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NEW YORK • CHICAGO • BOSTON
ROARK'S ECONOMY IN EDUCATION
By Ruric N. RoarK, Ph.D., Dean of the Department of Pedagogy, State College of Kentucky
This, the third book in Dr. Koark's pedagogical series, is a contribution to educational literature that is original in title, in purpose, and in contents. It deals with the -problems confronting the individual teacher in the successful, administration of his school, and also with the larger problems of the school as a part of the institutional life and growth of modern society. The first part of the work presents in new form all that was best in the old books on "school management," and adds much that is new and helpful. In the second part the problems of the administration of school-systems are dealt with. Such matters as taxation, school-boards, courses of study, and the distinctive work of the different schools—elementary, secondary, and higher —are discussed. In the third part are described the latest movements in the economical correlation of all the other educational forces of the community—the home, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc.—with the school. The book is not only invaluable to the individual teacher in any grade of work, but it is especially adapted for use as a text in normal schools, teachers' reading courses, and college departments of pedagogy.
Containing All Necessary Texts from the Banal to the Supplementary
Since ii« Organization the Company ban Paid to It* Policyholdera In
DEATH CLAIMS v . 887,241.878.67 ENDOWMENTS MATURED, > I lit (.:, I:i..m>
Policyholders received in Annual Dividends during 1904, $941,827.00
Good Type-Well Printed—Fine Paper—HalfLenther Binding—Clotb Sides—Price Kedaced to si.50, postpaid. Send (or sample pages.
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"aSfS-^. } DAVID McKAY, Publisher, 1022 Market St.. Philadelphia
The Educational Foundations
Professional Advancement Course
Ossian H. Lang, Editor
The Program for 1904 5.- The courses of reading planned for promise to be of even greater usefulness and interest than those of last year. The co-operation of several valued friends makes possible a rich program partially suggested in the following outline:
AMERICAN EDUCATION,RELIGIOUS EDUCATION, MORAL EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
rtnlir «t rn a I7»»a r SPECIAL RATES WILL BK MADE TO READING CLUBS USING TEN OR
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The School Spirit.*
By Dr. Edward W. Stitt, District Superintendent of Schools, Borough of Manhattan.
A school which is animated by a proper school spirit is a distinct force in the community for good, and in its constantly increasing army of young graduates, it is leavening the lump of our municipality to higher ideals of civic duty, and a broader realization of our privileges as citizens of what should be "Our City Beautiful." The first and most important agent in obtaining a proper degree of school spirit, is the immediate head of the school, the principal. Neither the limitations of an old or poorly constructed building, nor the drawbacks which arise from a school population of foreign extraction, or of very limited financial ability, should prevent succesful efforts in this direction. The principal with a proper realization of his opportunities will, in some way or other, contrive to enthuse both teachers and pupils to a high degree of school spirit. The examples of Thomas Arnold at Rugby, and a long line of schoolmasters who led their teachers and pupils to high ideals, are strong proofs of the success which will come when the head of the school is animated by the genius of true leadership.
A review of some of the opportunities which the proper discussion of the duties of a principal will bring' may enlarge our usefulness, stimulate our enthusiasm, and remind us more fully of the dignity of our positions as trainers of teachers, and our immediate duty as the administrative heads of our schools.
I would strongly urge the principal's active share in the work of arousing and maintaining a strong school spirit, because the zeal of an enthusiastic captain of our school ship will animate the best effort that is in each member of our young crew. From the earliest years of their careers at school, the pupils must have in constant view the importance of graduation. Every promotion from class to class forms one link in the chain to be completed by the pupil's success in meeting the final graduation requirements. Occasional reference to leading graduates of the school, who in various professions have attained high rank, may be made in such a way that the pupils will see that the success of these leaders was in large measure the result of their early training in the elementary schools.
The distinguished lawyer who has just been elected attorney-general of this great Empire state, is a graduate of the school of which I had the honor to be the former principal. While he was Judge Mayer, I invited him to attend the assembly exercises one morning, and in an excellent speech he urged the boys to put forth their best efforts, promising them a sure harvest of future success if they carefully sowed the seed of proper study when young, and if they acquired habits of . industry, punctuality, and a high standard of duty.
•Read at a recent conference with the principals of the 8th and 12th districts.
The speaker paid a splendid tribute of appreciation to his former teachers, some of them yet in the service, and actively at work for good in the same school, and told the boys how much he really owed to the teachers who had so faithfully striven to develop his desire for study, and mold his character upon a high plane of honorable ambition. When the speaker had finished, I read from the archives of the school the record of the judge's graduation with the highest honors. I held up before the school the actual printed program of the commencement exercises, announcing the address delivered by him at the time of graduation. The effect upon the school was remarkable. A thunder of applause welcomed the information, and the flashing eye and bright smile of hope upon many a boy's face displayed the registered resolve: "I will endeavor to see if I also can be so successful that some day my school may be proud of me."
A few years ago Princeton won the football championship over Yale after a remarkable game which was decided very largely thru the wonderful skill and pluck of one of the Princeton team— a former graduate of our school. I wrote to the football hero, extending the congratulations of our regiment of boys, and received in reply a most appropriate letter in which he paid a high tribute to his former teachers, and stated that he considered that his special success in football had begun several years previously when he played upon the football team of our school. Our boys were delighted at the receipt of the letter, and I am confident that many boys then and there resolved that if possible they would go to college.
The recently elected president of the board of education is a graduate of one of the male grammar schools of our district, and I believe the knowledge of that fact will stimulate every pupil of that school to renewed hopes of future success.
If the principal of a school has been in charge of the same building for a number of years, he can of course have a better knowledge of the success of his graduates. A young principal must study the old records, carefully examine the list of graduates, and in that way, he will discover that among the alumni are many who have taken high rank in their chosen professions. I have found that every graduate of special distinction whom I discovered, was able to bring to my attention the names and addresses of many others who had also been successful, but of whom we had lost all trace.
While the principals of our grammar schools have an advantage over those who have charge of so-called primary schools, in being able to keep more fully informed of their graduates' careers, much good work along the same line can be done by the principals of our primary departments. Many of the pupils of the grammar departments have usually gone thru the whole school, and therefore their success can be justly claimed by both principals. I know of a primary principal who reads every year to her school the names of the honor students and prize winners at the Normal college who were her former pupils, and emphasizes the statement that these young ladies received their first knowledge of reading, writing, and number work, the essentials of all higher education; in that particular school. Do you doubt that the effect upon the little primary children is stimulating when they hear that future success depends upon present effort?
The organization of alumni associations is the logical outcome of a proper interest awakened on the part of the graduates. By this means a splendid school spirit may be developed. I know of a school located in the most crowded section of the lower east side which has for years maintained an effective alumni organization. The pupils of this particular school are now mostly of foreign birth, and many of them in poor circumstances, but membership in the alumni association isconsidered to be one of the special prizes which goes with the coveted school diploma. The alumni present yearly hundreds of bronze medals to those scholars who have attained perfect attendance and punctuality, and a remarkable degree of school spirit has been fostered.
The principal of a primary school who sends her pupils to an adjacent grammar school, may do much to encourage school pride among her little ones, by keeping informed of the success of those who have gone ahead from the primary school, and by being as proud of the achievements of her so-called graduates as the grammar school principal is of his graduates. By occasional inquiry and consultation with the neighboring principal, the primary principal may discover that her pupils are among the most successful pupils in the higher schools. Much generous emulation may thus be encouraged.
One of the most important helps to school spirit is to dignify the closing exercises, our so-called "Commencements." In my opinion, every principal should endeavor to surround the occasion with all the eclat possible. To many of the young graduates, the elementary school diploma is the only one they will ever receive, and I believe that a reasonable amount of dignity should mark the celebration of the occasion. Do not understand me to favor elaborate white dresses for our '' sweet girl graduates," or carriages to bring them to the school, or a wanton display of floral gifts from friends. I merely urge a commencement which shall have as many unique features as the limitations of our poorly adapted assembly rooms will permit.
Special attention should be paid to the music; there should be some choice speaking by selected pupils, and an address by some speaker of distinguished ability, preferably a graduate of the school, to stimulate school spirit. In the interests of those who will never be graduated from any other institution of learning, and so that they may keep some slight souvenir of their Commencement day, I urge the importance of printed programs. These need not be expensively gotten up, altho two of our schools last year published elaborate programs of remarkable excellence. They contained half-tone picture of the graduates, the principals, and graduating class teachers, school songs, valedictory addresses by the principal and district superintendent, and other interesting features which combined to form souvenirs which shall become more highly treasured as the years pass by. By means of advertisements secured with little effort from the storekeepers near the schools, from friends of the teachers, or the parents of the graduates, the books were made self-supporting. One of these books was a handsome publication of fortyeight pages, and the other contained thirty-six pages.
A very effective means to inculcate a high degree of school spirit is to give judicious praise to the excellent work of your efficient teachers. If the pupils hear you heartily endorse the efforts of your teachers, the parents will, by reflex action, come to look upon your corps as an excellent one, and your school will soon come to have a good name in the neighborhood. Generous praise—not fulsome flattery—of your teachers will not only secure their co-operation, but it gives them an appreciation of their work which is a welcome accompaniment to the merely financial value of their monthly check. There is, of course, an indirect return to you, because while there may be some excellent teachers in a very poor school, the fact remains uncontradicted that to have a uniformly excellent corps of teachers they must be constantly under your fostering care. By your diligent watchfulness and unwearied supervision, you can strive that your weak teachers may grow into such strong members of your corps, that the whole school spirit is raised in tone.
A strong element in forming a proper school spirit is to have the highest confidence in the honor arrd dignity of your pupils. Aim for high ideals, and let your school know that you appreciate whatever success comes to any of its members. We all like praise, and if you are constantly scolding your pupils and comparing their work to that done formerly, with a running comment of disparaging remarks, you must not expect great school pride. Perhaps the most immediate factor in securing the aid of your pupils is by insisting upon their co-operation in all matters pertaining to the general welfare of the school. From the moment each pupil crosses the sill of his home till he reaches his class-room, on all streets and avenues, he becomes a walking advertisement for good or for ill. If the pupils' books are neatly covered, their shoes well polished, clothes neat and clean, and their general bearing that of courteous young Americans, the citizens of the neighborhood will soon learn to be proud of your school. Your work as a principal is burdened by a hundred cares incident to proper supervision, and I do not wish to add unduly to them. Such matters as the above are to be committed to the individual teacher, but you must be the power behind the throne. The teacher must feel that you are the strong right arm which supports proper discipline. You must make the weak teacher strong, and the strong teacher stronger. By giving especial attention to the young and inexperienced teachers, the pupils of their classes will attend to the covering of books and to the care of their personal appearance for you, as principal, even if they refuse to do it for the weak teachers.
A high degree of class pride is still another important factor in successful school spirit. There must be awakened a generous rivalry among the various classes, or the general tone of your school cannot be high. In the matter of punctuality, the announcement at the opening exercises of the classes which have reached a perfect record for a whole week, will greatly stimulate increased efficiency in promptness in getting to school. I knew of a number of principals who announced each morning the names of the classes having a perfect register, and by a little judicious praise, and sometimes wholesome reproof, wonderful results may be accomplished in attaining a high percentage of average attendance for the whole week. Truancy will then become a far less vexatious problem, for if you awaken the enthusiasm of your pupils, you will have a thousand would-be attendance officers supervising your streets after school hours, and making life miserable for a pupil who has been mean enough to stay home and spoil the record of the class or school. All such efforts fail if they do not make for a general improvement of the whole school. As a principal you must be more proud of having seven classes with a perfect register on any one day, than of having any one class with a perfect register for seven successive days. In my former school, we selected a certain number—not too large to be impossible, nor too small to be too easily attainable—and this became a number for which we were constantly looking. For days, weeks, and months we strove to attain the specified number of perfect classes. At last we succeeded, and then we raised the standard by one, and tried again. No previous announcement had been made, but to reward the classes who took part in the great victory, thru the courtesy of some friends, a handsome picture was presented to each successful teacher for the decoration of the classroom. Even the classes which had not directly aided in the excellent record, rejoiced in the fact that we had reached the standard we had tried" to attain.
One of the most important factors in the power of a principal to maintain the proper school spirit is the morning assembly. The exercises should be marked by a constant variety, so as to relieve them from the dead formalism and dull monotony of so many schools. The hymns and songs should be of a high standard, and the pupils must know that music does not consist in shouting. The quotations should not onjy be carefully selected, but the greatest care should be taken that in their delivery proper pronunciation, clear articulation, and intelligent expression, shall make the audience of pupils comprehend fully the beauty of the selections. While the marching and military evolutions of the school should be characterized by a uniform excellence, the pupils must not be expected to sit in rigid rows like mechanical figures. The discipline must be one that will attract the visitor by its manly, American tone of interested attention. While the teachers are in evidence by their presence, they should not seem to be stationed like
mere sentinals on the constant watch for disorder. The prindipal has in these "Morning Exercises," a splendid chance to display his executive ability. School spirit will always display itself in a high standard of excellence at the morning dress parade. Three members of the recent Mosely commission informed me that they had seen nothing in any of the schools that so inspired them as the assembly exercises of one of the schools of our district.
A factor of considerable importance in maintaining school spirit is found in a neatly decorated assembly room. I am well aware that in many buildings of our crowded city the necessity of using sliding doors to form additional class-rooms, and the lack of proper wall space, greatly interfere with successful attempts at artistic decoration. The fact still remains that in some schools much more is done than mothers. The principal's platform should be the center of any plan of decoration, and quality, rather than quantity, should always guide the selection of material, Novelty is also a factor of importance, and occasionally pictures, flags, busts, etc., should be rehung, so that the general effect may be different. I am sure that in many schools in our city—I hope not in our district—there has not been a change in the placing of the pictures in many years. In private homes and picture galleries, changes are made in this respect; therefore, why not in our schools? The efforts of the graduates may be enlisted in this matter. A number of our schools have made an excellent start in having the outgoing pupils of the graduating class leave upon the school walls some memorial picture or bust. All such gifts should be marked by a simple metal plate upon which is inserted Gift of the Alumni association, Class of Many of the
posts of the Grand Army of the Republic have given handsome flags to the school, and some of the patriotic socities have presented handsomely framed pictures of Washington and Lincoln, and a fac simile copy of the Declaration of Independence. (To be concluded next week.)
Means for Increasing the Efficiency of Our Public School Work.
By Supt. J. W. Carr, Anderson, Indiana; President of the Department of Superintendence, N.E.A.*
Some years ago I was chairman of a church committee to purchase a new pipe organ. We were an ambitious congregation, so nothing but the biggest and the best would suffice. We purchased a magnificent instrument—three manuals, tracker —pneumatic action, 1944 pipes and all the necessary swells and stops—cost $5,000. It was a " thing of beauty" and we thought it would be a "joy forever." The congregation was pleased; the committee was delighted.
But somehow things did not go well. Sister Jones, the old organist would not touch the newfangled thing. '' Too much machinery and too much show," she said. Of course we were adverse to going outside of the congregation for an organist. So we tried Minnie Wright, the deacon's daughter; but Minnie could not manipulate the stops and swells. We next tried Josie Gray son, an orphan girl who really needed the place. Now Josie could play with her hands, but when it came to playing with her feet too, she could not do it. We next tried Seth McGraw who had been to college, and, who in addition to his musical ability, was able-bodied and strong. Seth put all the power on the motor, pulled out all the stops, and
* Paper read at the Milwaukee meeting of the Department of Superintendence, N. E. A.
kicked and pawed with might and main. The organ shrieked and bellowed and roared. As for noise, the bulls of Bashan were out-classed. But as for music -well it requires more than a big organ and a big man to produce that. The congregation was disappointed, disgusted, and fast becoming desperate. They said that the organ was too big, too complicated, and that it had at least 1900 pipes too many! There were charges of mismanagement and even fraud against the committee, and hints that "something might be doing."
Now Indiana lies in the north central portion of the lynching belt of the United States, so the committee felt a trifle uncomfortable.
To my way of thinking, there is a marked similarity between the musical experience of this congregation and the educational experience of many communities in this country. We have builded great school-houses and prepared elaborate courses of study with more manuals, stops, and swells than characterized the great organ of Newtown. The old course of study, which was so simple that even Sister Jones could play it by ear, has given place to a new, elaborate, and highly organized course which is difficult—entirely too difficult—for the Minnie Wrights and the Josie Graysons, even