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_ , . . - 1the East, South and West, and reunited their tr1bes_1nttlt1:es:;<:r(:>;’:h_ ley, becoming a strong and vigilant adversary agtllillfi ho Occupied ments of civilization. It is said that the _])ola\v=1iels, “(ii the Shaw”: the territory at this time, peaceably vacated it, and p 1808 ts under nees in their laps.” More accurately, they ivere bot 1 ltlenglil Wanees the Wvandots and Iroquois. ’lhe tribal d1_v1sions_of t e HM aare said to have been four, namely: The Plqllfi, Iiiskapocke, eq“ ,, chuke and Chillicothe. But the “Pioneer Record of iRoSs Ctglfllg; says that “the Indian occupation of the county in 1700 3185 y 9 Shawanees, Piquas and Chillicothe tr1bes,’_oin1_tting the 0 ers. _ _ It is to be noted that while the word Scioto is of \Vyand0t <_)I‘{g'111, from the Iroquois family of language, (_1hill1c0th0 15 51 11111116 Orlglnfil ing with the Shawanees. Scioto, in its older forms aI1dpl‘Q11111lh ations, suggests some Iroquois place-names that remain 1n 9 geography of New York and Pennsylvania, but Chillicothe has IlI{101'9 of a resemblance to Southern names given by_Ch00ti1§V, CF99 01' Cherokee Indians. There is a Chillicoco in Indian terr1toI'y,_fi111011g the Cherokees, and in Tennessee there is Chilhowie,_not unlikely 8place where Shawanees or Cherokees once lived, and in North CHOlina is a Chiloe. Resembling this is Chilloway, in Delawaiecounty, N. Y., where the Shawanees probably never lived. But Chil11Sql1fl' qua, in Northumberland county, Pa., is the closest of all to the W0l'd Chillicothe, which, it must be remembered, is undoubtedly only an approximation to the Indian word. The Indians had no alphabet 0!’ written documents, and the name is as it was written by those W110 learned it through the frontier raiders and hunters. Chillisquaque

U opposite the abode of Sliikellinius, the 0 was the father of Logan. Shikellimus was sent

2,, s a sort of viceroy of the Shawanees and Muneies,

and there Logan was born. On this Chillisquaque creek there W88 a settlement of Shawaiiees, probably

some of those who came up from the South, when Conrad \Veiser went there to visit Shikellimus 111 1737.

\Veiser called the creek “Zilli Squache,” and a Pennsylvaniahistorian has translated it “

snow birds,” but this explanation may be doubted.

lria, opposite Portsmouth, Kentucky shore. It w

as a famous town for Indian traders and had log cabins and stone chimney stacks.

The Indians of the Scioto valley were unvisited

French and Pennsylvania traders, until 17 49, when tli
Shawanee tow '

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except by the


at the French flag, but yielded to persuasion, and allowed Celeron to expel the Scotch—Irish traders. Next, in January, 1751, the valley was visited by Christopher Gist, _representing the Ohio company of Virginia, and George C-roghan representing the government of Pennsylvania. With them was a famous interpreter, the half-breed, Andrew Montour. The object of these visitors was to gain the friendship and trade of the Scioto valley Indians, and wean them from the French influence.

The Journal of Christopher Gist was first published in London in 1776 by Governor Pownall, as an appendix to his “Topographical Description of North America.” We reprint he1'e those portions of the journal that relate to the Scioto valley, as this is the report of the first white traveler in Ross county whose experiences are preserved in type. The notes added are condensed from the notes of \Vi1liam M. Darlington, editor of the Pittsburg edition, 1893. After coming into central Ohio by way of the Tilscarawas river and crossing Licking creek, Gist, accompanied by Croghan, Montour and their followers, “stayed iii the '1\laguc-k town,” January 21st. to 24th, 1751. This town was on the Pickaway plains, three and a half miles south of Circlevillc. Thence, continues the diary:

“Thursday 24.—Set out from the Maguck Town S about 15 M, thro fine rich level land to a small Town called Harrickintoms consisting of about five or six Delaware Families, on the SW Sciodoe Creek.”

(It seems that Gist did not cross the Scioto, and it is thoughtthat Harrickinton’s town was on the east side. It is so shown by Governor Po\vnaIl’s edition of Evans’ map, 1776, and on Mitchell’s map of 1775, but the maps of Evans. 1775, and Hutchjns, 1778, put the town on the west side. It seems

to have stood a little below the site of the present city of Chillicothe and, if on the east side, nearly opposite the mouth 0! Paint Creek.)

“Friday 25.—The Creek being very high and full of Ice, We could not ford it, and were obliged to go down it on the SE side SE 4 M to the Salt Lick Creok—-about 1 M up this Creek on the S side is a very large Salt Lick, the streams which run into this Lick are very salt, & tho clear leave a blueish Sediment: The Indians and Traders make salt for their Horses of this Water‘, by boiling it; it has at first a blueish Color, and somewhat bitter Taste, but upon being dissolved in fair Water and boiled a second Time, it becomes tolerable pure salt.

(The Scioto Salt Works, the first and for several years the only manufactory of salt in this part of Ohio, were on this creek.)

“Saturday 26.——Set out S 2 M, S lV_14 M.

“Sunday 27.—S 12 M to a small Delaware Town of about twenty Families on the S E side of Sciodoe Creek. We lodged at the House of an Indian whose name was Windaiiglialali, a great Man and Chief of this Town, & much in the English Interest. He entertained Us very kindly, and ordered a Negro Man that belonged to him to feed

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ongehelas. The mention of a negro man Indicates the early introduction 0!

slavery in Ohio. The wild rye was a coarse natural grass, 11111011Bed 59* fodder by the early settlers.)

“Monday J any 28.—We went into Council with the Indians of this Town, and after the Interpreter (Montour) had informed them of his Instructions from the Governor of Pennsylvania, and glvell them some Cautions in regard to the French, they returned for Answer as follows. The Speaker with four Strings of Wampum In his Hand stood up, and addressing himself to the Governor of Pennsylvania, said, ‘Brothers, “To the Delawares return You our hearty Thanks for the News You have sent Us, and We assure You, We Will not hear the Voice of any other Nation for \Ve are to be directed by You, our Brothers the English, & by none else: \Ve shall be glad to hear what our Brothers have to say to Us at the Loggs Town in the Spring, and to assure You of our hearty Good will & Love to 0111‘ Brothers We present you with these four Strings of Wampum. Thifi is the last Town of the Delawares to the Westwai-d—The Delaware Indians by the best accounts I could gather consist of about 500 fight? ing Men all firmly attached to the English Interest, they are 110$ properly a Part of the Six Nations, but are scattered about among the Six Nations, from whom they have Leave to hunt upon their Lands.” '

“Tuesday 29.—Set out SW 5 M, S 5 M, to the mouth of Sciodoe Creek opposite to the Shaiinoah Town, here we fired our Guns t0 alarm the Traders, who soon answered, and came and fcrryed us over

to the Town.” After describing this town at the mmitli of the Scioto briefly, Gist noted that “The S1

_ ianaws are not a Part of the Six Nations, but were f0i'iiicrl_v at Variance with

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“Wood’s River,” at Draper’s Meadows, the present site of Blacksbnrg, Montgomery county, Va. The New River had been discovered and named in 1654, by C01. Abraham Wood, before Governor Spotswood and his “Knights of the Golden Horseshoe” had passed the then limits of western exploration, the mysterious Blue Ridge.

William Inglis, the oldest son of Thomas, married Mary Draper, daughter of anot-her settler, he being twenty-one and she eighteen years of age at t-he time; and their wedding, in 17 50, was the first white wedding west of the-Alleghanies. Mary Draper was a remarkable woman, an athlete equal to any man; it is authentically recorded that she could run and leap almost her own height, spring from the groimd to a horse’s back without block or stirrup, and jump over tl1e back of a common chair, standing, and that with her skirts on, too. It was to her strength and agility that she afterward owed her life.

On Sunday, July 8, 1755, the day before Braddock’s defeat near Ft. Duquesne, a war party of Shawances, on their way to attack their enemies, the Catawbas, further to the south, fell upon Draper’s Meadows instead, and massacred all the settlers, with the exception of Mary Draper Inglis, her sister-in-law, and her children, whom they took prisoners. They jocularly cut. off the head of Philip Barger, an old, white-haired man, put it in a bag and left it at Lybargefs station, as they passed westward, telling the settlers to take a peep at an old acquaintance. They then fell back, down the New River, on horseback.

On the third day, in the wilderness, a daughter was born to Mrs. Inglis. This woul.d ordinarily have meant tomahawking and instant death for both mother and child, to avoid delay; but Mrs. Inglis, a woman of iron, wrapped her baby in one of her skirts, mounted her horse in the morning, and, carrying her child, rode on again, over the mountains to the Kanawha, at Campbell's creek, where she was set to making salt, from a salt lick, in one of her own stolen kettles. After several days the Indians continued down the Kanawha to the Ohio, and along the Ohio to the mouth of the Scioto.

The chief council-town of the Sliawanees was then situated a short distance below the mouth of the Scioto: in its center was a councilhouse, built of logs, roofed with oak bark and paw-paw withes, and ninety feet long. Here Mrs. Draper, sister-in-law of Mrs. Inglis, Was forced to run the gauntlet in spite of the fact that she had a broken arm, but Mrs. Inglis was excused from the ordeal because of her condition and on account of the respect and admiration the savages felt for her hardihood. The prisoners were then separated and Mrs. Inglis never saw her children again. Her oldest son, George, and Mrs. Draper, \\'ere taken to the northwest, where, not known, but she believed, to (‘hillicothe Old Town, now Frankfort, then the sec

ond Shawanee town.

French traders found Mrs. Inglis at the Seioto mouth, but were unable to buy her freedom, she having proved herself too \'alllfll)l9 '15 a maker of hunting-sliirts, salt, and other things._ The French trailers said she was the first English white \\'0II1fl11l':(“ in all the reg10I1 HOW comprised in Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky, still claimed, at that (late, as parts of Virginia. .\Irs. Inglis remained a 1)1‘lS0l10l"’fl long time, her only white companion being "an old l)utcli woiiiair from Pennsylvania, whose name was not known. They were taken several ti1119S to t-he western l\'cntuck_v salt-licks, by the Shawanecs, and made lllllch salt for their captors, also cracking for them niaii_v walnuts, 011 $119 bones of niastodons which there protruded froin the swainpy {."l_‘011I1d

In 17(‘3 or 1765, it is uncertain which, a very high flood 111 The Ohio swept away the greater part of the Shawanee town at the 111011th of the Scioto, while Mrs. Inglis was still a prisoner there, and tilt? town was never rebuilt at that place, the tribe, so Mrs. Inglis Stud, believing the place to be beivitclied. They removed all their tribal effects and headquarters northward from the “Bloody River” as the)’ afterward called the Ohio, to land lying between the upper Little Miami and the Scioto, part to Old (Thillieothe, and part to “a 8P£‘011d rise beyond the fork of Paint creek,” which must have been very 01059 to where (‘liillicothe now stands, on the second plateau above the fork of the river and creek. ' Mrs. Inglis afterward escaped from the Indians, while at the Kentucky salt-licks, and made her way to her old home, througli the ivilderne-“S of the mountains, after en(.l1iI'iI1g incredible hardships. The rec01'(l of Mrs. Inglis is very clear and dis

tinct on every point except dates, and it is no wonder that she 105‘?

more renowned warriors and was possibly the most promiand \Vaw\\'ila.\vay cannot be

_ Other Shawance chiefs who figured prominently during the war of the Revolution against. the settlers in

the Scioto valley, wherein Simon Kenton and Daniel Boone were conspicuous figures, were Battise, Black Snake, \Vo1f and Cliinska11But these. were generally subordinate under command of Tecumseh and Cornstalk, as allies of the British.

Of the. four named as most

. great Tecumseh nent, thou_Lfli (loriistzilk, Red Hawk?

igriiored in this distinction.

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