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National Officers
of the American Red Cross

Woodiow Wilson Prtsid/nt

William H. T*rr VictPrtsident

ROBCIT W. M Foeest Vict-Pretident

Job* Sksltov Williams Treainrer

Alkxandje King Counjetor

Stockton Axiom Sferetory

Livingston Famaho. .Chairman Central Committer

Wiuoucut Walling Vice-Chairman

FiooiCI C. Munio* General lianeger


Intensive Publicity

A campaign to raise $1,500,000 for a national welfare organization recently was undertaken in one of the large cities of the country. It collapsed after the subscriptions reached a total of $350,000. The object was a worthy one, and a post-mortem examination showed that the ailment was heart failure, due to lack of proper advertising "pep."

There is a lesson in this: If you have something worthy the public's attention, let the public know it. And it will not suffice merely to establish acquaintanceship with the fact; the idea must be hammered on all the time—the eye as well as the ear must be constantly appealed to, until the senses of the population are literally a-tingle over the object aimed at. Even where it is a case of appeal to the hearts of the people, and the hearts are known to be willing, there will be feeble response unless there be everlasting application of the principles of psychology which are now universally recognized as reaching their perfection of practical service in the realm of advertising.

Intensive publicity will insure the success of the third American Red Cross Roll Call and drive for funds to complete war obligations. The campaign will not carry through automatically. When the war was in progress, it was a factor in the psychology of the situation which brought response to the appeals to the American people. Now there is no war. There is a great cause, however, and

plenty in it to beget publicity ammunition. The thing is to bring it out. Even in time of war, remember the intensive character-of the publicity in connection with the several Liberty Bond campaigns. They were the most remarkable campaigns of record, but filled as the people of the country were, with patriotism, the results would not have been the same without the notable advertising adjuncts. The greater necessity for intensifying the publicity of an important national campaign under present circumstances is obvious.

The awakening and registering of the national impulse in the present instance depends on the work which the Chapters do in the cities and communities of their jurisdiction. Upon them rests the burden of responsibility, following the plans promulgated through National and division headquarters, and putting enthusiasm and punch into the detail work. An outline of the general plans with which it is desired the Chapters shall become thoroughly acquainted is given on this page of The Bulletin.

Roll Call Publicity Plans

A circular letter sent out from National Red Cross Headquarters to Roll Call managers of the several divisions, urging increased efforts to promote publicity for the third Roll Call, presents the following five plans as being most important and necessary:

1. Intensive preliminary publicity campaign to secure workers, using the preliminary poster and the personal appeal through General Manager Munroe's letter to a selected list of Red Cross workers to be one of the million volunteer workers.

2. Personal visitation to each Chapter by representatives from division headquarters, including an inspirational speaker and some person familiar with the "mechanics" of the Roll Call. Invite nearby Chapters, auxiliaries and branches to Chapter conferences.

3. Speakers' bureaus to arrange for the observance of club days in women's clubs, business and commercial clubs, fraternal organizations and every other possible organization, to supply speakers, pictures and interesting programs.

4. Arrange for every Chapter to appoint a window display chairman to arrange for window displays as out

lined in the window display learl This is the most important public part of our program.

5. Exert every possible effort secure clergymen and ministers to o serve Red Cross Sunday. Be cera that the ministers of every dencn nation, including Young People's S cieties and religious organizations,; ceive a copy of the Red Cross Suns Program Leaflet.

Belgian Queen Decorates Nurse

Queen Elizabeth of Belgium, wi is now visiting the United States wA King Albert, decorated Sophia B. Kit chief nurse of the George Washington on which the royal couple made dx trip across the Atlantic, a day or tr. before reaching the port of New Yori The queen gave a dinner on boar: the George Washington in honor oi Miss Kiel, and the decoration for senice performed during the war. tfo: of the medal of Queen Elizabeth, wis bestowed on that occasion.

The queen expressed to Miss Kit her gratitude for the devotion of the women of America to the Belgian; She alluded to the many organization; founded by the women of the United States in their generous ardor, which in every possible form had brought relief to Belgium. She also exprem her great pleasure in the knowled^t that she soon would be able personally to thank a large number of those women.

Dr. Emerson Appointed Commissioner

Dr. Kendall Emerson, who served as deputy Red Cross commissioner for Siberia with the original Siberian Commission, has been given the Red Cross title of commissioner, with the assimilated rank of lieutenant colonel, and detailed as acting commission for Roumania, pending the appointment of a permanent commissioner for that country.

The Junior Red Cross News, which made its first appearance with the September number, is under the direc- I tion of Miss Laura Frazee. Miss | Frazee, who was formerly assistant superintendent of schools in Indianapolis, is now associate director of the Department of Junior Membership.

The American Red Cross is establishing an agricultural and industrial school and a hospital for Roumanian war orphans.

Southern Serbia has just gathered her first harvest since 1916, thanb partly to the 10.000 sacks of seed furnished by the American Red Cro*?

From the Red Cross Watch Tower

f f iculties Innumerable Confront the Workers Who Are Carrying On the American Relief Tasks in Europe, but They Falter Not in Determination to Complete the Job

VHAT EVER it may have been in the period of "the great adventure," which was a sometie alias of the world war, Red oss work abroad today is not roantic. The men and women who e ministering to the needs of suf■ring peoples—personifying the spirit : America and making the heart-beats f the American nation felt in the \gViways and byways of stricken reions—are veterans who have done heir bit and amply satisfied the natiral human desire for experience. The novelty has worn off. Excitement no longer keys to high pitch and offsets the privations and risks and fatigue of the days when our fighting men were "over there" in force, and service was a composite, gregarious sort of thing.

Service is mainly a lonesome task today. The thrills, due to movements of armies and the ever-changing convolutions of the kaleidoscope of war, have ceased to vibrate. It's become a plodding, mechanical performance of a duty that simply must be performed; and the workers who have reenlisted to carry on are actuated solely by selfsacrificing devotion to the cause of humanity, the saying which is in no manner a disparagement of the service performed by the larger army of workers who gave their best in the time of national crisis. Braving homesickness and in defiance of the calls of personal interest, confronted . by dangers more subtle in many ways than those of the animated war period, by reason of remoteness from bases and the chaotic conditions pertaining to new and struggling governments—beset by difficulties of operation and administration, large and petty—these veterans have dedicated their personal energies to the American determination to see the thing through.

* * *

SOME of the greatest difficulties encountered in connection with the administrative and operating work of the American Red Cross in Europe at present involve problems of transportation. Dr. Frederick P. Keppel, director of Red Cross foreign operations, who recently completed a tour of the countries where the postwar work is being carried on, made a study of the problems of all kinds, as well as of the needs with respect to relief in different parts of the conti

nent. He was greatly impressed by the spirit with which all workers, from commission heads to individuals of the smallest units, are meeting the handicaps.

The foremost administrative problem, Dr. Keppel states, is the avoidance of entanglement in the meshes of governmental red tape and making sure of doing the right thing in the right way. Although the war is technically over, the countries in which the American Red Cross is working are practically all on a military basis, and everything that is done has to be prefaced by consultation with and permission from both the civil and military authorities. Then, there are military missions from the great powers scattered all over, and these have to be considered in connection with the work among the people of the smaller nations.

Great care has to be exercised so that no action shall involve taking sides in any local controversy or political questions. There are countless discussions almost daily as to whether some particular step would be the business of our diplomatic or consular agents or of some volunteer agency like the Red Cross. Another, and not a minor difficulty, arises from the fact that all the countries have representatives at Paris in connection with the peace conference, and these representatives are constantly approaching the Paris Red Cross Headquarters with appeals and suggestions which may or may not coincide with what the people on the spot are asking of the Red Cross workers on the spot.

* * *

BUT the neck of the bottle to what the Red Cross wants to do, says Dr. Keppel, is in most cases transportation. The difficulty there can be realized when one thinks of the proportion of the world's shipping that has been destroyed by the war, and of the condition of the rolling stock in all Europe. Everywhere are to be seen locomotives and freight cars that ought to be in the scrap heap. Such equipment as there is is under terrific pressure because commercial interests are having their first chance in years to move goods. In many cases a government offers to transport relief goods from bases in France, but whenever that happens there are prolonged delays due to governmental red tape or disorganization.

All these factors make for delay to such an extent that in the case of a crying need, such as drugs to meet an epidemic, it is necessary to send a man to the spot to carry them as personal baggage. All shipments have to be convoyed, because any Red Cross supplies are much coveted articles and would be commandeered by governments or stolen by individuals if not so guarded.

Difficulties of moving goods from the rail head are almost as great as the preceding. Camions and other motor equipment in the European service have reached a stage where they are likely to have breakdowns, and unless someone has the forethought to order spare parts two or three months in advance these breakdowns mean putting the cars out of commission for several weeks. Also, all through the regions where the armies passed, bridges have been almost without exception destroyed, and while replaced by wooden structures in some instances, there are many cases where long detours are necessary to cross streams; and except where military roads have been built the local roads usually are unfit for heavy motor traffic, and in wet weather practically impassable.

* * *

IN MANY countries where the Red Cross now is operating the road animals are quite unused to seeing automobiles, and the car has to be stopped every little way while the peasant descends from his wagon and puts his hands over the horse's eyes. Thus a journey is completed by jerks and spasms.

Mails and the telegraph are very uncertain. The normal time of getting a telegram from Saloniki to Belgrade is six days. Frontiers are constantly being opened and closed without notice, so that telegrams are sometimes not possible at all, the only way to dispatch a message being to send it by courier by a roundabout route.

Workers in isolated localities are sometimes cut off for weeks from communication with the outside world. To provide relief for the relief corps, so to speak, the Red Cross commissioner for Europe now is planning a definite courier service which will bring mail, magazines and miscellaneous comforts to these faithful workers at regular intervals.

(Continued on page 7)


There is no Limit to Tasks which Thirty Thousand Red Cross Workers Are Undertaking for Returned Men and Their Families

Figures will not tell the story of Red Cross Home Service for soldiers and their families since the armistice. And it is difficult to picture the .courage and persistence of the 30,000 workers in city, town and hamlet, who stood, and are still standing, to their guns in the greatest struggle of their lives, when all about them are dropping their war tasks to retrieve their own fortunes.

The simple statement that during July, only 60 per cent of the Chapters reporting, 285,523 families of service men were given Home Service attention, an increase of 75 per cent over the last month of the war, carries with it very little of the devoted, painstaking spirit which pleads and fights to find a way out of a troublous family situation.

In the same month, a half million dollars were expended in financial assistance, bringing the total up to nearly five million since the armistice as against three million before the war ended.

The work shows no signs of diminishing. With inspiring determination, the secretaries from Tampa to Seattle are carrying on to see that not a family shall suffer; that every allotment shall finally be collected, every compensation claim settled, every in

surance or liberty bond definitely straightened out. The cheerful campaign against sickness, financial and business and legal difficulties, loneliness and mental depression, exploitation by the vicious and unscrupulous, is being fought out with every modern means community and national cooperation can afford.

Wherever the returned soldier may find difficulty, be it in the 'Public Health Service hospitals, the schools and colleges for vocational training, the district offices of the Vocational Board, the Public Health Service, or the United States Employment Service, he finds a sympathetic Red Cross worker ready to pilot him through government intricacies, and ready to help him get the very best attention that circumstances, bureau regulations, and Congressional acts will permit.

Home Service has been so different from other wartime service, reaching, as it does, into those delicate and confidential relationships in everyday life. Its battle is not among bursting shrapnel and screaming shell, but rather where lonely parents, distressed wives and children, and confused returned service men are waiting for the advice and care of the "Greatest Mother in the World." The Home Service worker wears no uniform, takes no

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part in parades and pictures, but r ever-smiling- face, and a devotic; duty, perhaps unknown in any otj field, moves quietly through the Si and sorrows and difficulties of i people, straightening tangles, diai ering unheard-of resources and id ing life worth living in the hank places.

She spends her time figuring J how to accomplish for the family *b might have happened had the sow not gone to war. There are dura whose teeth and eyes must have i\ tention, payments to be made on property, household instructions to! given mothers, gardens to be placed neighbors to be called in during tine of family crisis, tubercular suspecto be examined and persuaded to :<• ceive treatment.

The Home Service worker's best pay is in the happiness and joy whr. she helps to create. But usually 4t family pays her not only in gratitude but with increased opportunities k service. A little Italian lad in Cleveland, Tony Zuffia writes to his Hozt Service friends:

"We like to know how you areletting along; we are getting along Git I like to see you, but I think that 73 never see you, and I wish you won!! sent me your picture because I lifce* to see how you look now.

"I let you know that we have aim baby and it is a girl.

"I let you know that Mr. Alfano is in jail in Kansas City, about tk: woman they killed. Mary CaldaroBi And they say that he was a!on£ wi. them. But on that very night It Alfano was with us until 9.30 at ni^ht And we can say that he is innocent So please see if you can help him am! they want to know what kind of J man Mr. Alfano is. So you are the only woman that can help him hecause it is a long time that you be* him and know what kind of a man k is. So please let us know about what you think you can do quickly. "Yours truly,

"Tony Zuffia."

Can one think of a more distressing picture than that of a foreign woman who cannot speak English, whose son had gone to the war and who is desperately afflicted with heart trouble, and has lost all lease on life? But such circumstances do not phase we doughty Home Service worker.

Down in a little Southern town

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Home Service worker, who happened to be a kind-hearted lawyer, discovered a mother who had been depending largely upon her cow for nourishment, when a notice came from the W«J Risk Bureau requiring the return of an over-paid allotment. She ap

hed a lawyer who took her cow :urity for a ten-dollar loan. The Cross worker visited Mrs. Hen»n, who lived about fourteen miles le country, and then went in :h of the cow. looked for the man all day," she es, "and finally located him just re he started for home. To my irise, he insisted that he had ght the cow for ten dollars and reid to surrender it. I then told i in plain words my opinion of this 1 of a slacker, and he finally offered return the cow for twelve dollars, jave him my check, taking from n a receipt for the payment of a i-dollar loan for two weeks, telling n after he had signed it that the o dollars usury on that money would irn his fingers. After I had left him >me of the few people who had heard le conversation evidently took him up ) task very severely, as he hurried up ) my office and asked me to accept the wo dollars, which I declined to do ntil I made a 'believer* out of him."

Thus, sometimes fighting, sometimes aleading, working long hours in strange and remote places, the army of 30.000 Home .Service workers continues its fight against the enemies of our soldiers and sailors. Some ten months after the armistice the work shows no signs of decreasing. And there is no cessation in the enthusiasm and energy of the activities of the toilers who, like the martyred Roman Legion, continue to wrestle on with faith and determination.

From the Red Cross Watch Tower

{Continued from page 5) It is just a case of wait, wait, wait! much of the time. In connection with the long distance waiting championship it is related that Colonel Anderson, commissioner for the Balkans, waited two and one-half months for motor cars with which to make a tour of inspection of his territory; and the cars were finally driven all the way from Paris to Bucharest, more than 4.000 miles. Dr. Keppel made the

trip in one of them.

* * *

"\ T 7DRKERS must ever be watchVy ful not to antagonize racial and religious prejudices in carrying out relief. Especially is tact called for in this particular in places of very mixed population, transient and otherwise. At one small station in Albania where a Paris headquarters party on a Red Cross inspection tour stopped, there were counted native Albanians, Serbs, Roumanians, Greeks, Moslem Turks and others unclassified. Then there is the everlasting money



question—the medium of exchange, that is, to contend with. The medium is different in each locality and constantly fluctuates. A paragraph from the report of the Department of Finance of the Siberian Commission for a recent week will illustrate this matter:

"You can hardly imagine the financial complications of business in Harbin at present. The three kinds of roubles fluctuate as regards each other and all of them as regards the dollar or yen each day. I have visited the money changers and seen their methods. Condition of the money seems to have everything to do with its value. A note that is stained, torn, creased, even a very little bit, has lost a good part of its value. A day or two ago one could get a better rate for a perfect Kerensky note than for anything else, even an equal amount of dollars or Romanoff roubles. In general, I should say that the three kinds of roubles are as four, two and one in relation to dollars; that is, if you get eighty Siberian for a dollar on the same day you will get forty Kerensky and twenty Romanoff."

In France each locality has its particular "shinplaster." It is vexing in general; but it is of record that one Red Cross party on duty through the provinces-—having a New York banker in it—utilized the banker's discernment on varying exchange rates in the places visited, and on its return to Paris turned in to headquarters $2,000 more than it left there with, after paying all expenses of the trip.

TO CATALOGUE the risks, discomforts, and varied difficulties to which the individual workers are subjected would take more space than is available here. Everything is endured as part of the day's work.

There is always the element of personal danger in traveling the roads in countries where stability still is to be effected in government. Comitadji guard the highways in some of the Balkan areas, and they pass wearers of the Red Cross uniform. The respect everywhere shown this uniform by regular authorities serves as balm to the general "far-away" feeling which the aspect as a whole engenders.

In the remote spots to which the members of Red Cross units make their way, they frequently run short of needed food and other commodities, or else suffer a surplus of one article. When a group of workers in one of these out-of-the-way places was visited by officials on inspection tour they declared that if they saw any more peach jam they would take some terrible revenge. They had been living on it for three months.

Nearly everywhere workers have to chlorinate all drinking water; and they have to put up with fleas, sand-flies, mosquitoes by the million—and worse.

But they are there *to stick until the job is finished, feeling that the people back home are with them all the time in spirit, ready and anxious to furnish all that is necessary to complete the work which their own personal sacrifices are making possible.






The greatest organization for human service in the world
summons you to volunteer. The peace-time needs re-
vealed by the war are even greater than those of war time.

In America

The health of the Nation requires the united energies of every known organization and the co-operation of the Red Cross. Food preparation, home hygiene and care of the sick, must be provided.

Home Service must go on, greater than ever, if the Nation's home life is to progress.

The helping hand of The Greatest Mother must be ready to minister in times [of [epidemic or disaster.

The Red Cross is pledged tojpermanent duty with our Army and Navy.

Our fighting men must be helped to reestablish themselves in civilian life.

Child Welfare work cannot stop.

The accident death rate must be reduced by persistent teaching of First Aid.

In Europe

Starving thousands must be saved for usefulness to help their countries recover from the war.

Surplus stores of the American Army must be distributed by the Red Cross.

The Junior Red Cross must continue to be the Greatest Little Mother to Europe's war orphans.



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