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*to (he lostitut National de Muslque by decree r,f t he con vent ion, afcd by the law of the i6tb of Thermidor in the year III. (Aug. j i: o ** it *"45 finally organized under the name of Conservatoire. TW motive* for the imprisonment of Sarreite from the 25th of >lir. h to the loth of May 1704. have been a source of historical <-o»trovcrsy, nor is it possible to ascertain exactly what were his pcfctjeal views throughout this period of the French Revolution. Bel there is no longer foundation for the theory of Zimmermann, hb biographer, that he was imprisoned for singing aloud Cretry's air, O Richard, tf mon roil For the last forty years of his life larrrtte lived in retirement. The protection of Napoleon I. *is a source of disaster to him in 1815, when the conservatoire «* closed; its subsequent history was watched by its founder u a mere spectator from outside.

5« Constant Pierre, B. Sarrette et Ut originei du Conservatoire. (Paris. I*9S>

i'.RSAPARILLA. a popular drug, prepared from the long fibrous roots of several species of the genus Smil&x, indigenous to Central America, and extending from the southern and western oasts of Mexico to Peru. These plants grow in swampy forests, *hd. being dioecious and varying much in the form of leaf in daerenl individuals, are imperfectly known to botanists, only two species having been identified with certainty. These are SmSax o/icinalis and S. medica, which yield respectively the «xalled '* Jamaica" and the Mexican varieties. They are .•re perennial climbers growing from short thick underground Ctici, from which rise numerous semi-woody flexuous angular Hems, bearing large alternate stalked long-pcrsis-icnt and prominently net-veined leaves, from the base of which spring tir tendrils which support the plant. The genus is a member of lie natural order Smiliaccae, and constitutes the tribe Smila

'.lidc, characterized by its climbing habit, net-veined leaves it'i dioecious flowers.

Toe introduction of sarsaparllla into European medicine dates from the middle of the i6ih century. Monardcs, a t-flvsician of Seville, records that it was brought to that city from New Spain about 1536-1545. Sarsaparilla must have cwne into extensive use soon afterwards, for John Gerard, about the close of the century, states that it was imported into il jLir.d from Peru in great abundance.

When boiled in water the root affords a dark extractive matter, tie quantity of extract yielded by the root being used as a criterion of its quality. Boiling alcohol extracts from the root 4 neutral substance in the form of crystalline prisms, which in scales from boiling water* This body, which is n. is allied to the saponin of quillaia bark, from it differs in not exciting sneezing. The presence in the '•«•• of starch, resin and oxalate of lime is revealed by the use rf the microscope. Sarsaparllla still has a popular reputation • to "alterative," but it has been examined and tested in e»e» manner known to modern medical science, and is profession-•v regarded as " pharmacologically inert and therapeutically

TW varieties of tarsaparilla met commerce are the follow". Januka. Lima, Honduras, Guatemala, Guayaquil and ttnseaa. Of these fhe first-named yields the largest amount of •-.'. via. from 33 to 4;'"'.,, it is the only luncf admitted into H* British pharmacopoeia. On th* Continent, especially in Italy, Ar varieties having a white starchy bark, like those of Honduras «ai Gvatemala, are preferred. "Jamaica " sampfirilla derives its «fc* from the fact that Jamaica was at one time the emporium for «nac*riUa, which was brought thither from Honduras, Mew Spain *'•'. rent. Sarsaparilla is grown to a small extent in Jamaica, and v xr&fcionatly exported tnence to the London market in small --"— •--- U» orange colour and starchy bark are to different in

5Y«tranc* from the thin reddish-brown bark of the genuine drug, (Wi it does not meet with a r£ady sale. The Jamaica sarsaparilla *4 trade n collected on the Cordilleras of Chiriqui, in Panama, where U» phut yieWttiir t* grows at an election of 4000 to 8000 It: The "M baric u reddish-brown, thin and shrivelled, and there is an 4't^liooe of rootlets, which arc technically known by the name of "teard" Lima sarsaparilU rescmMcs the Jamaica Kind, but the ""*are of a paler brown colour. In Hondura* sarsaparilla the roots •* lot -pnrAlifl. and the bark is whiter ami more starchy, than in tfc? Jimaiea kind. It is exfwned from Bcli*e. Guatemala sanmu very similar to that of Honduras, but has 4 more decided

orange hue, and the bark shows a tendency to split off. Guayaquil • ii vip Lnil i is obtained chiefly in the valley of Alausi. on the western side of the equatorial Ancles. The bark is thick and furrowed, and of a pale fawn colour internally; the rootlets are few, and the root itself is of larger diameter than in the other kinds. Sometimes there is attached to the rootstock a portion of siem. which is round and not prickly, differing in these respects from that of Smilax ojuinatii, which is square and prickly. Mexican sarsaparilla has slender, shrivelled roots nearly devoid of rootlets. It is collected on the eastern slope of the Mexican Andes throughout the year, and is the produce of Smilax medico.

The collection of sarsaparilla root is a very tedious business; a single root takes an Indian half a day or sometimes even a day and a half to unearth. The root* extend horizontally in the ground on all sides for about 9 ft., and from these the earth has to be carefully scraped away and other roots cut through where such come across them. A plant four years old will yield 16 Ib of fresh root, and a well-grown one from 32 to 64 Ib, but more than half the weight is lost in drying. The more slender roots are generally left, and the stem is cut down near to the ground, the crown of the root being covered with leaves and earth. Thus treated, the plant continues to grow, and roots may again be cut from it after the lapse of two years, but the yield will be smaller and the roots more slender and less starchy. In some varieties, as the Guayaquil and Mexican, the whole plant, including the rootstock, is pulled up.

In several species of Smtlax the roots become thickened here and there into larce tuberous swellings 4 to 6 in. long, and I or 2 in. in thickness. These tubers form a considerable article of trade in China, but are used to a, limited extent only on the Continent, under the name of China root, although introduced into Europe about the same time as aarsaparUIa. China root is obtained from S. Ckina and U a native of Cochin China, China and Japan, and extensively imported into India, aim from S. glabra and S. lanccatfolta, natives of India and China, the tubers of which closely resemble those of 5. China. A similar root is yielded by S. pieudo-China and 5. tamrtoi<Jej/in the United States from New Jersey southwards; by i', btilinttana, in the West Indie*, and by S. Jafncanga and 5. tyringoidts, and 5. brastlumis in South America. The name of Indian sarsaparilla U given to the roots of Hemidesmus indicia, an Asclcpiadaceous plant indigenous to India. These roots are readily distinguished from those of true sarsaparilla by their loose cracked bark and by their odour and taste, recalling those of melilot.

SARSFIELD, PATRICK (? -1693), titular earl of Lucan, Irish Jacobite and soldier, belonged to an Anglo-Norman family long settled in Ireland. He was born at Lucan, but the date is unknown. His father Patrick Sarsfield married Anne, daughter of Rory (Roger) O'Moore, who organized the Irish rebellion of 1641. The family possessed an estate of £2000 a year. Patrick, who was a younger son, entered Dongnn's regiment of foot on the pth of February 1678. In his early years he is known to have challenged Lord Grey for a supposed reflection on the veracity of the Irish people (September 1681), and in the December of that year he was run through the body in a duel in which he engaged as second. During the last years of the rrfgn of King Charles II. he saw service in the English regiments which were attached to the army of Louis XIV. of France. The accession of King James II. led to his return home.

He took part in the suppression of the Western rebellion at the battle of Sedgemoor on cht 6th of July 16*5. In the following year he was promoted to a colonelcy. King James had adopted the dangerous policy of remodelling the Irish army so as (o turn it from a Protestant to a Roman Catholic force, and Sarsfield, whose family adhered to the church of Rome, was tclectcd to assist in this reorganisation. He went to Ireland with Richard Talbot, afterwards earl of TyrconnH (0.».). who urns appointed cotnmander-in-chief by the king. In 1688 the death of his elder brother, who had no son, put him io possession of the family estate, which in (hose troubled times can have been of small advantage to him. When the king brought over a few Irish aoldiers to Loctcc the English. Sarsfield came in command of them. As the king was deserted by his army there

> no serinu* fighting, but Sarsfield had a brush with some of the. Scottish soldiers m the service of the prince of Orange at Wincanton. When King James disbanded his army and fled to France, SarsficM accompanied him. In 1689 he returned to Ireland with the king. During the earlier part of the war he did good service by securing Connaught for the Jacobites. The king, who is said to have described him as a brave fellow who had no head, promoted him to the rark of brigadier, and then major-general with some reluctance. It was not till after the battle of the Oovne (ist of July 1690), and during the siege of Limerick, that Sarsficld came prominently forward. His capture of a convoy of military store? at one of the two places called Bally nee ty between Limerick and Tippcrary, delayed the siege of the town till the winter raifis forcea the English to retire. This achievement, which is *ajd by the duke of Berwick to have turned Sartncld's head, made him the popular hero of the war with tbe Irish. His generosity, his courage and his commanding height, had already commended him to the affection of the Irish. When the cause of King James was ruined in Ireland, Sarsneld arranged the capitulation of Limerick and tailed to France on the 22nd of December 1691 with many of his countrymen who entered the French service. He received a commission as lieutenant-general (marechal dc camp) from King Louis XIV. and (ought with distinction in Flanders till he was mortally wounded at the battle of Landen or Neerwindcn, on the 19th of August 1693. He died at Huy two or three days after the battle. In 1691 he had been created earl of Lucan by King James. He married Lady Honora de Burgh, by whom he had one son James, who died childless in 1718. His widow married the duke of Berwick. surface of the province becomes heavily wooded, and this great forest continues through the broken Laureniian and Cambrian region, becoming dwarfed as it goes north. In this portion of the province arc found Reindeer Lake, and north-west of this the easterly portion of Lake Athabasca, which is on the provincial boundary line of Alberta.


J. Todhuntcr, Lift 0} Patrick Sarsfield (London. 1895).

SARTAIN, JOHN (1808-181)7). American artist, was bom in London, England, on the j4th of October 1808. At the age of twenty-two he emigrated to America, and settled in Philadelphia. He was the pioneer of mezzotint engraving in America. Early in his career he painted portraits in oil and made miniatures; he engraved plates in 1841-1848 for Graham's Mogaiint. published by George Rex Graham (1813-1894); became editor and proprietor of Campbell's Foreign Semi-Monthly Magaline in 1843; and from 1849-1852 published with Graham Sarlain's Union Magazine. He had charge of the art department ol the Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia, in 1876; took a prominent part in the work of the committee on the Washington Memorial, by Rudolf Siemering, in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia; designed medallions for the monument to Washington and Lafayette erected in 1869 in Monument Cemetery, Philadelphia; and was a member of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and a cavaliere of the Royal Equestrian Order of the Crown of Italy. He died in Philadelphia on the 351(1 of October 1897. His Reminiscences of a Very Old Man (New York, 1809) are of unusual interest. Of his children William Sartaln (b. 1843). landscape and figure painter, was born at Philadelphia on the list of November 1843, studied under his father and under Leon Bonnat. Paris, was one of the founders of the Society of American Artists, and became an associate of the National Academy of Design. Another son, Samuel Saeiain (1830-1906), and a daughter, Emily Sartain (b. 1841), who in 1886 became principal of the Philadelphia School of Design [or Women, were also American artists.

SARTHE, a department of north-western France, formed in 1700 out of the eastern part of Maine, and portions of Anjou and of Pcrche. Pop. (1006) 421,4/0. Area 1410 sq. m. It is bounded N. by the department of Orne, N.E. by Eurc-ct-Loir, E. 1>y Loir-et-Cher, S. by Indre-et-Loire and Mainc-et-Loire and W. by Mayennc. The Sarthe, a sub-tributary at the Loire, flows in a south-westerly direction through the department; and the Loire, which along with the Sarthe joins the Maycnne to form the Maine above Angers, traverses its southern borders. Broken and elevated country is found in the north and east of the department, which elsewhere is low and undulating. The highest point (on the boundary towards Orne) is 1115 ft. The Sarthe flows past Le Mans and Sable, receiving the Merdcreau and the Vegrc from the right, and the Ome Saosnoise and the Huisne from the left. The Loir passes La Fleche, and along its chalky banks caves have been hollowed out which, like those along the Cher and the Loire, serve as dwelling-houses and stores. The mean annual temperature is 51° to 52° Fahr. The rainfall is between 25 and 26 in.

The majority of the inhabitants live by agriculture. There are three distinct districts:—the corn lands to the north of the Sarthe and the Huisne; the region of barren land and moor, partly planted with pine, between those two streams and the Loir; and_the winegrowing country to the south of the Loir. Sarthe ranks high among French departments in the production of barley, and more hemp is grown here than in any other department. The raising of cattle and of horses, notably those of the Perche breed, prospers and fowls and geese are fattened in large numbers for the Paris market. Apples are largely grown for cider. The chief forests are tho«c of Berce in the south and Perseigne in the north, but the department owes its well-wooded appearance in a great measure to the nrdjtei planted with trees which divide the fields. Coal, marble and_ freestone are among the mineral products. The staple industry is tbr weaving of hemp and Hax, and cotton and wool-weaving are also carried on. Paper and cardboard W* mad* in several localitie*,

Iron-foundries, copper and bell foundries, factories for nrovsMno* preserving, marble-works at Sable, potteries. tile-wotk», glass-work* and stained-glass manufactories, currieries. machine factories, wiregauze factories, flour-mills and distilleries are also prominent industrial establishments, a great variety of which are found at Le Mans. Flour, agricultural products, live stock and poultry form the bulk of the exports. The department is served by the Western, the Orleans and tne State railways, and the Sarthe and Loir provide about loo m. of waterway, though the latter river carriet little traffic.

The department forms the diocese of Le Mans and part of the ecclesiastical province of Tours, has its court of appeal at Aogrrm. and its educational centre at Caen, and constitutes part of the territory of the IV army corps, with its headquarters at Le Mans. The four arrondissements are named from Le Mans, the chief town. La Fleche. Mamers and St Calais. The principal places are Le Mans. La Fleche, La Ferte Bernard, Sable ana' Solesmn. which receive separate treatment. Besides these places, those of chid architectural interest are Le Lude. which has a fine ch&tcau of tbr Renaissance period, Sille-le-Guillaume, where there U a Gothic church and a stronghold of the 15th century, and St Calais, the church of which dates from the I4th to the 17th centuries.

SART1, GIUSEPPE (1729-1802), Italian composer, was born at Faenza on the j8th of December 1729. He was educated by Padre Martini, and appointed organist of the cathedral of Faenza before the completion of his nineteenth year. Resigning his appointment in 1750, Sarti devoted himself to the study of dramatic music, becoming director of the Facnza theatre in 1752. In 1751 he produced his first opera, Pompeo, with great success. His next works, // Re Pastore. Ueaonle, Demofoonlt and L'Olimpiade, assured him so brilliant a reputation that in 1753 King Frederick V. of Denmark invited him to Copenhagen, with the appointments of Hofkapcllmeister and director of the opera. Here he produced his Ciro riconsosciuto. In 1765 he travelled to Italy to engage some new singers; meanwhile the death of King Frederick put an end for the time to his engagement. In 1769 he went to London, where he could only contrive to exist by giving music lessons. In 1770 he obtained a post in Venice as music master at the Conservatory dell* Ospcdaletto. In 1779 he was elected maestro di cappella at the cathedral of Mil.-n, where he remained until 1784. Here he exercised his true vocation—composing, in addition to at least twenty of his most successful operas, a vast quantity of sacred music for the cathedral, and educating a number of clever pupils, the most distinguished of whom was Cherubim. In 1784 Sarti waa invited by the empress Catherine II. to St Petersburg. On his way thither he stopped at Vienna, where the emperor Joseph 1L received him with marked favour, and where he made the acquaintance of Mozart. He reached St Petersburg in 1785. and at once took the direction of the opera, for which he composed many new pieces, besides some very striking sacred music, including a Tt Drutn for the victory of Ochakov, in which he introduced the firing of real cannon. He remained in Russia until 1801, when his health was so broken that he solicited permission to return. The emperor Alexander dismissed him in 1802 with a liberal pension; letters of nobility had been granted to him by the empress Catherine. His most successful operas in Russia were Armida and Olega, for the Utter oi which the empress herself wrote the libretto. Sarti died at Berlin on the 28th of July iSo».

Sarti's opera / Due Liliganli has been immortalized by Mozart, who- introduced an air from it into the suppei scene in /v« Giovanni, It should be noted that Mozart's Kaest at t . .••> owed a great deal to the influence of this opera, which vai performed in Vienna in 1784. The admirable libretto by Da Ponte, author of the libretti of Figaro and Don Givtanni. shows similar situations, and the complicated finale of the first act served as a model to Mozart for the finale of the last act ol Figaro.

SARZANA, a town and episcopal see of Ljgurid. Italy, in lie province of Genoa, 9 m. E. of Spezia, on the railway to Pisa, ai the point where the railway to Parma diverges to the north. 59 Jl. above sea-level. Pop. (1901) 6531 (town); 11,850 (commune). The handsome cathedral of white marble in the Gothic style, dating from 1355. was completed in 1474. It conuuna two •Uborately-Kulpturcd altars of the Utter period. Tbe to


(now gad), built by the Pisans, was demolished and rr-erected by Lorenzo de* Medici. The castle of Sarzanello was hit by Castruccio Castracani (d. 1378), whose tomb by the Puaa Giovanni di BaMucci is in S. Francesco. The Palazzo CapiLano. by Giuliano da Maiano (1473), has been entirely Sarzana has one of the most important glass-bottle . -orirs in Italy, also brick-works and a patent fuel factory.

Samoa was the birthplace of Pope Nicholas V. Its position u the entrance to the valley of the Magra (anc. Matra), the faaqndiry between Etruria and Liguria in Roman times, gave it -'::>• importance in the middle ages. It arose as the successor of the ancient Luoa. 3 m. S.E.; the first mention of it is found b 083, and in 1102 the episcopal see was transferred hither. A braocfa of the Cadolingi di Borgonuovo family, lords of Facrcchio in Tuscany from the loth century onwards, which kid acquired the name of Bonaparte, had settled near Sarzana More i.'04, in 1513 a member of the family took up his residence in Ajactio, and hence, according to some authorities, was denuded the emperor Napoleon I. Sarzana, owing to its position «e the frontier, changed masters more than once, belonging first la Pisa, ihen to Florence, then to the Banco di S. Giorgio of Genoa and from 1572 to Genoa itself. In 1814 it was assigned ?e the kingdom of Sardinia, the frontier between Liguria and Tocany being now made to run between it and Carrara.

SASAMA VAMSA. a history of the Buddhist order in Burma, rtich was composed, in that country, by Paflna-sami in 1851. h is written in Pali prose; and is based on earlier documents,

- Pali or Burmese, still extant, but not yet edited. The earlier pin of the work deals with the history of Buddhism outside of Burma. This is based on the Mahavamsa, and other well known Gryian works; and has no independent value. The latter part of Ok work, about three-fifths of the whole, deals with Buddhism m Burma, and contains information not obtainable elsewhere. Ikm to the i ilh century the account is meagre, legendary and ixredible. After that dale it is sober, Intelligible and in all rcroibiUty mostly accurate. This portion occupies about one taodred pages 8voin the excellent edition of the text prepared fee the Pali Text Society in 1897 by Dr Mabel Bode. It shows i continuous literary effort through the eight and a half centuries, utd constantly renewed ecclesiastical controversy. The latter icDocerned for the most part with minor questions relating to ~Jf» of the order, there being a tendency, as relaxations of the ratts crept in with the lapse of lime, to hark back to the original ••pliuty Of differences in matters of doctrine there is no Knuon in this manual. Dr Bode has prefixed to her edition a feuded summary of the contents of Ihe book. (T. W. R. D.)

USARAM. a town of British India, in the Shahabad district U Bengal, with a station on the East Indian railway, 406 m. N.W. Too Calcutta. Pop. (1001) 33,644. It is famous as containing tte tomb of the Afghan Sher Shah, who defeated Humayun t emperor of Delhi (1540-1545). The tomb, which is example of Mahommedan architecture in Bengal,

• -••.- "!-. in island in the middle of an artificial lake. Close by 5 tk tomb of Sher shah's father.

IASH. (i) A framework of wood in which glass is fixed for i nadow, particularly a framework for large panes of glass in no parts which open and shut by sliding up or down. The word » t exemption of ihe Fr. cAJjrtj, (k&sc, Lat. capsa, box, case, •t! to hold. The word is, therefore, a doublet of " case" •it "caik" (M-r). (i) A long band of silk or other fine or annealed material worn round the waist or over the shoulders u pan of a woman's or child's dress, or as a sign or badge of <6cz, or as part of an official costume or uniform. The word »t£ adaptation of the Arab, slijth, muslin, especially used (of '•arsoft muslin or silken bands used for wrapping round the head a Ik form of a turban). In its early uses in English it appears «• a urn used by oriental travellers and writers on the East as *a«qw»alent for a Mahommedan.

IMKATCHEWAJI. .-. province of Western Canada, lying fetvexn the two provinces of Alberta and Manitoba. Area, •'P.&5O sq. m. The south-eastern portion is chiefly prairie, bui the continuation of ihe second prairie tteppe found in

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Climate.—Extending as the province docs from north to south (or more than 750 m.. it may be readily -it that, as in the case of Alberta, there will be a great range of climate and temperature. The south-western part of the province is influenced much by the chinook winds which from the Rocky Mountain valleys come through Alberta' The climate here is dry. and portions of the country need irrigation. In south-eastern Saskatchewan che prairie lies on a tower level, there U more moisture, and the climate in winter is more steady. The whole province of Saskatchewan, except th? south-western part, is well watered. As in the case of Alberta, the southern third of Saskatchewan has a moderate and changeable climate; in the central third ranging from Regina to Prince Albert it is steady, while in the northern third, through the Laurent tan region to 60° N., it is severe. Compare the following table:—


The animal life of Saskatchewan resembles that of Alberta (g.v.)> excepting the mountain lion, mountain sheep and mountain goat, which belong to the Rocky Mountains. The plant life of Saskatchewan is much like that of eastern Alberta. The Douglas fir and several varieties of pine found in the Rocky Mountains do not occur.

Population.—By the census of 1906 the population of Saskatchewan was found to be 357,763. It had grown from 91,279 in 1901 (the area of the province being in 1906 somewhat greater than in 1901). The population is to a large extent Canadian, and the immigration has been largely from (i) the British Isles; (2) the United States; (3) the continent of Europe. Several large bodies of foreigners are found. There is a community of upwards of 8000 Doukhobors—a sect of Russian Quakers, Their tenets are peculiar, involving opposition to form in religion, to marriage and to submission to governmental requirements. They desire to hold their land in common. The Russian writer Tolstoy was a promoter of this immigration. Considerable bodies of Galicians are also found in the province. On the Indian population there were 9049 in 1901; and of Indian half-breeds 7949 in the same year. The Indians of Saskatchewan are chiefly Plain or Wood Crecs, with a mixture among them of Saulteaux. Toward the south small bands of Assmiboincs are found, and here and there small companies of refugee Sioux from the United States. All the Indians are on government reserves. In these reserves along the Qu'Appelle river are presented many examples of the successful management of the Indians by the Dominion government. These reserves are largely self-supporting; the Indians have comfortable houses, grow considerable crops of grain, make large quantities of hay and possess herds of cattle. At Regina, Qu'Appelle, Crooked Lakes and other industrial schools, young Indians—both male and female—receive a practical education. Many of these are making excellent farmers.

Government. &c.—Throughout the province the municipal system of self-government, especially in the cities, towns and villages, is being introduced. There are two cities in the province, (i) Refiina (pop. 0,804 in i°°7). the capital; (2) Moose Jaw {pop. 6249). The latter is a divisional point on the Canadian Pacific railway, and owes its importance chiefly to its railway connexions, in the northern portion of the province are two considerable towns (i) Prince Albert (poo.joos), on the banks of the North Saskatchewan river, giving promise of becoming a manufacturing centre, having as it has the great forest on the north side of the Saskatchewan river.

Grand Trunk Pacific railways all cross the great river of the province, and tributary to this town is a large area of arable and prairie land.

The Saskatchewan is to some extent navigated, but a obstacle, the Grand Rapids, near the mouth of che river. mtmrr-s a canal to allow the entrance of steamers into Lake Winnipeg. The southern part of the province is being covered by railway*, tlie Canadian Pacific railway having its main line generally parallel* to the international boundary line, at a distance of one hundred to one hundred and fifty miles. This railway has south of ita main lane two important branches: (i) The " Soo " line from Mocmc Jaw to Estevan, and connecting with the United States' *ystem of nil -a.i-, (2) The Arcota branch from the south-eastern corner of rtie province running to Regina. Another branch leaves the main line tor the north at Kirkella, and this will make a direct communicAiion whh Edmonton, while another branch line enters the province at Harrowby and runs westward to join the Kirkella branch on its way toSaskaiooc: and Edmonton. The Canadian Northern railway tus a tine whict enters the province at Togo and following the Saskatchewan leaves the province at Lloydminster and pushes on to Edmonto*. The Grand Trunk Pacific railway follows a direct line from Winnipeg to Edmonton, entering the province at 51* 25' N. and leaving it at 5*° 35' N. for the west.

The chief industries of Saskatchewan are cattlc-rraring in the northern part and grain growing in the south of the province. Coal is found on the Saskatchewan, and a light variety of lignite on the Sour is river near the international boundary. The province follow* in generaj the plan of government found in the other provinces of the Dominion. The capital of the province is Regina (?.».). A provincial governor lives at Regina and he ha* a cabinet uf four ministers. The legislature consists of twenty-five member*. Tlie province has adopted a public schools act( which has a proviso foe the establishment of separate schools, but this is so surrounded by restrictions as to be almost non-effective, every *uch school bring required in all particulars to follow the public school model- The system covers both secondary and primary public school*. A normal school U in operation at Regina.

• The religions of the people are similar to those tn the other western provinces of Canada. The principal denomination* were in 1901 *» follows:—

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History.—The history of Saskatchewan gathers round the Hudson's Bay Company. The open plains of the south were the home of the buffalo and few posts were established here, but the Saskatchewan river was the great line of communication for the fur-traders. It was first reached by the Montreal fur-tradtrs in 1766, and by the Hudson's Bay Company from Hudson Bay in 1772. By this route the traders reached the great fur country of Mackenzie river, and the forts on the Saskatchewan river were notable. These were Fort Cumberland, Fort Carlton and Edmonton House. Alexander Mackenzie in 1789 left Edmonton and Fort Chtpewyan (on Lake Athabasca) and going northward discovered Mackenzie river and reached the Arctic Sea. On bis second voyage, leaving Fort Chipcwyan, he gained the Pcact river, and by means of this crossed the Rocky Mountains and reached the Pacific coast (July zjnd, 1793), being first of white men, north of Mexico, lo cross the continent. The Saskatchewan and Mackenzie river basins were the real fur country of tb« traders. The northern portion of the province of Saskatchewan is still the home of the fur-trader,

SASKATCHEWAN fCree: "Rapid River "), a rivw of Alberta and Saskatchewan provinces, Canada. Two large streams known as the North and South Saskatchewan untie near Prince Albert, and thence flow £. into Lake Winnipeg. The North Saskatchewan rises in the Rocky Mountains in 52° 07' N. and 117* 06* W., and flows cast, though with many windings, receiving several important tributaries, including the Clcarwater, Brozcau and Battle. The South Saskatchewan b formed by the union of the Bow and the Belly, the former and larger of which rises in western Alberta in one of the highest districts of the Rockies. Flowing east in an extremely tortuous course, it receives the waters o( th* Red Deer, and farther on turns abruptly north to ill junction with the other branch. The length of the united Saskatchewan is about 300 m.; shallow draught steamers ascend from its mouth to Edmonton on the North Branch, a distance of about 850 m.

SASSANID. or Sassawan Dynasty (or Sasanian), the ruung dynasty of the neo-Persian empire founded by Ard&sbir 1- to

La »* tod destroyed by the Arabs in 637. The dynasty is I after Sisin, an ancestor of Ardashir I. For * list of the 1 the history of the empire sec Pebsu: Ancient History, i v 1:1., for its fall see also Caliphate, sect ion A, f i.

town and archiepiscopal see of Sardinia, capital of the province of Sassari, situated in the N.W. corner of the jJ m. by rail S.E. of Porto Torres on the north coast, m. N W. of Alghcro on the west coast, 769 ft. above Pop. (1906) 34,847 (town); 41,638 (commune). The • castle and the Genoese walls have been demolished •B froent times, and the town has a modern aspect, with spacious tureu mad square. The cathedral has a baroque facade; but traces of Romanesque work (nth century) can be seen at the •Mrs and in the campanile. The see was transferred from Porto Tare* in 1441. S. Maria di Betlemme has a good facade ind hnancKiue portal of the end of the mh (?) century (D. Scano, m L'Artf, 1005, 134). In the municipal collection are a few ptlures of interest. The museum in the university has an intersting collection of antiquities, largely formed by G. Spano, from 18 parts of the island, and belonging to the prehistoric, Phoenician ml Roman periods. To the east of the town is the Fontana U Rosollo, which supplied the town with water before the vQBstruct ton of the aqueduct, the water being brought up in small barrels by donkeys. Sassari is connected by rail by a branch Mt m. E.S E. to Chilivani) with the main line from Cagliari to Golfo desli Aranci, and with Porto Torres and Alghcro. To ta> district near Sassari belong some of the most picturesque coAmnea of the island.

The date of the origin of the town is uncertain; but it was no doubt founded as the result of migrations from Porto Torres. This can hardly have occurred during the nth century, when •t fad the Iih^ki of Torres or Logudoro residing either at Porto Torres or at Ardara; but it must have occurred before 1717, •bra a, body of Corsicans, driven out of their island by the crucUiea of a Visconli of Pisa, took refuge at Sassari, and gave their name to a part of the town. About this time we find one at the (iaditi residing at Sassari for a whole summer, no doubt to escape the malaria. The fiudici continued to exist at least Mill 1"s, and perhaps till 1184, but about 1260 Sassari seems to have shaken itself free, and in 1175 and 1286 we find Pisa 'rating Sassari as a free commune. In i 288, four years after the ctieat of Mcloria, Pisa ceded Sassari to Genoa; but Sassari m>fryed internal autonomy, and in 1316 published its statutes mill extant), which are perhaps in part the reproduction of orlirroncs. These, however, did not last long, for in 1323 Sassari hi*E3Uied to the Aragoncse king, and lost its independence. Suuri wa» sacked by the French in 1527, and disastrous pesliWam are recorded in 1528, I ;8o and 1652. In 1705 Sassari was tie centre of the reaction of the barons against the popular lieu sown by the French Revolution; an insurrection of the Xtffc led by one Arupoi lasted only a short while, and led to reactionary measures.

See P Satta-Branca. TI Comuni di Satiari nei stcoli XI111 XIV (Nam, 1885). (T. As.)

USSaU (or Sarriiw, the modern form), an ancient town of I'Bfaria, Italy, on the left bank of the river Sapis (Savio), 16 m. 1 of Caesena (Cesena). In 266 B.C. both consuls, on different dues celebrated a triumph over the Sa&sinalcs, as is recorded in the fun. and in the enumeration of the Italian allies of the man* in »»s B.C. the Umbri and Sassinates are mentioned, «. in equal footing, as providing 20,000 men between them. Ii kj pcfeublc that the tribus Sapinia the name of which is derived (ram the river Sapis) mentioned by Livy in the account of the train marches against the Boii in 201 and 106 B.c. formed a

rot the Sassinates. The poet Plautus was a native of Sassina 114 (X.). The town was of some importance, as inscriptions lag*, these are preserved in the local museum. Remains of trttral buildings, one of which was probably the public baths, hate been found (A. Sanlarelli in .Votiiie degli stari, 1892, uv, \. Negrioli, ibU., 1900, 392). Its milk is frequently •enivjned—no doubt it was the centre of a pasture district— •4 it provided a Dumber of retrain for the praetorian guard.

An episcopal see was founded here in the 3rd century A.d. and still exists. The present town has 2291 inhabitants (commune, 3861).

SASSOON. SIR ALBERT ABDULLAH DAVID. Bait. (18181896), British Indian philanthropist and merchant, was born at Bagdad on the 251)1 of July 1818, a member of a Jewish family settled there since the beginning of the i6th century, and previously in Spain. His father, a leading Bagdad merchant, was driven by repeated Anti-Semitic outbreaks to remove from Bagdad to Bushire, Persia, and, in 1831, he settled in Bombay where he founded a large banking and mercantile business. Albert Sassoon was educated in India, and on the death of his father became head of the hrm. He was a great benefactor to the city of Bombay, among his gifts being the Sassoon dock, completed in 1875, and a handsome proportion of the cost of the new Elphinstone High School. In 1867 he was made a C.S.I., and in 1873 a Knight of the Bath. In 1873 he visited England and received the freedom of the city of London. Shortly afterwards he settled in England, and was made a baronet in 1890. He died at Brighton on the >4th of October 1896.

SATARA, a town and district of British India, in the Central division of Bombay. The name is derived from the " seventeen" walls, towers and gates which the fort was supposed to possess. The town is 3320 ft. above sea-level, near the confluence of the rivers Kistna and Vena, $6 m. S. of Poona. Pop. (toot) 26,012.

The District OF Satara has an area of 482 5 sq. m. It contains two hill systems, the Sahyadri, or main range of the Western Ghats, and the Mahadeo range and its offshoots. The former runs through the district from north to south, while the Mahadeo range starts about 10 m. north of Mahabaleshwar and stretches east and south-east across the whole breadth of the district. The Mahadeo hills are bold, presenting bare scarps of black rock like fortresses. Within Satara are two river systems—the Bhima system in a small part of the north and north-east, and the Kistna system throughout the rest of the district. The hill forests have a large store of timber and firewood. The whole of Satara falls within the Deccan trap area; the hills consist of trap intersected by strata of basalt and topped with laterite, while, of the different soils on the plains, the commonest is the black loamy clay containing carbonate of lime. This when well watered is capable of yielding heavy corps. Satara contains some important irrigation works, including the Kistna canal In some of the western parts of the district the average annual rainfall exceeds 200 in.; but on the eastern side water is scanty, the rainfall varying from 40 in. in Satara town to less than 12 in. in some places farther east. The population in 1901 was 1,146,559, showing a decreaseof 6% in the preceding decade. The principal crops are millet, pulse, oil-seeds and sugar-cane. The only manufactures are cotton cloth, blankets and brass-ware. The district is traversed from north to south by the Southern Mahratta railway, passing to m. from Satara town. The Satara agency comprises the two feudatory states of Phaltan and Aundh. Total area 844 sq.m.; pop. (tool) 109,660.

On the overthrow of the Jadhav dynasty in 1312 the district passed to the Mahommedan power, which was consolidated in the reign of the Bahmani kings. On the decline of the Bahrain's towards the end of the isth century the Bijapur kings finally asserted themselves, and under these kings the Mahraltas arose and laid the foundation of an independent kingdom with Satara as its capital. Intrigues and dissensions in the palace led to the ascendancy of the Pcshwas, who removed the capital to Poona in 1749, and degraded the raja of Satara into the position of a political prisoner. The war of 1817 closed the career of the peshwas, and the British then restored the titular raja, and assigned to him the principality of Satara, with an area much larger than the present district. In consequence of political intrigues, he was deposed in 1839, and his brother was placed Ob the throne. This prince dying without male heirs in 1848, the state was resumed by the British government.

SATELLITE (from the Lat. iauUet, an attendant), in astronomy, a small opaque body revolving around a planet, as the moon around the earth (see Puurrr). In the theory of cubic curves.

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