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from Acapulco in July, 1539. He proceeded up the coast beyond the point previously reached and discovered the port, now known as Guaymas, where he landed and took possession of the country, as was usual on such occasions. Again embarking with two ships, for one had been lost on the way, he sailed still further up the coast and soon noticed that there was land on both sides east and west. After going more than a hundred leagues and passing several islands, he found that the mountains on each side began to approach nearer and nearer; that the sea became shoal, and that its waters, which had been clear, began to grow thick and muddy. He ascended to the mast-head of his ship and, seeing in the distant north that the lowlands from east and west stretched out towards each other, he satisfied himself that he could not advantageously sail any further in that direction.

Being determined to turn round, Ulloa first landed and took possession as before. He then ran down along what proved to be the eastern shore of Lower California. It soon became evident that he was in a gulf; but he hoped and expected to find an outlet, among the mountains on the west, to the ocean and then continue his voyage northward again in accordance with the instruction of Cortes. He, however, could discover no passage and, after several weeks' sailing, arrived at Santa Cruz, where he had been before. From there, after some detention, he resumed his voyage, still sailing south till he came to Cape San Lucas, the southern point of Lower California. This he doubled, and then ran up along the coast against cold northwesterly winds, keeping in sight of land all the way, until he came, on January 20, 1540, to a considerable island, now known as Cerros, which he called Cedros. There he landed and supplied his vessels with wood and water, after which he made several attempts to proceed further north. But each time he was driven back by the northwest winds, which grew more and more violent and compelled him to remain at the island until April.

By that time, many of his companions had become dissatisfied and insisted upon turning back. After some controversy, Ulloa finally consented that the larger of his ships might return; but, being determined to do his full duty, he courageously and manfully picked out the boldest and bravest of the sailors; placed them in the smaller vessel, and with



[Showing Cabo Del Engafio and Ulloa's Route. From Venegas' "Noticia de la California," etc. The inscription on the map, half Latin and half Spanish, reads in English, "Domingo del Castillo, Pilot, made me In Mexico, in the year of the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1541."]

them, while the other ship turned southward before the wind, he again beat up against the northwesterly gales. But it seemed to be impossible for him to advance beyond a point, about thirty leagues north of Cerros island, which he called Cabo del Engano—the Cape of Deceit. By that time he found that bis provisions would not last much longer, and he was compelled to abandon the further prosecution of his voyage northward. He accordingly turned south and followed the other vessel as far as the coast of Jalisco, where he was basely assassinated by one of his own people.

With this voyage ended Cortes' connection with California. He failed to reach the best part of it or find any of its wealth. But he performed great and valuable services in its behalf. It was under his auspices that ships first breasted the waters of the North Pacific; that the west coast of Mexico was minutely examined; that the gulf of California, which in his honor was long known as the sea of Cortes, was first made known to the civilized world; that the peninsula of Lower California was discovered and surveyed in almost its entire extent. His brilliant career in Mexico entitles him to a high rank among the conquerors of the earth; but it is in his Californian expeditions that is to be found the best exhibition of his courage, his constancy and his fortitude. In 1540, after learning the result of Ulloa's voyage, he returned to Spain for the purpose of obtaining some acknowledgment for the six hundred thousand dollars he had expended in recent expeditions. It seems to have been his intention, had he succeeded in Spain, to come back to America and resume his search in the northwest. But, though received, as before, with shows of honor, he was obliged to spend the remaining seven years of his life in vain solicitations. His great spirit fretted against his enforced inactivity, and he died, still unheard and unrequited, at a little village near Seville in December, 1547.



(To be studied with the Teacher.)

From what place did the expedition led by Narvaez start? How was he equipped? At what point in Florida did he land? How did he become separated from his ships? How did he pursue his journey? Where and how did he lose his life? Where were a few of his men thrown ashore? From what point did they start on their wanderings? What do you remember about Narvaez and Cortes?

NOTE.—From the text you see how the experience of Cabeza de Vaca served to stimulate in the west the desire to explore the interior of the continent. It had the same effect in the east.

2. Who was authorized to conquer and occupy the country

embraced within the patent of Narvaez? From what place did the expedition set out? When? How was it equipped? Where did it land? Trace briefly its wanderings. Did he find any kingdoms worth plundering? What was the principal event of the expedition? What was the fate of its leader? In what famous conquest had he taken part?

3. In what way did expeditions into the interior of the conti

nent tend to correct the views commonly held as to a northwest passage?


The following detached statements continue the story of The Conquest of Mexico. They trace the career of Cortes from the commencement of his march upon Mexico until he captured the city. Combine them as you did the previous ones into sentences and the sentences into paragraphs. The paragraphs that you can form are indicated in the grouping of the statements.

1. When Cortes began his march to Mexico, his force consisted of 450 Spaniards. Many of them were clad in mail. He had half-a-dozen small cannon. He had fifteen horses. The horses terrified the natives.

2. At one place the Spaniards were received as gods. A fierce tribe, known as the Tlascalans, did not believe this and offered battle. The Spaniards defeated them. The Tlascalans then made an alliance with the Spaniards. They did this because the Aztecs were their enemies. The allies then marched towards Mexico. The chief of one town attempted to entrap the Spaniards. He did not succeed in doing so.

3. The Spaniards first saw the City of Mexico, November 7, 1519. They entered it next day. When Cortes had been in the city six days, he seized Montezuma. An attempt was made to release him by his brother and two chiefs. Cortfis captured them and put them in irons. The people did not know what to do while Montezuma was alive and in captivity.

4. The long winter passed in quiet. In April, Cortes heard that Panfilo de Narvaez had anchored on the coast with eighteen ships and not less than twelve hundred men. He had been sent by Velasquez with orders to arrest Cortes. Cortes took three hundred men and marched at once to the Coast. He left one hundred and fifty men under Pedro de Alvarado to guard Montezuma and Mexico. He surprised, defeated and captured Narvaez. He enlisted the men in his service. He then marched back to Mexico. He arrived there the 24th of June. He saw at once that something terrible had happened while he had been away.

5. The Spaniards, left there, had massacred about six hundred of the people on the day of their spring festival. They had done so because they feared an attack. Many chiefs of clans were massacred. *

6. As food was needed, Cortes released Montezuma's brother to open the markets. Instead of doing so, he called together the tribal council. It deposed Montezuma and elected him in his place. The Spaniards were fiercely attacked next morning. Montezuma tried to stop the attack. He could not. The people considered his authority gone. He was struck by a stone. He died on the last day of June. On the evening of the next day Cortes evacuated the city. The Indians fell upon his force in great numbers. It was a terrible night for him. It is known in history as "La Noche Triste—The Melancholy Night." Cortes wept. He did not for one moment, however, give up his purpose of taking Mexico.

7. In a few days the Indians attacked him in almost overwhelming force. He defeated them. He sent to Hispaniola for horses, cannon and soldiers. On April 28, 1521, he began the siege of Mexico. The fighting was incessant and terrible. At last, on the 13th of August, the city was captured.

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