ad roc. Daradrae. H. Rawlinson's Pers. Vocab. p. 127. 'Geograph. vii. 1. Strab. xv.

11 Fr. 178. 3 pun. H. N. vi. 19.

13 See above, vol. ii. p. 403, note 6. 4 Geograph. vi. 19.

18 Strab. xv. p. 992 and p. 995. * So Wilson (Arian. Antiq. p. 131).

14 Ptol. Geograph. vii. I. s See Sir H. Rawlinson's Persian Voca

15 Dionys. Perie^. 1144. biliary, p. 172.

16 Herod, viii. 113. 'Hitter's Erdkunde von Asien, vol. vi.

17 Herod, iii. 91. l8 Ibid. vii. 66. .p. 98; Bahr, ad loc., &c (See Ptolem.

19 See Dr. Smith's Diet, of Greek and vi. 16.)

Zend, pouru, Sanscrit, paruh, "a mountain."e From the connexion of Herodotus's Aparytae with the Gandarians and Sattagydians,* it may be conjectured that they were the inhabitants of some part of the Hindoo-Koosh range, a portion of which, near the source of the Cabool river, is still called Kohistan, or " the mountain country."** But it would be rash to attempt to fix their exact seat, or to identify them with any particular tribe or nation.

(xviii.) The Caspeiri do not occur in the manuscripts of Herodotus, and it is uncertain whether they were really mentioned by him. They are found in Ptolemy as the inhabitants of the country about the sources of the Hydaspes, or Jelum river,10 and are therefore fairly identified with the Cashmeerees." It has been proposed to substitute their name for that of the Caspians, in two passages of Herodotus ; a and the present translation, which follows the edition of Gaisford, adopts the emendation in one instance." But the alteration thus made is either too much or too little, for it only removes one difficulty to introduce another." That there has been some corruption of the text seems certain; but very little dependence can be placed on the name which has been introduced conjecturally.

(xix.) The Indians included within the Empire of Darius were probably the inhabitants of the Punjaub, together with those of the lower valley of the Indus—the country now known as Scinde." It is impossible to fix their boundaries with exactness. They seem to have been enclosed upon the north by the Gandarians,"1 on the west by the Pactyans, Arachosians, and Gedrosians, on the east by the great Indian desert, and on the south by the sea.'7 They were a warlike race in the time of Darius," who forcibly brought them

8 The same root appears in Paropamisus posed to insert Caspeiri in the lacuna at or Paropanisus, and (perhaps) in Pariaam the beginning of vii. 76 I lialir ad Herod, vii. and Parceteaan. 86). But their introduction in that place

9 Herod, iii. 91. among the nations of Asia Minor is quite * The river Cophen (the Cabool river) inadmissible.

and the town of the same name (Plin. u This is perhaps doubtful, and is not

H. N. vi. 23) have a similar derivation, kuf expressed on the map of the Satrapies by

in old Persian being synonymous withparwat, Mons. C. Miiller, which accompanies these

which is the Persian form of the Sanscrit volumes j but my own convictions are in its

paruh, "a mountain."—[H. C. R.] favour. I think it follows from the descent

10 Geograph. vii. 1. of the Indus by Scylax and the continued use

11 See l>r. Smith's Diet, of Greek and of the ocean and river as a line of communiKoman Geography, ad voc. Caspeiria. cation with the eastern provinces (Herod.

12 Herod, iii. 93, and vii. 86. The con- iv. 44). The stream could not have been jecture was first made by Keizius (Pref. ad safely used until the tribes which dwelt Herod, p. xvi.). along its banks were subjugated.

13 In vii. 86. It is adopted here not u This, again, is not expressed on the only by Gaisford, but by Schafer, Bekker, map. The Oandharas, however, of the BXhr, and A. Matthise. Hindoo writers extend across the Upper Pun

14 The double mention of Caspii among jaub to Cashmere (Wilson's Arian. Antiq. the nations which furnished cavalry is the p. 131).

difficulty which is removed bv the substi- "For a description of the Punjaub and

tution of Caspeiri for Caspii in the second the Indus valley, vide supra, vol. L pp.

passage. But if we make this substitution, 444, 445.

we read that, "the Caspeirian horsemen 18 This is shown by their being included

were armed exactly as their foot," when no among the troops selected by Mardonius

mention at all has been made of their foot (Hercd. viii. 113).

previously. To meet this it has been pro

VOL. IV. N

under the Persian sway;" and they maintained the same character down to the invasion of Alexander, who found in the native prince of these parts (Forus) and his men, the enemy whom he had most difficulty in conquering.1 There can be no doubt that they belonged to the true Arian or Sanscritic stock, to which alone the name of Indian (Hindoo) properly attaches.

(xx.) The Paricanians are very difficult to locate. It has been customary to identify them with the Gedrosians of later times,3 on the notion that their name connects them with the capital city of that people, which is called Pura (llovpa) by Arrian.8 But the resemblance on which this theory is built, slight in itself, becomes wholly valueless when we find reason to believe that Pura is not really a proper name at all, but merely the native word for " a town," which appears in the terminations of Cawnpoor, Nagpoor, Bburtpoor, &c. The Paricanians seem to have had a city, Paricane, which was known to Heoatasus,4 and which may perhaps be denoted by Parioea in the Peutingerian Table;5 but we have no sufficient means for determining its site. Our data do not really allow us to say more with any confidence, than that the Paricanians must have inhabited a region in close proximity to the Ethiopians of Asia;" or in other words, must have been included within the country now known as Beloochistan.

(xxi.) The Ethiopians of Asia, as Kennell saw long ago,'" must represent the inhabitants of the "south-eastern angle" of the empire—the tract intervening between Eastern Persia, or Carmania, and the mouths of the Indus. Here alone, out of India, would absolute blacks9 be found; and to this country, and the region in immediate contact with it, the name of Ethiopia seems to have been attached in Grecian legend from a very high antiquity." The reasons have been already enumerated,10 which make it in the highest degree probable that a homogeneous people was originally spread along the entire coast from the modern Abyssinia to the Indus. This Cushite race, which probably advanced from the shore deep into the continent, was at a later date encroached upon by the more energetic and expansive Arians, who in the region in question seem to have continually pressed it back, till it was once

19 Herod, iv. 44. Compare the inscrip- Beloochistan, standing to these last as the

tions of Darius at Behistun and at Persepolis Beloochees now stand to the BraJioos. Being

(vol. ii. p. 403, note 8). the stronger people they would hold to the

1 Arrian. Expod. Alex. v. 13-19. mountain* of the interior, where cultivation

1 Rennell's Geography of Herod, p. 303; is possible and springs of water abound,

Bahr ad Herod, iii. 94. leaving to the weaker Cushites the parched

3 Exped. Alex. vi. 24. coast and the many arid plains. A some

4 Fr. 180. napucacT), ir6\is riepffiiri). what similar distribution of the Beloochees

5 Segment. 8. and Brahoos is even now found.

* Since they were contained in the same 'Geography of Herodotus, p. 303. satrapy (Herod, iii. 94). It is not impro- 8 The Beloochees of the interior are of an

bable that in the term /Viri-canii we have olive complexion ^Ferrier, p. 433) ; but those

an equivalent of A-pary-Un, Pary-etes, Pare- along the coast are nearly black, taceni, &c., i. e. a term of Arian origin, ■ Cf. Horn. Od. i. 23, 24; and compare

merely signifying " mountaineer." Perhaps, the traditious concerning Memnon (supra,

then, the Paricanians are the Arian as dis- vol. iii. p. 212, note '). tisguished from the Cushite inhabitants of 10 Supra, vol. i. p. 534, notes J and s.

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