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barn; Myron and John Gibson, Ambrose and James Toome}-, occupied a portion of the splendid ranch now owned by Munson Gregory, and as far as Mr. Bray's residence in Pine canon. Besides these there were several more, whose names we have not been able to trace. In October, 1853, Dr. E. F. Hough, now of Martinez, located in the Ygnacio valley, entered upon the practice of his profession, and after some obstructiveness on the part of native Californians, established a lasting popularity. He also opened a store and house of entertainment, which he conducted until 1855, when disposing of his interest he removed to the county seat. This was the first store in the township. In this year Mr. Prince bargained with Asa Bowen for his present farm; he found on the place a full crop of sweet potatoes of some fifteen to twenty acres in extent; it was in this year, too, or 1852, that the first crop of wheat was sown. On May 3, 1853, Samuel S. Bacon came to the Government Ranch, and in the Fall built a stable for fourteen mules, for Majors Allen and Loring of the United States Army. Of the names Mr. Bacon remembers, those of Bishop and Van Ryder may be mentioned, who resided on the place now owned by Charles S. Lohse, where they cultivated a small patch of wheat in partnership. At this period there was not the semblance of a town in the county, save at Martinez. F. L. Such was foreman for a San Francisco firm, and had the limekiln mentioned above. It was situated on the right bank of the branch of Mount Diablo creek, where he had established a landing. The creek was then sufficiently large for craft of nearly one hundred tons—to-day it is almost filled up. The lime enterprise was continued until 1862; it then lay dormant for a time, and under the super-vision of another firm was resuscitated and pushed until about the year 1870. In the New York valley district there located in 1853, Charles L. Bird, on the land now owned by the Colby estate, C. J. Pramberg, and Messrs. Hilshin and Johnson. Towards the end of the year Mr. Knight settled where Mr. Cunningham now resides. In the Spring of this year Charles N. Wight joined his brother in this section. Here, in 1853, the first land was plowed, and about, seven acres sowed in wheat; an excellent crop was the out-turn, but owing to the want of proper threshing facilities, not much good resulted.

The parents of S. P. Davis, of Brentwood, located in the Pacheco valley, near Clayton, October 17, 1853, and with their son resided for many years in that region.

In the Spring of 1854, William C. Prince, who had come to his uncle, Hon. Elam Brown, in 1849, removed from Lafayette to the farm he now occupies, purchased the year before, and has since resided thereon. The transaction took the form of a partial exchange, Bowen receiving the Morgan House and a livery-stable that stood where Judge Brown's office now is, in Martinez, for the land, or a portion of it. In 1854, including squatters, there were fully twenty-five families settled in the Ygnacio valley, the produce of which was shipped from the embarcadero at Pacheco, to San Francisco, for cultivation had become general and immense crops were raised. In this year there came to the Bay Point district Newton Woodruff, accompanied by his brothers, Asa, Philo and Simeon, the last of whom remained some five or six years. The first school in the township was established in this year in the Ygnacio valley.

Among the settlers of the township in 1855, were the Hon. C. B. Porter, in Green valley, since when this gentleman has been one of Contra Costa's most able and prominent citizens. He has served in the Upper and Lower Houses of the State Legislature, while he is well known as the present distinguished editor-proprietor of the Contra Costa Gazette. In this year, too, Ignacio Soto joined his brothers, who had preceded him to Contra Costa county, on the thousand-acre tract in the Ygnacio valley. Here he resided until his death, which occurred June 15, 1882. In 1856 Thomas Z. Witten settled on his present property, and in the following year, 1857, Munson Gregory acquired, and in 1858 settled on the magnificent ranch he now owns. In 1857 D. R. McPherson settled in the Ygnacio valley, and on December 4th George P. Loucks took up his residence in the township. Mr. Loucks, besides having filled the office of County Clerk, lias also held a seat at the Board of Supervisors for Contra Costa county. In 1858 David S. Woodruff settled at Bay Point, and Syranus Standish, of Pacheco; in 1859 J. A. Littlefield and Theodore Downing became residents of the township; and in 1860 Ludwig Anderson and D. G. Bartnett each located in the town of Pacheco.

The reader will naturally remark that the foregoing gentlemen are not all of those that settled in the township, still, they are the only names that are remembered by the oldest residents now living, and as such must they be accepted. We will now turn to a few remarks upon the histories of the villages in Township Number Three.

PACHECO.—Situated in the midst of a lovely valley, five miles distant from the county seat of Martinez, is the village of Pacheco. In 1860 Messrs. Hale and Fassett, with Dr. Carothers, purchased the site of the place and laid it out in town lots. With a keen perception of the natural advantages of the situation, its proximity to an embarcadero, and its lying on the main line of travel, these enterprising gentlemen at once commenced building. Hale & Fassett erected a store and a large warehouse at the bay side, and in a short time were doing a large and profitable business. Others came in, lots were bought and the place soon had the elements of prosperity.

Long before Pacheco was, however, G. L. Walrath had in 1853 erected the residence now owned and occupied by George P. Loucks. In 1856 that gentleman purchased it from Walrath, and on December 4>, 1857, took possession. As far back as 1853 there was a warehouse owned by Lathrop, Fish and Walrath—that now possessed by Bray Brothers of San Francisco; while, in 1857, Mr. Loucks built another of one hundred and fifty feet in length, and in 1858, one hundred and twenty-five feet were added to it. This building stood on the bank of Walnut creek, about one mile east of Pacheco. In the Fall of 1862 it was moved down the creek about threequarters of a mile, owing to the rapid filling in of the stream. In 1857 W. K. Hendricks acquired land from Mr. Loucks, and on it built the mill. These two enterprises were the primary causes of the starting of Pacheco.

At an early date the creek had its course to the rear of the present store of John Gambs, while the county road ran along the line of the creek as it is now.

The earliest sailing craft to ply to the locality were those trading to the lime-kiln of F. L. Such, mentioned above. Those first to come to Louck's wharf were the C. E. Long, Capt. Gus. Henderson, and Ida, Capt. Ludwig Anderson.

The land on which the town stands was surveyed by J. B. Abbott, and on it Hale & Fassett built the first house, it being the aforesaid long store now occupied by John Gambs. About the same time Ludwig Anderson erected his residence; while the first brick house was put up by Elijah Hook. The first hotel was opened by Woodford in the present Eagle Hotel, and thus the town had its start. In 1860 J. H. Troy's fire-proof building was completed.

In the year almost of its birth Pacheco was visited by a devastating fire; let us, however, take these catastrophes in their chronological order. On August 11, 1860, a fire broke out in the village, when the store of Elijah Hook, known as the "Farmers' Block," the concrete block of Dr. J. H. Carothers, and several other buildings, were consumed, with a loss of about twenty-six thousand four hundred dollars. Almost seven years later another disastrous conflagration took place. On August 15, 1867, the Pacheco Flour Mills were totally desroyed by fire. This loss was a public as well as a private calamity, it being one of the greatest conveniences in the neighborhood. The loss on the proprietor, W. J. Ireland, was a very severe one, and swept away the earnings of a life of industry, amounting in value to no less than from fourteen to sixteen thousand dollars, upon which there was no insurance; besides about two thousand dollars' worth of wheat and flour was consumed, the property of various farmers in the vicinity. The next fire we have heard of is the burning of Judge Warmcastle's farm-house on April 1, 1870, during that gentleman's absence at the East. The building was rented by Mr. Minaker. The last of all these conflagrations was the most destructive. On the morning of Tuesday, September 5, 1871, the village was once more visited by the "Fiery Fiend," and damage done to the amount of thirty thousand dollars and more. The principal losers were E. Hook, three buildings and stock, loss eighteen thousand dollars; L. F. Moreno, building harness stock and household goods, loss two thousand five hundred dollars; Bunker & Porter, Contra Costa Gazette, loss two thousand dollars; O<]d Fellows' Hall, two thousand dollars; L. Anderson, loss five hundred dollars J. H. Troy, loss five hundred dollars.

Owing to this fire the issue of the Gazette, of September 9, 1871, was mostly filled with matter of the San Francisco Bulletin's supplement, kindly placed at the disposal of our friends by the publishers of that periodical; the following week, however, saw the Gazette in full force, with no symptom of its distressing and discouraging interruption.

When Pacheco Fire Engine Company, No. 1, was organized, we have been unable to gather, nor do we know who its first officers were, but that there was such an organization is certain, for we find Don Salvio Pacheco presenting them with a handsome banner, richly trimmed with gold lace, and surmounted with a golden eagle, on February 16, 1861. On September 12, 1863, an I. 0. 0. F. Lodge was organized in Pacheco, with the following officers: Paul Shirley, N. G.; W. T. Hendrick, V. G.; L. B. Parish, Sec.; John Gambs, Treas.; J. H. Carothers, Warden. We are happy to state that this order has grown apace in the little village, where it has one of the most elegant buildings to be found in all California. We are glad to be able to produce an extended history of it further on.

In June, 1868, Lohse & Bacon erected their new warehouse at Seal Bluff Landing, its dimensions being fifty by one hundred feet.

The great earthquake which occurred at eight o'clock on the morning of October 21, 1868, (who will ever forget it ?) did considerable damage in Pacheco among the brick and concrete buildings, though a number of the frame buildings also suffered. The rear wall of Elijah Hook's two-story brick building was shattered from the top to the level of the upper floor, the upper angles of the front being also badly shaken; the concrete building belonging to Doctor Carothers was badly shattered; the two-story brick building owned and partly occupied by J. H. Troy—the upper story being used as a lodge room by the Odd Fellows—was badly cracked; the front and rear walls of Morgan's two-story brick and concrete building were entirely broken from the side walls, from top to bottom; while Hook's concrete warehouse was cracked open in many places, as well as other damage. The Gazette, too, managed to escape, but only by a hair's breadth.

On May 29, 1869, the Western Union Telegraph Company completed their line to Pacheco en route to Antioch, an office for which was established at the store of Fassett & McCauley, under the supervision of Barry Baldwin. June 19th of this year, Mohawk Tribe, No. 20,1. O. R. M., was instituted at Pacheco, there being present the following Chiefs of the Great Council of the State, viz: Adam Smith, Great Sachem; W. T. Cruikshank, Great Junior Sagamore; C. E. B. Howe, Great Prophet; J. A. Woodson, Great Chief of Records; James Goshn, Great Keeper of Wampum; assisted by several Past Sachems. The Council Fire of the Mohawk Tribe was ejected to be kindled on the Sleep of each Third Sun—Tuesday evening of each week. We fear, however, that its ashes have been taken by the winds, never more to know the genial power of heat.

With its wonderful progress, Pacheco must needs have a bank. On December 29, 1870, the certificate of incorporation of the "Contra Costa Savings and Loan Bank " was filed, the following being the Directors: Barry Baldwin, G. M Bryant, Walter K. Dell, John Gambs, W. M. Hale. The capital stock was laid at fifty thousand dollars; the existence of the corporation limited to fifty years. In this year of Grace, 1882, Pacheco does not possess a bank; Sic transit, etc. But these were the stirring times of the now peaceful village. May 10, 1871, officers were chosen for a newlyorganized military company of forty members, the choice being, for Captain, George J. Bennett; First Lieutenant, H. N. Armstrong; Second Lieutenant, William Fassett. On February 6, 1874, the Pacheco Tobacco Company was incorporated, with a capital stock of ten thousand dollars, in twenty shares of five hundred dollars each, for the purpose of leasing or purchasing land, raising, curing and manufacturing tobacco; its principal place of business to be Pacheco, and Directors: W. K. Dell, D. F. Majors, B. Baldwin, S. W. Johnson, R. H. Cornell.

The Pacheco Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry was instituted February 5, 1876, with thirty charter members. The first officers were: F. M. Warmcastle, Master; H. Sanford, Overseer; A. Martin, Lecturer; F. Sanford, Steward; A. Carpenter, Assistant Steward; J. H. Cornwall, Chaplain; R. B. Hathaway, Treasurer; M. Hays, Secretary; C. Clark, Gatekeeper; Mrs. A. Boss, Ceres; Miss Kate Sanford, Pomona; Miss Almira Morgan, Flora; Miss D. Downing, Lady Assistant Steward.

These are the principal items we have found to mention in connection with Pacheco. From the first it had one great enemy, and that was its location. Situated as it is on such low-lying grounds, the yearly recurring floods drove the people from its precincts—Doctor Carothers' canal notwithstanding—until to-day the erst-awhile thriving and lively village is but a relic of its former grandeur.

Churches.—The first church built in Pacheco was the Presbyterian, in 1862; some time later a Roman Catholic church was erected; and finally, at a much later date, a meeting-house of the Congregational body.

Schools.—In the year 1859 a school-house was constructed, and D. S. Woodruff became the first preceptor. This continued until 1872, when it was deemed advisable to acquire a new school site, adjacent to the Roman Catholic church, and remove the institution thither, where it would be less likely to be flooded than in its former position.

Pacheco Lodge, No. 117, I. O. 0. F.—In the latter part of July, 1863, a notice appeared in the Contra Costa Gazette calling for a meeting of all

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