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the work of the red Indians of historic times, or of their immediate ancestors. To deny this conclusion, and to accept its alternative, ascribing these remains to a mythical people of a different civilization, is to reject a simple and satisfactory explanation of a fact, in favor of one that is far-fetched and incomplete, and this is neither science nor logic.”

We quote a few brief extracts from sayings of other eminent students a11d scholars, and leave the determination of the question to the patient reader:

“The earthworks differ less in kind than in degree from other remains respecting which history has not been entirely silent.”H wven.

“There is nothing, indeed, in the magnitude and structure of our western mouiids, which a semi-hunter and semi-agricultural population, likc that which may be ascribed to the ancestors or Indian predecessors of the existing race, could not have executed.”——qchoolcmft.

“All these earthworks—and I am inclined to assert the same of the whole of those in the Atlantic states, and the majority in the Mississippi valley—were the production, not of some mythical tribe of high civilization in remote antiquity, but of the identical nations found by the whites residing in these regions.’ ’——Bri11t0n..

“No doubt that they were erected by the forefathers of the present Indians/’—Gen. Lewis Cass.

“Nothing in them which may not have been performed by a savage people.”—GalZa.tin-.

“The old idea that the mound builders were peoples distinct from, and other than, the Indians of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and their progenitors, appears unfounded in fact, and fanciful.”C. C‘. Jones.

“Mound builders were tribes of American Indians of the same race with the tribes now living.”-—~-Iudge M. F. Force.

“The progress of discovery seems constantly to diminish the distinction between the ancient and modern races; and it may not be very wide of the track to assert that they were the same people/’— La-pham.

The preceding pages give the views of well known scientists and explorers, both early and recent. It is not the purpose of this work to decide cont-roverted questions, but to give both sides, and allow the reader to form his own opinions, based upon authorities cited.

In concluding this chapter, it may be stated that Ross county has been, and still is, a rich field in archaeological research. Many ancient works have been opened, notably by Squicr and Davis, Moorehead, and local investigators. The results of these are shown in connection with the history of the townships in which the investigations took place.

Judging from the mass of published information on the subject,

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the Mound Builders were a racHr races—of people, somewhat nomadic in their habits, yet more centralized in habitation than the Indians of historic times. They were semi-agricultural in pursuits, given to hunting and fishing, and schooled in the primitive arts of warfare. They had some knowledge of trade, or a system of rude barter, which brought them into possession of articles from far-distant localities, since in Ross county, mounds have been opened which

contained copper from Lake Superior, mica from the old mines of North Carolina, and shells from the Gulf of Mexico.

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cipally by a tribe of Indians known as the E1'ies. It is

generally conceded that the Eries were members of the Iro

quois family, as distinguished from the Algonquin tribes. In 1650 the Iroquois, or confcderat/ed Mohawks, Onondagas, Oneidas, Cayugas and Senecas, occupied the territory now embraced within New York and Northern Pennsylvania. The Hurons or Wyandots, and a kindred Neutral Nation, held the peninsula between Lakes Huron, Erie and Ontario. The Eries occupied the southern shore of Lake Erie, and the Andastes possessed the valleys of the Allegheny and Upper Ohio rivers. All these were, in their dialects, of the Iroquois family, but not included in the Iroquois confederation.

Prominent among the Algonquins were the Lenni Lenapees or Delawares, so called from their being found in the region of the Delaware and its tributary streams in New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania. Their traditions declare them to be the parent stock from which other Algonquin tribes have sprung; and this claim seems to be recognized by the Algonquins in designating the ancient Lenapees ‘by the title of Grandfather. The Algonquins were the most numerous race, judging from their wide distribution. We find them confronting Cartier on his ascent of the St. Lawrence; the first British colonists found savages of the same race in the vicinity of Jamestown; and it was a daughter of an Algonquin chief who saved the life of the adventurous Captain Smith; the Algonquins under Sassacus the Pequot, and Philip, of Mount Hope, waged deadly war against the Puritans of New England. The same race made the covenant of peace with \Villiam Penn; and when the French Jesuits and traders explored the Wabash and the Ohio, they found the valleys occupied by the same far-extending race.

Toward the middle of the eighteenth century parties of Delawares, being disturbed in their possessions in Pennsylvania, by the encroachments of the European settlers, removed to the west of the Alleghanies, and obtained from their ancient allies and uncles, the Wyan

T HE Ohio of 1650 was doubtless a wilderness occupied prindots, permission to live and hunt in the bounds of _the presezlitasifii of Ohio. They settled on the branches of the Muskingliini 3111 Indian west as the Scioto, and became poiverfiil and influentia 11:1 6? lded a nfiairs of Ohio. Another tribe besides those nientioge twleand in powerful influence in the troiibloiis times upon the cio 0,Th I h Ross county pioneer history. We refer to the Shawaneesé1 d_ 0;ege_ there is conflicting testimony 1‘8{13Pd1l1g,illQS8 people, 811 323% _ ment as to their identity, yet “Gallatin s Synopsis, pflg0_l:~ , _P1'e

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seiits a plausible and generally accepted eX_plt111flt1011- H9 §§1‘@5 1; ‘ii’ his opinion that the “Shawnoes," as he \v_rites the word, separate a

an early date from the other Lenape tribes, and established th<]91l11selves south of the Ohio, in what is now the state of I\ent1iel<_\,'; I ell having been driven from that territory probably the cl1l('l{ElS€l\\; and Cherokees, some portion found their way, during the first half 0

the seveiiteeiith century, as far east as the country of the Spsq_iiehannoc-ks, a kindred tribe; that the main body of the nation, invited by the Miainis and the Andastes, crossed the Ohio, and occupied the country on and adjacent to the Scioto, and joined in the War 8g'i111J_5ll the Five Nations; and that after their final defeat, and that of thell‘ allies, in the year 1672, they were again dispersed in several dit'e<3~ tions. A considerable portion of the Shawanees about that time made a forcible settleiiient on the head waters of the rivers of Carolina; and these, after having been driven away by the Catawbas, found, as others had already done, an asylum in different parts Of the Creek country. Another portion joined their brethren in Pennsylvania, and still others 1I1t1_\‘ have remained in the vicinity of the Scioto and Miami. Those in Pennsylvania were not entirely Sub

vereignty or superiority.

n discontented with their lot, and were apparentlv more anxious than the Delawai-cs to return to the

country north of the Ohio. This they eflectcd under the auspices of the Wyandots, and on invitation of the French. They reoceiipied

the Scioto country in 1740 to 1755. Their doniain extended also U0 Sandusky, and westward to the Great Miami. They have left the names of two of their tribes—Chillieotlie and ' '

the South. It is said on good aiitiority that brother, the Prophet, w

Shawanee during that sojourn. For

ing this reiiiiioii, the Shawanees were a.l the settlers. They we

l the Seven Years’ War, and after the conquest of Canada, continued,

in conjunction with the Delawares, until finally defeated by General Bouquet.

The first permanent American settlements west of the Alleghanies were commenced in 1769, and were soon followed by a war with the Shawanees, which continued until 177 4, when they were defeated in a severe engagement at the mouth of the Kanawha, and the Virginia settlers penetratedinto their country. They were the most active enemies of the colonists during the Revolutionary War, and took a prominent part in the Indian war which followed, and was terminated in 17 95, at Fort Greenville. They lost by the terms of that treaty, nearly the whole territory which they acquired from the Wyandots; and a part of them, under Tecumseh, again joined the British during the war of 1812.

Some authors connect the Shawanees and Cherokees with the ancient mounds, and other believe that the Scioto valley was 9. Shawn.nee seat in 1650. History does not sustain the claim that they came originally from the South, as previously stated in this chapter. A very plausible theory is that they were the advance guard of Algonquin invasion from the northwest, pushing out the original mound builders. There is good evidence that the Eries were expelled from their ancient country on the shores of Lake Erie, and driven south by the conquering Iroquois, in 1650. The Shawanees, being enemies of the Iroquois, probably shared t-he fate of the Eries. As sustaining this view we cite the reader to the following authorities: Transactions Am. Antiq. Soc., Vol. II, p. 87; Historical Collections of South Carolina, Vol. I, pp. 49, 188; Am. Abor. Arch., Vol. III, p. 288; Bishop Gregg-’s History of the Old (‘-hehaws, pp. 3 & 18. Samuel G. Drake, in his admirable work, “The Aboriginal Races of North America,” fixes the date of the Shawanee expulsion from Ohio by the Iroquois, as 1672, and the destruction of the Eries by the same enemy, in 1654-, they having subdued the Hurons (according to Drake) in 1650. He also locates the Iroquois on both sides of the Ohio to the Mississippi, in 1687.

But it is entirely foreign to our purpose to follow the varying fortunes of the different tribes or nations beyond the limits of the Scioto valley, except when necessary to give a proper understanding witzhin the bounds of our subject. Of the five tribes inhabiting the Scioto valley when the first definite knowledge of the country was acquired, the Shawanees were the most prominent, as they were, also, the most active and unconquerablc, The other tribes represented were the W'yandots, Ilelawares, Mingoes and Maumees. But the pioneers of the Scioto valley, and particularly of Ross county and vicinity, had to deal principally, and in fact almost wholly, with the Shawanees. After their expulsion from the Scioto coimtry, and a long porlod Of absence, covering the greater part of a century, they returned from

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