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Zurich. Colre may also be reached by rail direct. See pages 154, 155, and page 214.
Fares.—Zurich to Wallenstadt 9 fx. SO a; to Schraerikon, 2 fr. 65 c.
Embark and sail along the Lake of Zurich, described at page 372. On the Lake of Zurich are the Tillages.
Kussnacht—with 300 inhabitants.
L.—A sweet little town, remarkable for its many silk factories, and containing a population of about 5000. A tine old castle, once the residence of the bailiff Oberamtman, but now possessed by a private individual.
Rdschuron. - To the rear of this are the baths of Nydelbad. Passing Meilen and Thalwyl, we arrive at
Hoboen.— Passengers wishing to visit the Righl, via Zug, must disembark here.
Richtekswyl.—Situated on the frontier line of the two cantons of Zurich and Schwytz. Pilgrims for the famous shrine of the Black Virgin at Einsielden disembark here. Here also is one of the largest cotton factories in Switzerland.
Stafa.—A village with four thousand Inhabitants, remarkable as being the residence of < roethe. Nearing Rapperschwyl, the Isle of Aufhau forms a remarkable feature and ornament of the landscape. It is celebrated as being the scene of the refuge and death of I Uric Von Hutten.
Kapperschwtl.—Situated on a neck of land advancing into the Lake of Zurich, eighteen miles south-east of Zurich. Its bridge traverses the lake for a distance of nearly five thousand feet It is twelve feet broad, and is built of loose planks, not nailed, and without railing. The toll charged is enormous, being nearly 2s. Gd. Knglish, for a char-it-banc The original bridge was built by Leopold of Austria in 1358, and the present one is a construction of 1819. The ruins of oue of the oldest Castles of the Hapsburg family may be seen here.
Schmehikon.—Is located at the eastern extremity of the Lake of Zurich; at it the road leaves its margin.
Uznach.—A small town of nine hundred Inhabitants. Here the road to St Gall turns off; and close by at Oberkirch. are the brown coal mines. After leaving Uznach, the valley of Glarus, with its snowy mountains, opens to the right.
Wesen.—A little village containing about sis hundred inhabitants, situated at the extreme point of the Lake of Wallenstadt The journey is made through a pretty country.
Wesen to Glarus, 10 miles.
Wesen to Wallenstadt, by steam up the Lake of Wallenstadt •The voyage Is accomplished in about two hours, and the fare is Is. M. The southern side presents an aspect of verdure and cultivation. On the north aide of the lake are the mountains
Wallenstadt.—A considerable place, with about eight or nine hundred Inhabitants. Leaving Wallenstadt, we meet with some beautiful scenery in the valley of the Scat, and reach
Sarqans.—A small town, situated on an eminence close to the junction of the St. Gall and Zurich roads to Colre, and containing about eight hundred inhabitants. From Itagatz, where the Hof Ragatz is an excellent Inn, the excursion to the baths of Pfeffers should on no account be omitted. The distance Is about four miles, and it is a most delightful walk by the river side, over an excellent char road. From Ragatz to Colre the distance is 13 miles.
Coire—Described at page 364.
ROUTS 5. Coire to Splugen, by the Via Mala.
(Distance, 32 English miles.)
Conveyance.—Diligence dally, occupying about seven hours In the journey.
RichKnAc.—A small town, built where the two Rhines unite. This place is remarkable as having been the scene of Louis Philippe's (lateKing; of the French) professional labours as an usher. He arrived here In 1793, with a pack on his back and a staff In his hand; and, proceeding to the school-house—once the family chateau of the Plant*—presented a letter of introduction to the principal, M. .lost, who engaged him under the assumed name of Chabot He was then Duke de Chartres; and for six or ten months gave lessons in French, history, and mathematics. He was beloved by both scholars and master; .and whilst residing here, heard of his father's death by the guillotine, and of his mother's transportation.
From here the road to the Splugen proceeds along the Hinter-Rhein, and on the left bank of the Rhine, further on, is seen the castle of Rhoetzuns, standing on the top of a lofty rock. A great portion of the RheinthaL called the Valley of Domteschg, is studded with old castles, and is remarkable for its varieties of language and religion.
As we approach Katzis, on the other side of the Rhine, a magnificent view through the Valley of Oberhalbstein may be had; and this, in its extraordinary beauty, Is greatly added to by the snows of Mount Aibula closing the vista before us in the
Thusis.—A very small village, beautifully located at the mouth of the Via Mala gorge. It contains about 700 inhabitants. A little beyond Thusis the Nolla is crossed by a very beautiful bridge.
440 ROUTES 5, 6, AND 7. RKIOHEyAU,
The Via Mala opens short of half a mile above Tlinsis, and extends about 4} miles. It is one of the most awfully savage and fearfully tremendous defiles in Switzerlnnd. Language is barren in conveying anything like a precise idea of the colossal dimensions of this gorge—passing through precipices oftentimes 3650 feet high, and not more than ten or twelve yards in width. The road is on the whole pretty good, is protected by a parapet wall, and crosses the Rhine three times.
The middle bridge Is approached by a small gallery, and is about 400 feet high. The road is here half hewn out of the precipice, forming almost a subterranean passage. Close to the third bridge we pas* a very fine structure, enter the valley of Schams, and passing the village of Zlllis, arrive at
A KOBE*.—The chief village of Schamerstbal contains about five hundred inhabitants. If the tourists wish, they can explore the Val Ferrers, which is wild and savage, but very Inferior to the Via Mala, and does not at all resemble it. It is to the left of the road. It takes about five hours to explore it. The road having crossed the mouth of the Val Ferrera and the stream of the A versa, it ascends Into the gorge of the Rofla, where the Rhine descends in a series of cataracts. The scenery around is very fine. Soon after the new road, leaving the bridge, runs through a small gallery cut in the rock, and crossing to the left bank of the Rhine, arrives at
Splugen.—A small village, situated on the Rhine, at the point where the Splugen and Bernardine Passes commence, and where passengers change for the two routes into Italy. It is 4711 feet above the level of the sea.
Splugen to BelUnzona, by the Bernardine Pass.
(Distance, 46 English miles.)
Conveyance by diligence daily.
The road, leaving the Splugen bridge and road over the Splugen Pass to the left, proceeds up the valley of Hinter-Rhein. The scenery along the bank by Nttfanen Is wild and barren.
Hinteb-rhkin.—A small village, about 176 feet above SplOgen. From here we proceed by the Pass of the Bernardin. The road leaves the Rhine at Htnter-Rhein, which it crosses by a bridge, and ascending the steep slope of the mountain, gives a very fine view, over the head of the Rhine on the left, and of the stupendous mass of the Mosehel Horn on the right. Thebinck ptwkof the Mittng Horn overhangs t he Pa«s on the left. The summit of this Pass Is about 7115 feet above the sea, and about 2400 above the village of Splugen. At its point we find a very good though plain inn. Proceeding a little down the mountain, we pass the Uoesa over
THE VIA MALA, ANPEER, gPLUGEV.
a handsome bridge, called after Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy. The carriage-road here is roofed in for some distance to protect it from the avalanches.
St. Bernabdino.—The first and highest village met with in the valley of Misocco. Here there is a mineral spring, much frequented bv Italians in the summer; and our descent to the lower valley is made through beautiful and romantic scenery.
Muocco. — A small village with about IO00 Inhabitants. Its castle and churchyard will repay a visit The scenery all about is very beautifnJ. Proceeding through the valley of Misocco, after passing Soazza, Roveredo, and Arbedo, we arrive at Bellini ona, described at page 360.
Conveyance by diligence.
It takes nearly three hours to mount the Zigzags. The descent on the Italian side offers mmir points of view eminently pieturesqiie The road passes through Pianazzo, near which there Is a cascade of nearly 700 feet. Sometimes the ctmdnctor of the diligence, if not behind time, may be Induced to stop for a few minutes to allow passengers to view the cascade.
Cam ro Dolcino is next passed, and about nin« miles farther on is
Chiavenna a town of 3000 Inhabitants. and famous for its beer, large quantities of which are sent to Milan and all the principal Italian towns. Carriages way be obtained here.
Sixteen miles below Chlnvenna is Couco, on the Lake of Como. where the diligence stops, and whence there are steamers down the lake to Couiu. See page 377.
ROUTE 8. Berne to Thun, (see Route I, page 439.; Thun to Vevey, by the Simment! al, Sttaneu, Chateau d'Oex & Gruyeres, and Pass of the Dent de J am an.
(Distance, 81 English miles.)
A splendid road leads through the Sfrnmenthal, and a diligence runs in summer. The Journey through the valley is rendered delightful by the beautiful and charming scenery with which it abounds, commanding brilliant landscapes of wood and water, enlivened by picturesque villages and homesteads. The entrance to the Simmentlial lies between the Stock horn on the right and the Nlesen on the left. It li approach) d from Thun by the road extending along the margin of the lake and by the banks of the Konder, to the spot
ROUTE 8.—THE SIMMBNTHAL, SAANEN, CHATEAU D OEX KoUTE tJ. MARTIGNY. 441 ROUTE 17— ST. FIEHRE, MORGUE, AOSTA. KOUTE 10. BERNE AMD LAUSANNE.
where it meets the Slip men. a short distance from I the castle of Wimmls, passed on the left.
Kklsnbach is a couple of miles farther on, with Che Stockhora rising immediately behind it
Weissenbeho.—The Baths of Weissenberg are di.-stnnt 24 miles Conveyance by mule or char, to bu procured at the inn here. The path to the Baths winds along a romantic and picturesque defile. The Bath-house is constructed of wood; expense of baths and living, y or 10 fr. a day.
Boltinuen—A small village built to the south ot the castle of Shwneneck, 2600 feet above the level of the tea. A steep ascent presents itself, but is avoided by the winding ot the road. Above us is the ruins of the castle of Lanbeck.
Zwsisimhen—A village of wooden houses, containing about 1300 inhabitants; and is built where the great and lesser Simmen join. Here the road to Bulle and Vevey, verging towards the S.W., leaves the Simmenthal; and crossing the Saanen Moser, leads into
Saanen.—The principal Tillage of the Valley of the Upper Sarme; remarkable as being all in pasture, and possessing a population exclusively engaged in pastoral occupation, and famous for the manufacture ol cheese, known ns "Gruy^res." From here is made the ascent of the Sanetsch Pass. The road, on leaving, is rugged and steep, which will take the trave'U-r, in about 11 hours, to sion, in the Valais. The 1 'anion of Vaud Is entered about a mile below Saanen.
Rougemont.—A small village of no note.
Chateau D'oex.—A small village of 700 inhabitants. It is 3030 feet above the sea, and was rebuilt after a terrible conflagration. Crossing the Saanen we traverse the narrow pass of La Tine amid mountains, rocks, and pines. The road, though rather narrow, is accessible to carriages. 10$ hours will suffice to accomplish thejoumey from hereto Vevty, with a carriage and pair of stout hones.
Montboton.—A small but pretty village situated in the Canton of Freiburg. A horse-path over the Pass of Dent de J am an, brings the traveller to Vevey in 6 hours. The views and scenery are charming. The carriage road leading from Montbovon to Vevey, keeps to the valley of the Saaneo. After making a long detour, it passes round the base of the Moleson, (6181 feet), and, winding under the hills, passes by
Grcyf.res.—A filthy little town or village containing about 400 inhabitants. Its position is very picturesque, being built, on the face of a hill, crowned with a castle, which is Tery remarkable, and an object worthy a Tfstt. The district in which the town Is situated is renowned for its cheeses. The old chapel of St. Theodule is also worth a visit. Within It is a monument and effigy of a Count of Gruyere, remarkable for their antiquity. Bulle to Vovay, see Route 1, pave 432.
Martigny to Aosta, Pass of the
The distance from Martigny to the Hospice is about 27 miles, which can be traversed in a walk of about eight or ten hours, and thence to Aosta in about seven or eight.
Chars take the travellers from Martigny (see Route 1,) to the Can tine, about two hours below the top, whence the ascent to the Hospice is accomplished on mules. The road passes through theBourg Martigny, and crosses to the left bank of the Drance. From this point it follows the course of the river as far as the villages of Valette and Bouvemier. The road again crossing and recrossing the river, and continuing its course by the right bank along the Valley of the Drance, proceeds up the left bank to Semhranchier— a miserable village situated at the foot of Mount Catogne— where the two branches of the Drance unite. A little above this place, very beautiful views in the Val d'Kntremont may be enjoyed, differing, in no way however, from the general character of Alpiue scenery.
Oesieres.—[A path from here through the Val de Ferret. On leaving the Tillage behind, the scenery met with is rugged and wild, though not to any great extent. Nor is the landscape remarkable for anything worth notice, until the forest of St. Pierre, and the Tillage of
Liddes.—A char to Martigny costs 12 frs.; and mules to the Hospice, 6 frs.
St. Patau.—A small and wretched village, venerable by its antiquity. Not far from here is a magnificent cascade, in the Val Orsey. BeyonC St. Pierre the path passes through a larch forest, far below which, in the distance, can be seen the course of the Drance. Four miles beyond is the Cantine, a rough inn, where the carriage road stops. Above this plain is the Glacier of Menou, topped by the lofty peak of Mont Velan—the highest part of the Great St. Bernard. Shortly after, the Hopital is reached; it is elevated 8200 feet above the level ol the sea. At the Convent of St Bernard Is the point of separation between the waters that flow into the Adriatic Sea and those that flow to the Mediterranean. The Hospice has acquired a world-wide fame for the hoepitality of its inmates. It is a stone building, massive and strong, built on the loftiest point of the Pass, exposed in its north-east and sonth-west sides to every storm, but sheltered on the northwest by Mont Chenelletaz and Mont Mort The chief building has seventy or eighty beds for the use of travellers, and is capable of atlbrding shelter tn over 300. Some days 600 or 700 receive aid and succour. Independent of this building, there Is on the other side of the way a house of refuge, called the Hotel de St. Louis, a building erected in case of fire, the Hospice having been once burned down (iu 1582). On the ground floor are the stabling, store-rooms, Ac. Above these are the sleeping-rooms, <,he church, and refectory. A flight of steps between thetwocorridors leads to the drawing room, w'aere visitors are received by the brethren, The reception-room is chastely furnished, and ornamented with paintings, &c, presented by visitors in token of their gratitude to the brethren. The Library is interesting and attractive; It' contains a number of the plants, Insects, and minerals i.'j'lieenous to the Alps. It also contains a great many relics of the Temple of Jupiter, vrhich once stood on the Pass, not far from the Hospice (about l£ mile off. beyond the lake, on the f lain of Jupiter.) The figures of bronze, arms, metals, and coins, will deeply interest the antiquarian. Among the bronze relics is an extraordinary uplifted hand, carrying a snake and a toad—a horrible object, perhaps a counter-charm—there are said to be only three such in Europe. The chapel of the Hospice is a very handsome one, and contains the grave, and a monument erected by Napoleon to the memory of General Dessaix, slain at Marengo. This monastery was founded in the tenth century by St Bernard—a member of the noble family of Menthon, in Savoy—who was a canon and archdeacon of Aosta. He governed the convent for forty years, and died in 1008. All the documents, &c., likely to throw light on the circumstances of its foundation, were destroyed by the terrible conflagration of 1652. The monks of the community are regular canons of St Augustine. Ten or twelve usually live at the convent Their duty is to assist travellers In the dangers to which they are here continually exposed from the storm and the avalanche, in the discharge of which duty these devoted men often lose their lives. Scarcely a traveller ever passes without paying a visit to the
Morgue—in which are deposited the bodies of the unclaimed dead who perish on the mountains. At one end are the remains of those who are dried up and withered. Close by are skeletons, partly preserved and partly in a state of decomposition. The house in which these bodies are placed is rather a low building, situate a few yards from the east extreme point of the convent
The visitor can scarcely leave without seeing the dogs of the Hospice. They are a noble breed, said to be a cross between the Newfoundland and the Pyrenean. They are powerful, of great muscular strength, and very astonishing in their rational intelligence. Very many of them have perished with the guides. One of them, called Barry," is reported to have saved fourteen persons. His skin is stuffed, and may be seen at the Museum of Berne. A quarter of a mile beyond the Hospice, the descent to the Val d'Aosta commences, A very fine view may be had on looking out from the gorge on Mont Mort, towards the Vacherie. Vive miles from the Hospice ia the hamlet of St Remy. From here to St Oyen we pass no picturesque scenery. At this place the passports are rigidly examined; and unless perfectly correct, the traveller is not permitted to pass. The baggage is closely examined at Etroubles, where also Iscrossed the branch of the Buttier. From here the road goes down to the village of Gignod. Beautiful indeed, and rich in
all the glories of picturesque grandeur, ia the \ scenery of the country we now pass through. The Val d'Aosta, with its trellised vine and luxuriant vegetation relieved by the back ground, filled with the beautiful forma reflected by the snowy tops of the mountains above the Val de Cogne—render interesting and delightful our entrance into
Aosta.—A city built at the confluence of the Buttier and the Doire, In a valley rich and
i beautiful It contains about seven thousand inhabitants, and is remarkable for its antiquities and
i historical recollections, and for the beautiful scenery surrounding it on every side. Formerly called Clvitas Augusti, or the City of Augustus, it fills a large space in the page of antiquity. Known under the name of Cordele, its history dates further back
, than its conquest by Terenttus Varro. Its foundation is set down as being 406 years earlier than that of Heme by llomulus, and as having- occurred 1158 B.c. Twenty years before Christ Its inhabitants were reduced to captivity by the Emperor Augustus. He gave his own name to it on its beiDg rebuilt and established there a large number of the Praetorian cohorts. Its greatness at that time cannot be doubted. It gave one archbishop w
! England—Anselm, the Archbishop of Canterbury, in the eleventh century, who was born there. The Cathedral likewise deserves a visit. From Aosta there is regular communication with the railway station at Ivrea, thence rail to Turin, (fee
Berne to Lausanne, by Morat and Ayenches.
(Distance, 57 English Miles.)
Conveyance.—Diligence daily, to Morat .at d.H a.m , Steamer thence lo Neufchatel to meet the trains to Geneva, nnd also through the pass of the Jura to Salins, Dijon, and The Saarine J
Guminen—A short distance from which the road enters the Canton of Freyburg.
Morat, [Murten, German).—Situated pn the eaBt side of the Lake of Morat, and contains about 1,900 inhabitants. Its streets are narrow, and it is surrounded by feudal fortressesIt is only remarkable for the sanguinary battle of Morat, 1476, in which the Swiss defeated the Burgundians with great slaughter. The hill of Muncbwyler gives the best view of the scene of the battle, and of the lake, five miles beyond Morat 1$
A Venchbs.—Situated on the south-west angle of the area formerly occupied by the Aventicnm, capital of ancient Helvetia. The town is surrounded by walls, and contains a population
of 1,060. The antiquarian will hero find much food for stndy and contemplation. His research will be amply compensated by exploring the mouldering fragments of the broken walls and battlements, and other records of the reigns of Vespasian and Titus, as well as of the hostile invasions of Alemanni and Attila. A Corinthian coluinn* 37 feet high, is seen on the left of the road at the entranceof the town. The castle is a building of the seventh century.
Paybbnb.—A small town, noways remarkable. The church contains a relic, said to be Queen Bertha's saddle. This church also contains her tomb. The next place is
Moo Don.—A town containing about 1,600 in
Cabocoe.—To the left is the road to Vevey, which is very hilly, and requires extra horses to accomplish it From the summit of the Jorat from the southern side, a very beautiful view opens disclosing Lake Leman, &c.
Laos An era—described at page 367.
Lyons to Pont de Beauvoisin, by lies EcUelles, Chambery, and the Pass Of Mont Cenis, to Turin.
(Distance, about 180 English miles.)
Lyons to Font De Bbauvouin.
Conveyance by diligence bf courier every day.
Pont Bbaovoisin.—Situated on the banks of the Guiers V if; which is crossed by a bridge. The road from this place is at first flat, but becomes an ascent after a couple of miles are pasted. At the height of the ascent, we find Bplendld views opening up before us. Beneath us lies the sunny field of France. Soon after, we enter the magnificent gorge of La Challle. The road is constructed of solid masonry. Extending along the edge of the precipice, rugged stupendous cliffs, many hundred feet high, line the other side; whilst in the depths below rushes the impetuous torrent
Lee Echelles.— A village situated on the Guiers, being the starting point of a ruad leading to the Grand Chartreuse. We next enter the valley, and pass through the great tunnel cnt through the face of the mountain, a moBt extraordinary work, 25 feet high and 1000 feet long. We follow our route through a rocky ravine.
'St. Thibacd De Corn.—A waterfall not for from here has been written of by Rousseau as "La plus belle que j e vis de ma vie."
Chambbet—described at page 363. From here some very pleasant excursions can be made, particularly those to the baths of Alx and the Lac de Bourget.
Railway to Alx and St. Innocent, also to St. Michel
The Dent De Nivolet And Les Cir Armette*.— Our road proceeds through the valleys of the Arc and Isere. On the right we see Mont Grenier, 5700 feet high. The Chateau Bayard stands oa the left bank of the river, a few miles below.
Montheillan.—Situated on the left bank of the IsCre, where the four roads—that of the Mont Cenis, that of the Tarentaise, and those of the little St. Bernard and Grenoble meet Several handsome country seats, forming a handsome suburb, are around here. At this point the valley of the Isere divides Itself Into two large plains. Crossing the Ise're, we ascend a hill, and can enjoy a fnagniflcent view of the Arc and Ise're. The hamlet of Maltaverne is the next place met with. This place commands a very good view of the lofty mountain Cerim, at the opposite side of the I sere. The rivers Arque and Ise're join between Maltaverne and
Aiquxbeiae—Situated at the foot of Mont Cenis. The country about is very unhealthy, the rivers at their junction forming very pestilential marshes, which generate malaria, Ac Issuing from Alguebelle, he passes under a triumphal arch; and passing a number of poor hamlets, reaches
La Grande Maison.—A short distance beyond La Chambre, on the east a large valley, called La Madeleine, opens a road to Mousten, the chief place in the valley of the Tarantalse, situated on the high way from the little St. Bernard to Italy. Crossing the bridge of the HertniUoh, ahd following the base of the mountain bf Hoc he ray, we reach
St Jean De Macrienne.—It is the chief place in the valley, and has a very good suburb. The vinuyards of St. Julien produce some good wines. Beyond the town we cross the Arvan, and a little further on, the Arc, after which we arrive at St. MicheL
St. Michel.—Hotel De 1a Samaaitaine, kept by M. Berigandat, opposite the Railway station. Very good bouse, moderate charges.
A very picturesque little town, surrounded by orchards and meadows.
The present terminus of the Victor Emmanuel Railway. Seepage 167.
Modane —A town famous for Its cultivation of hemp, and remarkable as being the last scene ot "Sterne's sentimental journey." In this part of the valley the bed ot the Arc Is much confined, and has to flow through a narrow gorge. The road here has been cut for about a league through the mountain. Beyond is fort Lusseilon, closing the gorge of the Arc. The Font du Dtable is a very striking object