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riT» 1 !".un >itr» I here is only one way to get ji I'Jtuinct, tr> the world uicr, and that is :.i [u> t.<r thrin. They deviate from the line of maximum efficiency in cotnmcreial transportation in onlcr to develop a weapon in the national defense. And in so far as they arc weapons and entail economic lo»s in transportation, that far Wey must be paid for by the Government. There are no two ways about it.

The bulk of the cargo-carrying trade will be influenced most by the discriminating duties. Hut t<>r 'null class naval auxiliaries, if we arc going t.> have them, we have to pay for them cither by l.overnment ownership or by Government aid. • • • We found that it would involve more than 12 per cent, loss in transportation to develop hnth-class ocean-going greyhounds suitable for natal auxiliaries of the first class. The proposition that I now recommend is that we start with allowing the owners u per cent interest on the investment cost, cutting the rate down to 7 per cent after five years, and canceling the contract after 10 years, insuring that the vessels shall be up-to-date in every respect.

Similar investigation indicated that the rates for the cargo-carriers should be much lower, as they entail much less loss from the standpoint of commercial efficiency.

The question of providing naval auxiliaries and merchant vessels combined is now confronting our country, and is the subject of investigation by the Committee on Naval Affairs. In deciding on a general policy for permanent advantages there is little doubt that the wiser policy is to have Government pay a percentage to cover the r>»s rather than to own and operate the commercial vessels at a greater loss. I believe that with this interest payment to overcome the commercial !>>*«. American capital would gladly enter this field and build the finest type of vessels. • • •

Volturno Medals Presented

Public Resolution No. 20, approved March 19, 1914, provided—

"That the thanks of Congress be, and the same are hereby extended to the captain of the American steamer Kroonland, of the Red Star Line, and through him to the officers and crew of said steamer, for promptly going to the relief of the burning steamer Volturno. in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ninth and tenth days of October, nineteen hundred and thirteen, and heroically rescuing eighty-nine people then on board said burning steamer.

"Sec. 2. That the Secretary of Commerce be, and he is hereby authorized, empowered, and directed to cause to be purchased and presented to Captain Paul H. Kreilmhm. of the said steamer Kroonland, a suitable American-made solid gold dial watch and chain; and said Secretary is further authorized, empowered, and directed to cause to be made at the United States Mint five suitable gold, five silver, and twenty-nine bronze medals, which watch and medals shall be appropriately inscribed to express the high admiration in which Congress holds the services of the captain, officers, and crew of the steamer Kroonland, and be presented to the officers and crew, to whose promptness, vigilance, bravery, and skill was due the rescue of eighty-nine lives.

"Sec. 3. That the sum of $1,000. or so much thereof as may be necessary for the of such watch and chain and for the purpose of purchasing the necessary materials for said medals, is hereby appropriated out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated."

In accordance with the above resolution a suitable American-made solid gold dial watch and chain was purchased for Captain Kreibohm, and suitable gold, silver, and bronze medals made at the Philadelphia Mint for the officers and cre,w of the steamer Kroonland. They were presented to the recipients on January yfh by the Hon. William C. Redlield, Secretary of Commerce. Secretary Kcdfield was assisted by General George L'hler, Supervising Inspector General of the Steamboat-Inspection Service, and Dr. Geo. C. Havenner, Chief Clerk and Superintendent of the Department of Commerce.

On the front of the watch case are the initials P. H. K.. in raised letters. The outside of the back of the case contains the following inscription in raised letters:

"With the thanks of the Congress of the United States to the Captain of the S. S. Kroonland."

The following is engraved on the inside case:

"The Congress of the United States to Captain Paul H. Kreibohm of the S. S. Kroonland for the Heroic Rescue of 89 lives from the S. S. Volturno, burned in Mid-Atlantic October 9-10, 1913."

The obverse side of each medal contains a draped female figure with the left arm extended in the direction of a burning steamer, with a lifeboat struggling to approach through a heavy sea: also the inscription "S. S. Volturno, October 9-10, 1013." The figure holds in her left hand a palm. The entire medal is suspended by three links on each side from a solid gold, silver, or bronze bar, as the case may be, bearing the word Bravery, encircled by a wreath.

The reverse side of each medal presented to the officers and crew of the Kroonland contains the name of the person to whom it is presented and the following inscription:

"The Congress of the United States to the Officers and Crew of the S. S. Kroonland, for the Rescue of Survivors of the Burner Steamer I'oltumo."

Secretary Redfield made an excellent speech in presenting the medals. The ceremony took place in the Officers' Club Room. Pier 60. North River. New York.

News from the Harbors

United Harbor No. 1.

New York. N. Y.

Since our last letter we have received

notice of the death of several of our

Brothers. Brother A. B. Benjamin, of

Stratford, Conn., died on November 20th

at his home in Mratford. Brother Nimrod BauNir, of I'anwood, N. J , died on December (1, 1014, at the age of eighty. Capt. Baulsir was in the ferry service on the Hast River, New York, for over fifty years. Brother J. H. Sayles, of the Sandy Hook Pilot Association, also passed away. We regret the loss of these brother members and sympathize with their bereaved ones.

Our annual ball, held on Novcmlier 6th, was a grand success both socially and financially. More than 2.5m people enjoyed one of the best shows ever seen at an occasion of this kind. The committee was given a vote of thanks by the Harbor for the very efficient way the entertainment was planned and handled.

Our annual election took place on December 12th. Captain William J. Murray was elected President for the year 1915. Captain William H. Eldridge was elected Vicepresident, and Captain J. J. Fitzgerald was elected 2d Vice-president. George A. Reynolds was elected Treasurer, and Captain J. J. Scully, Secretary. Captains Charles H. Knowlcs and A. J. Hillary were again elected for two vcars on the Board of Directors. Captain Alt red B. Devlin was chosen Delegate to the National Convention, Captain C. H. Knowlcs to act as an alternate.

On Saturday, January 23d, United Harbor No. 1 will hold a smoker at the German Masonic Temple, 220 East 15th St.. commencing at 8 p.m. The speakers will be Congressmen E. F. Kinkead. James A. Hamill and J. J. Egan. of New Jersey, and Congressman Egan of Brooklyn and Judge J. T. McGovcrn of Hoboken.

Refreshments will be served and a vaudeville entertainment by professional talent provided.

In our last letter we stated that our Outside Representative, Captain John J. Scully, from the third week in July to November 24th brought into United Harbor No. 1 one hundred and five members by reinstatement and original. We are giad to state that from November 24th to December 25th the number has increased to one hundred and forty-five. It may also be said that the war in Europe has made the shipping very unsettled in this port, otherwise we are sure the number would have been close to two hundred, judging from all the names promised when conditions become better.

It is safe to say that the men. both offshore and inshore, have come to realize that this Harbor has at all times been sincerely interested in their welfare (contrary to evil reports'). This Harbor feels that its future is assured because of conscientious labor in the past which will be better understood as the time rolls on.

Wishing you all a very happy and prosperous New Year.

Fraternally yours. Board Ok Directors. THE Lyman Stewart, a steel single screw tank steamer, built for the Union Oil Co., is the latest tank steamer built on the Pacific Coast on the Isherwood system. The keel of this vessel was laid on May 4, 1914. She was launched October 31, 1914, and will be completed about January 1, 1915.

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The ship has been constructed in accordance with Lloyd's requirements to Class 100 A 1. The principal dimensions and particulars of the vessel are as follows:

Length over all, 426 ft. 9 in.; length between perpendiculars, 410 ft.; beam moulded, 55 ft. 3j4 in.; depth moulded to upper deck, 31 ft. 8 in.; load draft, 27 ft.; load displacement, 13,960 tons; cargo capacity, 63,964 bbls.; fuel capacity, 2,211 bbls.; gross tonnage, about 5,900; revolutions per minute, 65; designed I. H. P., 2,600; designed speed 10J/2 knots.

The ship is a single screw steamer with the machinery located aft.

The hold is subdivided into 16 tanks for carrying oil in bulk, the starboard and port compartments being separated by an oil tight center line bulkhead up to the top of the expansion trunk.

The 'tween decks, in the wings outside the expansion trunk, is arranged for carrying refined oil.

The fore hold is fitted for carrying ordinary freight. Fresh water is carried in double bottom under the engines and boilers. A double bottom is fitted forward for carrying either fresh water or ballast. The fore peak and after peak are also constructed for carrying fresh water. The vessel has a straight stem and elliptical

stern, with two continuous decks and raised forecastle. There is an open bridge amidships and a full poop aft. She is rigged with three steel pole masts with three cargo booms on foremast, two on mainmast and one on mizzenmast.

Accommodations in the poop are fitted up for the engineers, stewards, firemen, seamen, etc. Upon the bridge deck amidships, enclosed in a steel house, are the accommodations for the captain, deck officers and steward, the pantry, dining room, staterooms, bathroom and toilets. Above this house and on a level with the flying bridge a teak wheelhouse and charthouse are built. The vessel is provided with a Brown steam tiller, steam windlass and capstan, two powerful warping winches and two warping capstans.

Hull Construction.

The vessel is constructed on the Isherwood system with transverse framing abaft the engine room. The keel is of the flat plate type, furnaced out at each end to properly meet the heels of the stem and the stern frame. The stem is of wrought steel and the stern frame, of cast steel, is built in two sections with well proportioned scarphs.

The rudder is of the single plate type, the frame being of forged steel with the arms keyed to stock. The stock is in two pieces with a coupling under the counter.

All erections on poop and bridge, with exception of the wheel- and chart-house, are of steel. All bulkheads in living quarters are stopped at the underside of the beams, the space above being fitted with expanded metal panels for ventilation.

Propelling Machinery.

The propelling machinery consists of one three cylinder triple expansion engine having cylinders 26y2 in., 45 in. and 75 in. diameter by 48 in. stroke. There is an independent condenser with 3,755 square feet of cooling surface She has one right hand, four bladed, built up propeller with bronze blades and cast iron hub. It is 18 ft. 9 in. diameter and 18 ft. 9 in. pith with 99.4 sq. ft. helical area.

The main engines are fitted with Stephenson link motion for valve gear, the H.P. and LP. valves being of the piston type and the L.P. of the balanced slide type.

Piston rods and valve stems are fitted with Tucker Improved United States double block metallic packing. The shafting is ten per cent, heavier than Lloyd's requirements, with male and female couplings and narallel coupling bolts. The thrust is of the horseshoe type with the horseshoes cored for water circulation.

Steam is supplied to this engine by four single ended Scotch marine boilers, each 14 ft. dia. by 12 ft. long, built for a steam pressure of 200 lbs. per square inch. Each boiler is fitted with three Morison suspension furnaces about 42 in. diameter, with a separate combustion chamber to each furnace. Tubes are 3- in. external diameter. Each boiler is fitted with a Foster superheater having heat absorbing surface of 740 sq. ft.

The boilers have a total heating surface of 9,360 square feet and are fitted to burn fuel oil. The oil fuel system is the Dahl type, which is almost universally used on the Pacific Coast and has given extremely satisfactory results.

The engineers' workshop is fitted up with one 22 in. drill press, one 20 in. by 14 ft. lathe, one double emery grinder, bench vise and all necessary tools. The machinery i» driven by a 7^ H. P. motor.


The auxiliary machinery consists of one main centrifugal pump driven by an independent direct acting single cylinder engine, an independent air pump, main and auxiliary feed pumps, fire pump, sanitary pumps, feed water heater and Rcilly multicoil evaporator plant. The steering gear is of the Brown steam tiller type with telemotor control.

The electric plant consists of two 10 kilowatt generators, switchboard, one 14 in. searchlight and all accessories.

The refrigerating plant is of Vulcan Iron Works make, two tons capacity, on the direct expansion system, connected to the refrigerating chambers and to cooling tanks.

The living quarters are steam heated, cast iron radiators being used.

Life boat accommodations are provided for all on board by two 24 ft. metallic life boats fitted complete with all necessary equipment as required by U. S. I-aws. Boats are handled with Welin davits on upper bridge. One 22 ft. power boat is also provided.

Cargo Handling.

The cargo handling system comprises two duplex pumps having 18 in. steam cylinders, 15 in. oil cylinders and 18 in. stroke. The suction system consists of two 12 in. mains run one on each side of the center line bulkhead with a to in. branch to each tank. By-pass arrangements are made so that any tank on one side of the ship can be emptied and discharge either overboard through sea cocks, or into any other tank on the opposite side. Each pump can sep arately or together discharge into an 8 in. belt discharge main, running along the top of the expansion trunk, from which 8 in. branches are fitted for discharging overboard, or back to the tanks by 6 in. branches.

Discharges are so arranged that either pump can discharge into one side of the main or the other, and division valves are provided so that one pump can be working at a heavier pressure than the other. An independent 6 in. suction is fitted to one set of the main cargo tanks to discharge into the fuel tanks. The discharge system U <n arranged that it can be used as suction for one or both pumps. Each pair of tanks is fitted with 6 in. equalizing valve. Two turbine fans are fitted in the pump mom to discharge air either into 12 in. sucti'»n pipes to cargo tanks or to exhaust it. She was built bv the Union Iron Works of San Francisco, Cal.

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Pilot Chart of Central American Waters

A new pilot chart is about to be issued monthly by the Hydrographic Office for the region lying between the parallels of 1 deg. and 31 dcg. N. and the meridians 52 deg. and 100 dcg. W. It will thus cmbrace all of the West Indies. Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea and will extend on the Pacific Ocean from Acapulco to Esmeraldas, Ecuador. As its scale of construction is much larger than that of the older pilot charts, being seven-tenths of an inch to a degree of longitude, its hydrographic features are corresnondin^ly more amnle. The variation lines will be for the epoch IQ'S and all the other

features will be as up to date as the office can make them. The meteorological features, as in the case of the existing pilot charts, will be furnished by the \J. S. Weather Bureau. Department of Agriculture. The first issue will be for the month of January. 1915.

Shipmasters who co-operate with the Government by furnishing marine data of various kinds, including weather reports, can obtain the nilot charts in return for their courtesy from the Branch Hydrographic Offices or from the Captain of the Port at Cristobal or at Balboa.

The Office not onlv welcomes the cooperation of all mariners who use these charts, but is also glad to receive and consider criticism and suggestion* looking to their betterment.—Hydronrafhic Bltn.

Annual Report of the Lighthouse Service

The annual report of the Commissioner of Lighthouses has been published.

It is believed that the efficiency of the Service has been increased by the reorganization of July, 1910, and that the work is more economically performed. Up to July 1, 1914, there has been an increase of more than 21 per cent in the number of aids maintained over the corresponding number on July 1, 1910, while the total general appropriations for the support of the Service for the fiscal year 1915 are about $320,000 less than those for the fiscal year 1911.

The Lighthouse Service is charged with the maintenance of aids to navigation along 46,828 statute miles of coast line and river channel.

On June 30, 1914, there were 5,562 persons employed in the Lighthouse Service, including 93 technical force, 143 clerical force, and 5,326 employees connected with depots, lighthouses, and vessels.

During the year there was a net increase of 677 in the number of aids to navigation maintained, the total at the end of the year being 14,198. Of these 5,004 are lights (of all classes) and 567 are fog signals. The total number of aids in Alaska, including lights, fog signals, buoys and daymarks, in commission at the close of the fiscal year was 319, including 108 lights, an increase of 71 lights since June 30, 1910, nearly 200 per cent.

Improvements have been made as follows: flashing or occulting lights installed in place of fixed lights at 67 stations; incandescent oil-vapor lights substituted for oil-wick lamps at 37 stations; acetylene or oil-gas lights substituted for oil lights at 73 stations. Incandescent oil vapor is now used as the illuminant at 268 stations, comprising nearly all the principal seacoast lights in the Service.

Careful attention was given at the General Lighthouse Depot, Tompkinsville, to the manufacture and standardization of various articles, and substantial savings effected. At this depot apparatus and supplies are tested, and experimental work done for the improvement of equipment and apparatus.

Improvements have been made in connection with oil-vapor lamps, electric lamps, post lanterns, lens clocks, fog signal apparatus, etc. A type of torch for starting internal combustion oil engines more quickly is of value in the event of sudden fog. The use of electric lights for harbor lights has been extended where a reliable source of supply is available, and such installations have in general been equipped with automatic devices for substituting another lamp or for calling the keeper, in case of failure.

During the fiscal year 45 tenders and 66 light vessels were in commission. The new tender Laurel was launched and will be completed during the present fiscal year. The construction of new light vessels No. 96 and No. 98 was well advanced, both vessels being launched, and both will be completed during the current fiscal year. A contract was awarded for the small tender Fern, for service in the inside waters of Alaska. Plans are also under way for the construction of four additional light vessels and two tenders.

Services in saving life and property were rendered and acts of heroism performed by employees of the Service on vessels or at stations on 124 occasions.

Recommendation is renewed for legislation authorizing the retirement of employees of the Lighthouse Service on account of age or disability incidental to their work, which is the practice in the lighthouse services of most other countries.

How it Works in Great Britain

Captain T. V. Walker, Chairman of the Imperial Merchant Service Guild, whose services in the cause of the nautical profession and seafarers generally have met with so much appreciation, has been appointed for Admiralty service as a Base Superintendent with the rank of Lieutenant, R.N. R. Another member of the Management Committee of the Guild, Captain C. W. Thompson, has also received an important Admiralty appointment with the rank of Lieutenant R.N.R.

Captain F. Littlehales, Guild Agent in London, is about to take up an important Admiralty appointment with the rank of Lieut. Commander, R.N.R. Quite recently the Chief Assistant Secretary of the Guild Mr. D. H. Bernard received a commission of similar rank and is in active service under the Admiralty.

Through the medium of the Headquarters and Agencies of the Guild at the different shipping districts, a very large number of their members have been granted commissions in the Royal Naval Reserve since the outbreak of. the war. In the case of officers for mine-sweeping duties some forty were nominated by the Guild at the request of the Admiralty, these nominations being duly accepted. The Lords Commissioners have caused their thanks to be conveyed to the Guild for "valuable services rendered.''

The current number of the Gazette issued by the Guild, in command of the British fleet in the North Sea. alludes to the interesting fact that Admiral Sir John Jellicoe is the son of one who during his seafaring career ranked amongst the most respected commanders of the mercantile marine, the late Captain Tohn H. Jellicoe of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company.

Coast Survey Notes

The annual report of the Secretary of Commerce for the fiscal year 1914, which has just been made public, contains important recommendations in regard to the Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Among the items asked for, are six newvessels for the Survey (3 steamers and 3 small power schooners); increased appropriations for surveys and for wire drag work in Alaska and elsewhere; better and more adequate accommodations in the way of office buildings; increased facilities for chart production, including provision for the lithographing and printing by the Survey of maps required by the Post Office Department; and the restoration of the item of appropriation for contribution to the International Geodetic Association. Estimates in accordance with the recommendations of the Secretary have been submitted to Congress.

The triangulation along the western coast of Washington from the Strait of Fuca to Grays Harbor has been completed by H. A. Seran. Owing to the lack of roads, high timber and unfavorable weather conditions this was a most difficult piece of work. It was necessary in order to avoid heavy cutting to mount the instrument on signals built on standing trees at a height as great as 185 feet. On one unoccupied station a lamp was shown from a height of 215 feet.

During the past season the party on the Yukon, R. R. Lukens commanding, accomplished the important work of locating the channels into the Kushokwim River, Alaska.

Dry Pilotage

One of the most sweeping orders issued by Colonel Goethals and one which probably will be the forerunner of even more drastic reforms has just been issued and provides that no persons employed on the canal who possess marine licenses, such as pilots, tug masters, mates and those in charge of the numerous dredges shall be permitted to indulge in alcoholic liquor either on or off duty.

No Canal Zone pilot may enter a saloon or cantina while in uniform, according to one provision of the circular, which also provides that summary dismissal may follow in the case of even one drink being taken by persons ordered to abstain.

It is reported in many quarters that Governor Goethals is contemplating extending this order to apply to all employees on the Canal Zone.

It is understood that the object of the new regulation is to foster the confidence of the shipowners in the canal and its navigation and to avoid as far as possible anv increase in insurance rates on vessels using the canal. — Panama Star and Herald. Astronomy.

Navigation by the Stars

by Lieutenant-Commander Gilbert P. Chase, United States Navy

Many officers regard star-sights as something difficult and do all their navigating by tne sun. The following synopsis of a talk to the officers of the New York Naval Militia should be of interest to all progressive officers.—Ed.

Astronomy, the most ancient of the «.h\>ical sciences, will be found highly interesting for general reading. For th:s purpose 1 recommend Popular Astronomy by Professor Simon Newcomb, formerly Superintendent of the American Nautical Almanac, and Professor at the U. S. Naval Observatory. There may be other books equally interesting, but I am sure this one will be very useful to anyone who desires to get a general idea of astronomy. By reading books on general astronomy you will acquire a familiarity with the solar system and the stellar regions which will be very useful in supplementing your knowledge of practical astronomy, more particularly that branch known as Nautical Astronomy which enables the navigator to find his position at sea by observation of the heavenly bodies, when out of sight of terrestrial objects.

It will be interesting to note the early conceptions of the actual motion of the sun and other heavenly bodies, both as regards the diurnal revolution and their apparent motions in regard to each other. The earth was supposed to fixed with sun. moon and stars revolving about it. Later, about the time of Columbus, the Copernican theory (or rather fact) of the revolution of the earth, was established. The apparent daily motion of the heavenly bodies is explained by an actual diurnal revolution of the earth on its axis, and the apparent motion of the sun amongst the stars, by the actual motion of the earth in its orbit around the sun, which is fixed and is the center of motion of all the planets, the bodies comprised in our solar system. Note also th* laws of Kepler in explanation of the planetary motions, and later, the system of universal gravitation set forth by Newton to account for the position which each bodv of the solar system occupies in relation to the other bodies.

In works intended for popular reading, it is well not to attempt to go into any deep mathematical discussions, but to skip those portions and try to get some benefit from the more practical parts. Note t'ie finite dimensions of the solar «vst**m as compared to the inconceivable distances of stellar spaces. Planets.

The«=c. taken in order of position from

the sun arc, Mercury, Venus, Earth. Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. In addition to these there are a number of smaller telescopic planets between Mars and Jupiter, and each of the planets has one or more satellites not visible to the naked eye except in the case of the moon, which is the satellite of our own planet, the earth. Of these planets only four are to be considered lor navigational purposes, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. The four inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars arc sometimes classified as terrestrial planets; because in size and general characteristics, as far as known, they do not differ greatly from our own planet, the earth. Mercury and Venus have orbits inside of that of the earth and are known as inferior planets. The relation of these orbits to that of the earth is such, as can easily be shown by a diagram, that these planets appear to go back and forth by the sun and sometimes cross directly in front of it, as was the case with Mercury on November 7th. This was called the transit of Mercury. Mercury never gets more than 18 degrees to 28 degrees away from the sun on either side, and this angular distance from the sun is called elongation; hence, Mercury is seldom seen at all, and is almost always too close to the horizon at sunset or dawn to be available for a sight. Venus has the same peculiarity in regard to the sun of apparently crossing back and forth, but gets further away, .having a maximum elongation of about 45 degrees. Hence it is seen only in the evening or early part of the night or toward morning. It would never be found "out" in the middle of the night.

The planets which revolve in orbits outside of the earth make an apparent revolution of the heavens amongst the fixed stars, similar to the sun. going in the same direction as the sun and with varying rates of speed. The fact is that none of them go faster than the sun in their apparent motion and consequently the sun is always catching up to them ami passing them. The relative positions and the orbital velocities of the earth and planets sometimes cause them to make an apparent retrograde motion, and this can easily be seen by plotting them on the star chart from their tabulated declination and right ascension.

Venus is by far the brightest body in the heavens next to the moon, and can generally be recognized by its clear white light and its position in the heavens in regard to the sun, never being more than about 45 degrees from the sun. It may happen that it will be seen close to the moon.; in that case, if in doubt as to what the planet is, it may be identified by looking up the declination and right ascension of the moon at the time and see which planet comes closest to it.

Mars may be distinguished from Mercury and Venus by its fiery reddish color and is known as ruddy Mars.

Jupiter comes next in brightness to Venus and is very much like Venus in appearance, shining with a clear white light and is very conspicuous and beautiful. Its motion among the stars is very slow since it takes about twelve years to complete the circuit of its orbit. When once you have made its acquaintance and become familiar with it, you will recognize it without question upon succeeding nights whenever you sec it.

Saturn, the next planet outside of Jupiter, compares with some of the brighter stars for brilliancy and shines with a dingy reddish light, as if seen through a smoky atmosphere. We need not go any further in this direction in considering the planets for navigational purposes, as Uranus is only barely visible to the naked eye, and Neptune can be seen only through the telescope. In fact this last planet was not discovered until the middle of the last century when it was felt there must be something there on account of the attraction exerted on Uranus. When the telescope was pointed to the place where it was thought to be, there it was.


There are in all about fifty million of these heavenly bodies, though of this number only about 5,000 are visible to the naked eye. Stars arc classed by magnitude according to their visibility or the amount of lieht that comes from them, there being about fourteen of the first magnitude and fortv-eight of the second. Those visible to the naked eye go no further than the sixth magnitude. The greatest number of stars to be used in practical navigation is not more than 55. This is the number found in the Supplement of the American Nautical Almanac

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