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With a thin strip of wood or any sharp edge, cut the relief map into two parts and sketch the crosssection thus made. This is^ an excellent device for teaching the slopes and the comparative heights. Let one cut be made across the principal highlands, and another following the greatest valley. Thus, in North America the sections may be shown from San Francisco to cape Hatteras, and from the mouth of the Mississippi to the mouth of the Mackenzie. Other sections also may be shown as the map is modeled on different days.

After a little practice, teachers can model a continent in from five to ten minutes. Try to make the work simple, by omitting useless details. The hints given above will enable teachers to model any continent, using as guides the maps in the supplements of the geographies.

The following table of general elevations of plateaus (in feet) may prove helpful in modeling:

South America. Europe.

Bolivia 12,000 Swiss 2,000

Brazil 2,000 Spanish 2,000

Guiana 2,000 Valdai hills .... 1,000

Central plain .... 250 Scandinavian .... 2,000

Asia. Africa.

Tibet 14,000 Abyssinia 7,000

Middle Basin .... 3,000 Kongo basin .... 2,500

Gobi desert .... 4,000 Zambezi basin . . . 3,000

Altai • 4,000 Kalahari desert . . . 3,000

Hindustan 1,500 Sahara desert .... 1,000

Persia 4,000 Atlas 2,000

Asia Minor .... 3,000 Central Lake region . 4,000


The border highlands are about as high as the eastern highlands in North America.


1. Geography.1

To Teachers: Read the Preface of the Elements of Geography, and then read the rest of the book, in order to get the general plan of the work. Pages 1 to 34- of this Manual suggest methods of teaching the lessons, and should be studied with care.

Teachers who wish to gain fuller knowledge of the topics treated in the Elements of Geography may derive help from the lessons 011 the same topics in the larger geography. Refer to the index of the latter.

Study each lesson and make it your own. No book of methods can take the place of live thought.

Find out what each lesson teaches. Make note of the facts that are to be brought out by the class.

Think how best to throw light on these facts, — whether by pictures, by short stories or by crayon sketches. Above all, know your school district. Be ever alert to direct pupils to objects that they can see or handle, — to hills, brooks, flowers, animals, people.

Let each lesson grow out of the one preceding it.

1 All number and title references in part II of this Manual are to pages and lessons in the Elements of Geography. The letter M placed after figures (thus, page 9 M) refers to this Manual,


Forge a chain of thought and each link will help to hold all others in memory.

The work of making a definition is of great value to pupils when they have ideas to classify. Such work then tends to vivify and to relate ideas.

Thoughtful teachers no longer treat pupils as if they were parrots to chatter words. The objects themselves are studied, and not their mere word-shells.

Each lesson contains a few words that are new to pupils. Make a list of such words, and be sure that pupils learn the sense in which each word is used, and also how ito pronounce it.

Let overworked teachers bear in mind the fact that each minute spent in preparing a lesson saves ten minutes in teaching it.

The first lesson in the geography aims to interest pupils in the study and to give an inkling of its meaning.

Lead pupils to talk about parts of the earth that they have seen. Webs of spiders and cocoons of moths will give an idea of the work of silkworms. See Arabs and camels on pages 46 and 47. A sandy field will serve to illustrate desert; see also pages 102 and 103. Lead pupils to make a collection of spices; see page 110. Talk about the land of the Eskimo and seal; see pages 43 and 44. Flax, thistle or milkweed will help to teach cotton. See mountains on page 13.

Do not teach all the above in one lesson.

For pronunciation of names of places and of other words used in Elements of Geography, see supplement. If pupils are to use the Pronouncing Word List they should be trained to pronounce the key words.

2. Hills and Valleys.

The purpose of this lesson is to lead pupils to look for hills and valleys near home.

Running water shows which way land slants.

How does a hill differ from a valley? This question does not call for definitions. Pupils can discover that on a hill the sides meet at the top, while in a valley they meet at the bottom; that a hill rises above the land near it, while a valley is lower than the land at its sides; that water runs away from hills, and into valleys. A few simple questions will help to bring out these and other thoughts. Do not expect too much at first.

Pupils can draw hills and valleys, on the blackboards. The sand tables, now in use in many schools, will help to illustrate this lesson.

3. Brooks and Rivers.

To show that the speed of streams depends mainly on the slant (or slope) of the land, and to teach the names brook and river.

Look for names in the pictures, page 2. Rain feeds these brooks. The water flows swiftly in the rapids, because the land is steep. Under the bridge the land is nearly level.

The brooks spread over the meadow, because there is a hollow in it. The water fills the hollow and makes a pond.

See pictures of rivers on pages 3, 5, 10, 11, 14, 102 and 135. 'See brooks on pages 4 and 7.

4. Slopes.

To teach the value of slopes in nature.

Talk about the slopes near your school, and then find pictures of slopes in this book. This text may be used for an oral reading lesson.

Pupils can discover that the pond in the meadow has already overflowed its banks. The water now runs off as fast as it flows in. In times of heavy rain the water may flow in faster than it can flow out. Then the pond will spread over more of the meadow.

The text does not state that all ponds and lakes are made by brooks and rivers.

What can pupils find in the picture?

5. Kinds of Soil.

To lead pupils to observe the kinds of soil in their district.

Use any kinds of soil. Let the pupils know that the water poured on the soil shows what becomes of some of the rain.

Plants that decay help to form soil. If there is a grove near your school, the pupils may find leaf mold in it.

The most important part of this lesson is that of interesting pupils in collecting kinds of soil.

6. Work of Water.

To show that water washes away soil. Try to teach this lesson on a rainy day. Lead pupils to talk about the picture. Notice the clear sky above

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