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Stipe not articulate to the rhizome; sorus dorsal on its vein; indusium fastened beneath the sorus on all sides, rupturing irregularly over it.

(1) DIACALPE Blume.

Rhizome erect; fronds large, tripinnate; veins free; sorus usually one to each segment, on the lowest acropetal veinlet; indusium spherical. Two terrestrial ferns, in this part of the world.

(1) D. aspidioides Blume. Stipes clustered, erect, 40 cm. high, scaly at the base; frond 25 to 50 cm. high, triangular-ovate; pinnules oblong-cuneate, lobed and more or less decurrent, submembranaceous, glabrescent, or sparsely chaffy on the veins, disposed to blacken in drying.

Mountains of Benguet and Lepanto, not below 2,000 m., Loher.

India, southern China, and Malaya. 14


Fronds not articulate to the rhizome; sori terminal or dorsal on their veins, usually round, exceptionally extending along the veins or over the parenchyma; indusia fixed by the center or at the top of a basal sinus, never elongate, frequently wanting.

Because the presence or absence of the indusium varies within the larger genera, and even in some of their species, no classification and arrangement of the Aspidiew is everywhere easy to use. But, for this reason, any arrangement which tries to define its genera primarily by this character is eminently artificial and impractical.

This is the largest group in our fern flora, and, except for the genera whose sporangia cover the dorsal surface, it is a very natural one, distinguished from the Polypodiew by the nonarticulate stipe and the usually present indusium, from Aspleniew by the round sorus and indusium, and from Davalliew by the latter's mode of attachment.

1. Frond pinnate or pinnately veined.

2. Sori definite, confined to the veins, fertile fronds or segments not sharply differentiated.
3. Veins free.

4. Indusium oval, attached by its axis (2) Didymochlcena

4. Indusium orbicular, attached by its center.. (3) Polystichum

4. Indusium cordate-reniform or wanting (4) Lastraea

3. Lowest veinlets of neighboring veins uniting to
form regular triangular areolae, usually with
a series of regular areolae outside.

4. Sori round (4) Nephrodium

4. Sori elongate along the cross-veinlets (5) Meniscium

3. Veins anastomosing copiously (6) Aspidium

2. Fronds or their segments dimorphous, sori covering
the parenchyma.

3. Veins free (7) Polybotrya

3. Veins anastomosing.

4. Veins free toward the margin (8) Stenosemia

4. Veins anastomosing throughout (9) Oymnopteris

1. Frond and venation dichotomous (10) Dipteris


Fronds at least bipinnate, the basiscopic half of the ultimate divisions almost suppressed; veins free, branched; sori terminal on them but not marginal, somewhat elongate; indusium the shape of the sorus, fixed along the middle, opening on all sides. A single variable species, terrestrial in most tropical countries, resembling a Lindsaya more than any of its relatives in Aspidiece.


(1) D. lunulata Desv. Rhizome erect, rising above the ground or not; stipes clustered, fronds 1 to 2 m. high, commonly bipinnate; pinnules almost dimidiate, trapezoidal, the lower margin almost straight, the upper slightly rounded, entire, glabrous, herbaceous; sori 4 to 6 to a pinnule, large, partly immersed.

Luzon, Cuming 142, Steere; Mount Apo, DeVore and Hoover 345, common at about 4,500 feet.



Fronds at least pinnate, usually tough or rigid, with toothed and spinulose margins and the basiscopic half the less developed; veins free, or in one species anastomosing sparsely and irregularly; sori round, usually dorsal; indusium normally peltate, exceptionally reniform. A reasonably natural genus, but difficult to define because of the many directions in which single species or groups vary; related to both Neph- rodium and Aspidium. Mostly terrestrial.

1. Pinnae articulate to rachis (Cyclopeltis) (1) P. preslianum

1. Pinnae not articulate, veins free (Eupolystichum).

2. Simply pinnate (2) P. auriculatum

2. Lower pinnae pinnate, sori costal or medial.

3. Teeth aristate (3) P. aculeatum

3. Teeth blunt or mucronate (4) P. obtusum

2. Lower pinnae pinnate, sori submarginal (5) P. amabile

2. Lower pinnae at least bipinnate.
3. Teeth mucronate or awned.

4. Lower pinnae lanceolate-deltoid.

5. Rhizome creeping (6) P. aristatum

5. Rhizome erect (7) P. coniifolium

4. Pinnae linear (8) P. horizontale

3. Teeth awnless (9) P. varium

1. Pinnae not articulate, veins inclined to anastomose toward

the margin (10) P. falcatum

(1) P. preslianum (J. Sm.) Moore. Rhizome creeping or oblique, short, densely fibrillose; stipes clustered, 3 to 10 cm. high, naked or nearly so; frond 20 to 40 cm. high, 8 to 10 cm. broad, simply pinnate; pinnae jointed to the rhizome, broadly lanceolate, obscurely crenate, almost horizontal, acute, cordate on the lower and truncate on the upper side at the base, coriaceous, glabrous; veins forked about three times, the lower branches falling short of the margin; sori in 1 to 3 rows on each side of the costa, the costal row the most constantly complete.

Masbate and Catanduanes, Baranda; Tayabas, Merrill 3351.

A species very near this, but with thinner foliage and the pinnae not articulate to the rachis, occurs in Luzon and Mindanao, and probably throughout the Archipelago; the two are decidedly too alike for me to separate them generically, by recognizing J. Smith's Cyclopeltis.

(2) P. auriculatum (Sw.) Presl, var nervosum (Fee) Christ. Stipes fasciculate, decumbent, 10 to 15 cm. long, scaly below or throughout; frond about 30 cm. long, 5 cm. broad; pinnae numerous, subsessile, crenate, without awns, falcate, acute, auricled on the upper side, subcoriaceous; sori minute, scattered, indusia almost wanting.

Mount Mariveles, 1,400 m., Loher.

India to Formosa (the type).

(3) P. aculeatum (Sw.) Roth. Stipes tufted, 15 cm. and upward in height, more or less clothed with ovate-lanceolate and fibrillose pale brown scales; frond 30 to 60 cm. high, 20 cm. broad, bipinnate below or almost throughout; pinnae close, horizontal, lanceolate; pinnules ovate-rhomboidal, oblique, auricled on the acroscopic side at base, aristate-serrate, subcoriaceous, almost glabrous; rachises fibrillose or scaly; sori principally in rows, nearer the midrib than the margin. An exceedingly variable species, or type of a large group of closely related species, of which our material is not sufficient to determine which are distinct enough to be profitably named. Beside fairly typical specimens the following varieties are reported:

Hastatum Ten., Davao, Warburg 14150.
Subamoenum Christ, Davao, Warburg 14124, 14136.
Batjanense Christ, which is almost tripinnate, Benguet, Loher.
Luzon, Steere; Davao, Warburg 14149, Copeland 1031.

(4) P. obtusum (Mett.) Presl. Stipes tufted, 10 to 15 cm. high, densely clothed with large, ovate-acuminate, bright brown scales; frond 30 cm. or more high, 10 to 15 cm. broad, lanceolate; pinnae numerous, distant, linearlanceolate, the lower ones 6 to 10 cm. long; pinnules distinct, oblongrhomboidal, the obscure teeth blunt or mucronate, subcoriaceous, glabrous; rachis densely fibrillose; sori in rows midway between the midrib and margin.

Luzon, Cuming 234, Lobb; Mount Arayat, Loher; Baguio, Topping 179. Not very distinct from P. aculeatum.

(5) P. amabile (Bl.) Presl. Rhizome creeping, scaly; stipes scattered, about 30 cm. high, slender, stramineous, scaly toward the base; frond 30 cm. or more high, 20 to 25 cm. broad, with a lanceolate, acuminate, terminal pinna, and 3 to 6 similar lateral ones on each side; pinnules rhomboidal, with at least half of the lower side cut away, 10 to 15 mm. long, over half as broad, the upper side and outer half of the lower lobed and sharply spinulose-serrate, subcoriaceous, glabrous; sori submarginal, small.

Benguet, Loher; Davao, Copeland 1114.
India to Formosa and Java.

(6) P. aristatum (Sw.) Presl. Rhizome creeping; stipes scattered, 30 to 50 cm. high, clothed at least toward the base with linear or fibrillose scales; frond 30 to 60 cm. high, 20 to 30 cm. broad, ovate-deltoid, trior quadripinnatifid; lower pinnae largest, 15 to 25 cm. long, subdeltoid; lowest pinnules much largest, lanceolate-deltoid, 5 to 10 cm. long, with subdeltoid lower segments; teeth copious, aristate; texture subcoriaceous; glabrous, rachis nearly so; sori small, principally in rows near the midrib; indusium sometimes reniform.

24036 2

Luzon, Steere; Benguet and Arayat, Loher; Camarines, Baranda.
Africa to Japan and Polynesia.

(7) P. conifolium (Wall.) Presl. Rhizome erect; stipes clustered, 20 to 50 cm. high, clothed at the base with narrow black scales, stramineous; frond 30 to 50 cm. high, deltoid; pinna deltoid, the lowest 10 to 15 cm. long, with its lowest basipetal pinnule largest, usually falcate, 6 to 8 cm. long, its pinnules of the second order stalked and toothed or lobed, spinulose, subcoriaceous, glabrous; sori mostly in rows along the midribs.

Luzon, Cuming 262; Benguet, Loher, Topping 192; Arayat, Merrill 3815; Mount Mariveles, Copeland, Barnes 136, 142; Whitford 136. Africa to Polynesia.

(8) P. horizontale Presl., in Epim. Bot., p. 57. Stipes clothed with short, ovate, and long, linear acuminate scales; frond about 1 m. high, ovate, tripinnate; pinna subopposite, short stalked, linear, very acute, the lower ones horizontal; primary pinnules subsessile, oblong-lanceolate, acute; secondary pinnules sessile, rhomboidal, obtuse, mucronate-dentate, coriaceous, the veins beneath bearing scattered, minute scales; sori rather large, with coriaceous, persistent indusium.

Luzon, Cuming.

(9) P. varium (L.) Presl. Rhizome short, creeping; stipe 30 to 60 cm. high, densely fibrillose toward the base; frond 30 to 50 cm. high, about 30 cm. broad; lower pinnae the largest, 15 cm. long, subdeltoid, with the lowest basipetal pinnules elongate, 8 cm. long, and divided into distinct, linear-oblong, falcate secondary pinnules; the rest of the frond only bipinnate, teeth rather obscure, not spinulose; coriaceous, glabrous, but rachis and midribs fibrillose; sori medial; indusia reniform or peltate.

Baguio, Elmer 6,489; Arayat, Loher.
Japan and China.

(10) P. falcatum (L.) Diels. Stipes tufted, 15 to 30 cm. high, beset at the base with large, dark scales; frond 30 to 60 cm. high, ovatelanceolate, simply pinnate; pinna numerous, the lower ones stalked, ovateacuminate, falcate, 10 to 15 cm. long, 2 to 5 cm. broad, entire or slightly undulate, contracted suddenly on the upper side and often auricled; rounded or obliquely truncate on the lower, coriaceous, glabrous, glossy above; veins as a rule anastomosing toward the margin; sori small, copious, scattered.

Mount Data, 2,250 m., Loher.
Natal across India to Hawaii.

(4) NEPHRODIUM Richard.

Fertile and sterile fronds or parts of the frond not differentiated, or but slightly so; veins free, or the branches of adjacent veins anastomosing to form regular areolae, triangular next the costa, trapezoidal farther out; sori round, the indusim cordate-reniform or wanting. Mostly terrestrial ferns, of medium or large size, thin or moderately firm, but not very coriaceous, compound. Related through Pleocnemia to Aspidium. A very large genus, so natural that even the separation of the two great

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