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classes in the United States, and expects also to visit European schools before returning to Japan.
The School was opened in 1880, and in 1885 was placed under the control of the Department of Education. It contains at present 107 pupils, of whom 64 are deaf and 43 are blind. It has a substantial edifice, built in the European style, situated in the surburbs of Tokyo, on a plantation of medical plants under the control of the Department of the Interior.
Utah School.—Mr. Frank M. Driggs, one of the teachers, has been granted a year's leave of absence. He will spend it at Gallaudet College as a normal student.
The following compulsory educational law has been enacted by the Legislature:
Section 1. Every parent, guardian or other person having control of any deaf or blind child between the ages of eight and eighteen, who on account of deafiiess or defective sight is uutible to be educated in the public schools, shall be required to send such child to the State School for the Deaf and Dumb or the State School for the Blind for at least six months of each school year; provided that, in case it can be shown to the satisfaction of the Board of Trustees of the State School for the Deaf and Dumb, and the State School for the Blind:
1. That such child is taught at home by a competent teacher in the same branches and for the same length of time as children are required by law to be taught in the State school, or,
2. That such child has already acquired the branches of learning taught in the State school, or,
3. That such child is in such physical or mental condition (which must be certified if required, by a competent physician) as to render such attendance inexpedient or impracticable, then the provisions of this law shall not apply.
Sec. 2. Any such parent, guardian or other person having control of any deaf or blind child between the ages of eight and eighteen who fails to comply with the provisions of this Act after having been notified of its requirements, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.
Sec. 3. It is hereby made the duty of the County Attorney, whenever such cases are reported to him, to proceed immediately to prosecute such offenders.
Virginia Institution.—It has been decided to re-establish the department of articulation which was suspended a year ago. An oral teacher will be employed at the opening of the nest term.
Wisconsin School.—Miss Agnes Steinke, one of the teachers, has been granted a year's leave of absence to take a normal course in the Royal Imperial Institution at Berlin, Germany. Her place will be supplied by Miss M. D. Fonner, formerly of the McCowen Oral School.
Aids to Hearing.—The Lyon Medical of February 28,1897, has an article by Mr. J. Hugentobler, director of a school for the deaf at Lyons, France, on " The Auricular Instruction of the Deaf-Mute and the Transmission of Sound to the Nervous Centre through the Osseous System of the Cranium." Mr. Hugentobler believes strongly in auricular training and thinks sound may often be conveyed to the partly deaf through bone conduction (by placing the bands upon the head of the deaf person) better than through the ear, but he speaks with little respect of such artificial aids to hearing as trumpets, tubes, the audiphone, theaudigene, etc., "instruments warmly recommended by a complaisant press, sold very dear, and successively abandoned." He describes a device of his own as giving more satisfactory results in aiding hearing through bone conduction. It consists of "a smooth ruler made of pine, without knots and with continuous fibres, 1.70 to 1.80 metres long, 0.035 metres broad, and 0.01 metres thick, under which four or five pupils can be placed at once. It is placed on the lower jaw, or the upper part of the thorax of the speaker, according to the nature of the sound to be formed, which is transmitted perfectly to the ruler and through that to the osseous system of the cranium and to the nervous centre of hearing." Just how the ruler is connected with the pupils the article does not state explicitly, but we infer it rests on their heads. Mr. Hugentobler expresses the belief that this discovery is "new and not without importance for articulation teaching," but it rather illustrates the truth of the proverb that there is nothing new under the sun. More than a hundred years ago Dr. A. E. Buchner of Halle, Germany, published a work entitled "An Easy and very Practicable Method to enable Deaf persons to Hear" (English translation, London, 1770), describing "a method of conveying sound by means of an elastic solid body in contact with the bones of the head," and specifying "thin strips of wood of different lengths, one in particular six feet long, an inch broad, and of the thickness of the back of a knife, one end of which was to be held to the upper teeth of the person speaking, and the other end iu like manner to the upper teeth of the deaf person spoken to." This and similar successful experiments made by Professor Porter in 1849, with "a strip of white pine from seven to eight feet long," were described in the Annals, vol. ii, pp. 39-40, and the Annals Indexes contain references to several later contrivances of more or less value for conveying sound through the cranial bones to the centre of hearing—the audiphone, the dentaphone, the electrophone, the Japanese otacoustic fan, etc. Mr. Hugentobler, however, is, so far as we know, the first to suggest the reaching of several pupils at once through bone conduction, as Mr. Currier has done through his Duplex Hearing-Tube.
La Nature for February 6, 1897, contains an article by Dr. George F. Jaubert, on the "micropkonographe" recently invented by Dr. F. Dussaud, instructor in physics in the School of Mechanics at Geneva, Switzerland. Dr. Jaubert says that in January, 1896, Dr. Dussaud, touched by the lot of an unfortunate deaf girl, resumed a work which he had previously begun, and applied his efforts to find an apparatus which would increase at will the intensity of sound. After a year of experiments, he demonstrated the success of his apparatus on the 29th of December last before a company of physicians in the laboratory of physiology of the Sorbonne. The microphonograph is said to increase the intensity of sounds very greatly, so that a person can hear by its aid who is so deaf as to perceive nothing whatever when one shouts into his ear. It is not claimed that it will avail in cases of total deafness; but where there is the slightest vestige of hearing the effect is said to be wonderful, and it is hoped that in many cases very defective hearing may be educated and improved by its use. The instrument also records upon wax feeble sounds, such as breathing, the beating of the heart, and the walking of insects. Dr. Jaubert describes it as doing for the ear what the microscope does for the eye.
In the Indiana Institution experiments are in progress with the "lamprophoner," an instrument which, like the microphonograph, increases the intensity of sound. "A light tap on the metallic pillar which supports the transmitter sounds like the blow of a boilermaker's hammer on a boiler. A pencil drawn lightly against the pillar, making no perceptible sound to the unaided ear, comes through the instrument as a rough, scraping noise. A word spoken in an ordinary tone close to the transmitter sounds so loud as to be painful to one who can hear." The Silent Hoosier of April 1, 1897, from which these statements concerning the lamprophoner are taken, is not yet ready to speak concerning its results with the pupils. "Some who have been thought totally deaf have been able to distinguish sounds through the instrument, while others with some hearing cannot hear so well as by the speaking-tube."
Voice Culture.—The Superintendent of the Volta Bureau requests the publication of the following letter in the Annals, believing that its contents will be of interest and value to teachers of articulation. Persons desiring to obtain further information on the subject may communicate directly with Mrs. Curry, the writer of the letter, whose address is " School of Expression, 458 Boylston St., Boston, Massachusetts."
My I)eab Mb. Hitz: Under quite unfavorable circumstances, including two serious interruptions, I have this wiuter been teaching voice to Robert P., of A. Mrs. P. brought her son to me for instruction in voice. I examined him carefully, and diagnosed his case clearly. I felt sure that it was possible to teach him voice, and I began. Of course there were the usual difficulties in establishing communicable relations between Robert and myself, he being absolutely deaf. He does not read the lips with perfect accuracy. I do not read the lips at all, and I could not understand his vocal attempts at speech. This difficulty, however, caused me very little trouble. If I could not trust him to gather my meaning from lip-reading, I was careful to write out what I had to say, and so could be sure of accuracy through the use of written language. In this way I had little difficulty in teaching him.
I found the conditions for voice in the use of the vocal apparatus to be entirely ignored in the speech efforts. As a result, there was great muscnlar constriction in the throat, and labored effort in the use of all articulating agents. Consonant action was greatly exaggerated, and, as a consequence, vowel quality was almost entirely wanting. His vowels were without discrimination, vocal grunts, between consonantal constrictions; if I knew what he was going to say, I might gness what they were. Of course, quantity in speech, or rhythmic relation of syllables, was destroyed or wanting.
I went to work, in the first place, and established the conditions of open throat, and taught him to become conscious of an easy open throat and oral passage. I then began to develop this condition of openness simultaneously with the forms of speech elements. I found great lack of precision in the articulative act in many elements; for instance, he made an L by starting with the point of the tongue raised against the spring of the palate, and opening the normal position, instead of starting with the tongue passive in the mouth, point back of the under teeth, and making the articulation against the upper gums with the recoil to the succeeding vowel.
Robert could not hold his tongue still to utter any vowel; thus the first condition of true vowel quality was lacking. Vowels result from definite fixed positions of the organs of speech, and require a definite action of the articnlative agents. Voice requires a continuous stream of tone, to be modulated by articulation and vowel quality.
These simple principles I was able to make him understand, and in what seemed to me an incredibly short time I secured results. I very soon taught him to give a good, pure vowel AH, throat passage open, the tongue still, and activity centred in the back of the tongue. I very soon secured quality, ease, and naturalness in this vowel. He knew when his tone was in the throat; he knew when it was in the front of the mouth; he knew when he projected the tone as in speech. I could teach him also inflection or speech form of voice, and I also satisfied myself that voice in rhythmetic form could be taught him, but I first confined myself to establishing voice conditions in those elements which were most incorrectly made. I saw also that to give him a natural use of the voice, I not only must establish a continuous stream of voice in the articulating actions, but that I must teach him to use all speech forms of voice, and among these quantity. I have satisfied myself that I can do this. I am at work now on exercises to develop skill in modulating vocal forms.
Now I feel, my dear Mr. Hitz, that I am able to contribute much to the training of the deaf to speak. I want this to reach those interested in this subject, who will make the best and wisest use of it. I myself do not wish to make a specialty of teaching the deaf, nor of teaching voice to the deaf; but I want teachers of the deaf to have what we can give them. I write to you as to one at headquarters of interest in this subject; I am ready to present this subject in any form that you may deem wisest, that will be most helpful to the teachers of the deaf.
I have been interested in the Kindergarten and pedagogical subjects most deeply; I have had wide experience in applying the principles of vocal training to meeting all kinds of needs. I have been a fellow-worker with Dr. Curry in the development of his methods of training the speak