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The Tower (343 steps), which is always open, commands an extensive view. Part of the late-Gothic Cloisters (not accessible) is seen from above.

To the E. of St. Martin's Cloisters, opposite the Nieuwerk (p. 41), is the Conciergirie (Pi.C,3), a late-Renaissance edifice of 1633. To the left of it are two Gabled Houses, in the Renaissance style.

The adjacent North Quarter of the town contains a number of interesting old houses. Among these may be mentioned Nos. 2,13, & 31 in the Rue d'Elverdinghe (PI. B, A, 3); No. 2, Rue de Boesinghe; three Guild Houses (Nos. 15, 19, 21) in the Marche au Be'tail (PI. B, 4), including that of the Seamen (No. 15; 1629); and Nos. 15 & 49 in the Nouveau Marche' au Bois (PI. B, C, 2). — The "Maison Biebuyck (PI. C, 2), Rue de Dixmude 54, dating from 1544, is one of the most beautiful Gothic houses in Belgium. Nos. 66 & 81 in the same street have baroque facades of the 17th century.

In the Nouveau Chemin St. Martin lies the old ISiijuinage (PI. B, C, 2; comp. p. 71), now occupied by gendarmes.

In the Marche'-bas or Neermarkt, nearly opposite the Cloth Hall on the S.W., is the *meat Market (Boucherie; PI. B, C, 3), a doublegabled Gothic house, the lower stories of which, in hewn stone, date from the 13th century. On the first floor is the Municipal Museum (open free on Sun., 11-1 &2-4; at other times 50 c.; no catalogue). Entrance at the back (concierge at No. 24).

On or near the walls of the Staircase are a waggon from Goes in Zeeland (18th cent.), the original woodcut of an old plan of Ypres (16th cent.), and other objects of interest. — Room I. Natural history and ethnological collections; porcelain, fayence, chests, cabinets, beam-ends, and other articles in carved wood. Among the pictures is the Prodigal Son, by Jan Thomas. Room II. Fine chimney-piece with a view of the Grand1 Place of Ypres, old views of the city, the archive-chest of the Clothmakers (from the Belfry), coins and medals. In the centre, drawings of the facades of old Ypres houses, by Aug. Bohm (1848). Paintings: 63. Jan Thomas, Penitents; Rubens, 42. Miracles of St. Benedict (sketch; original in possession of the King of the Belgians), 43. Landscape; 9. Pinter Brueghel the Youn(/er(t), Flemish fair; opposite, 58. Pieter Steenuyk, The painter in his studio; 40. Is. ran Ostadetf), Pig-killing. — An adjacent room contains old leathern hangings and wcodcarvings.

Opposite the Cloth Hall is the wide Rue de Lille, or RysselStraat, leading to the S.W. At No. 38 in this street (on the right) is the Belle-gasthtjis or Hospice Belle (PI. C, 4; small fee), an asylum for old women, founded about 1279 by Christine de Guinea, widow of Salomon Belle, and rebuilt in 1616. The chapel contains a noteworthy votive painting (Madonna and Child with the donors, on a gold ground) and a polychrome votive relief, both dating from 1420. In the ante-chapel are old gravestones (15-16th cent.).

The Hotel Merghelynck. (PI. C, 4), at the corner of the Rue de Lille and the Marche aux Vieux Habits, built in 1774-77, has been fitted up since 1892 as a museum of the 18th cent., with antique furniture, china, drawings, and engravings (adm. 10-12 a.m. and 2 to 6,5, or4 p.m., according to the season; fee 1 fr.; cat. 27a fr.).

The Steenen, Rue de Lille 66-68, a Gothic edifice of the 14th cent., was turned into the Post Office (PLC, 4) in 1902 and enlarged by an addition in the same style. — Farther on, to the left, is the church of St. Peter (PL D, 5), begun in 1073; the W. portal is Romanesque; the rest has been modernized. — The Hospice St. Jean (PL C, D, 5), founded in 1277, contains a charming room ('Ouvroir des Sceurs') in the Renaissance style (1555). — The timber facade of No. 198 Rue de Lille, close to the Porte de Lille (PL D, 6), is also worth seeing.

From this gate, which dates, with its three towers, from 1395, we may wander through the pretty promenades laid out on the site of the Anciens Remparts (old ramparts). The name of the Zaalhof (PL C, 5) commemorates an old castle of the Counts of Flanders.

From Ypres to Routers, see p. 47. — Steam Tramway to (20 M.) Fumes, see p. 46. — Another steam-tramway runs to (5l/-> M.) Kemmel (Hot. I.egrand), whence one branch of it goes on to (13 M.) Warneton (Waasten), the other to (9 M.) Neuve Eglise fNieuwkerke). The belvedere on the Montague de Kemmel (512 ft.) commands an extensive panorama (adm. 10 c.).

From Ypres To Poperingue And Hazebrouck, 19 M., railway in 1 hr. The chief intermediate station is (6 M.) Poperinghe, a town with 11,200 inhab., which possesses a church (St. Berlin's) of about 1300, with an interesting W. portal and a carved oaken pulpit. Hops are extensively grown in the vicinity. — Beyond (10 M.) Abeeli the line crosses the French frontier, passes Godewaersvelde and Caestre, and joins the Lille and Calais railway at (19 M.) Hazebrouck (p. 3).

Beyond Ypres the line is continued to Comines (p. 49), Armentilres, and Lille (p. 3).

2. From Ghent To Nibupoet (54'/2 M.,'in 2-3i/4 hrs.; fares 8 fr. 30, 5 fr. 60, 3 fr. 30 c.) And To Dunkirk (67 M., in 3'/o43/4 hrs.; fares 10 fr. 60, 7 fr. 90, 5 fr. 25 c).

Ghent, see p. 49. — Thence to (11 M.) Deynze, junction for Courtrai and Lille, see p. 73. — 13'/2M. Grammene; 16M. Aerseele.

20i/g M. Thielt (145 ft; Hot. de la Plume), an old town with 10,300 inhab., onceabusy cloth-making place, as its Cloth Hall and Belfry indicate. Branch-line hence to (7 M.) Ingelmunster, see p. 47; steam-tramways to Eecloo (p. 73) via Aeltre (p. 2), and to Hooglede (p. 47) via Swevezeele (p. 21), Ardoye (see below), and Routers (P. 47).

231/2 M. Pitthem; 26 M. Ardoye-Coolscamp.

31 M. Lichterveldc (see p. 47). — 35 M. Corlemarck, the junction of the Ostend and Ypres line (see p. 40).

42 M. Dixmude, Flem.: Diksmuide(25 ft.; Hot. de Dixmude'), is a small town on the Yser. The parish-church of St. Nicholas contains a fine *Rood Loft, in the richest Flamboyant style, ascribed to Urban Taillebert (p. 42), an Adoration of the Magi by Jordaens (1644), a marble font with a bronze cover of 1626, and other works of art. Dairy-farming is practised with great success in this neighbourhood, and a brisk trade in butter is carried on with England.

The Nieuport line here diverges to the N. W. from the main line to Dunkirk (see below). — 44 M. Caeskerke; 47 M. Pervyse; 50 M. Rarmcapelle.

52Y2M. Nieuport- Ville, station for the town of Nieuport (20 ft.; Hot. de VEspe'rancc, Rue Longue; Hot. du Pelican, in the marketplace; Hot. du Boulevard, at the station, all unpretending), a small and quiet place on the Yser, with 3500 inhabitants. In the 9th cent, a castle stood here, erected by the Flemish counts for protection against the Normans. In 1160 the people of Lombartzyde (p. 16) removed to this spot, which then changed its name from Santhoven to Neoportus. Nieuport is noted for its obstinate resistance to the French in 1489 and for the 'Battle of the Dunes' in July, 1600, in which the Dutch under Maurice of Orange defeated the Spaniards under the Archduke Albert. The strong fortifications were razed in 1860. Besides several quaint private houses the most interesting buildings are the Cloth Hall of 1480, with a lately restored Belfry, the massive baroque Bell Tower, near the market-place, and the Gothic Church (restored in 1903), containing a rood-loft, tasteful choir-stalls, a tabernacle of the 15th cent., a sculptured altar in the baroque style of 1630, and several old tombstones. The Town Hall contains a small collection of paintings. The Donjonis the only relic of the Templars' castle since the destruction of the town by the inhabitants of Ghent and the English in 1383. — Outside the town, on the side next the sea, is a Lighthouse built in 1284. The locks on the canals to Ostend and Furnes, which enter the Yser here, are not uninteresting.

Steam-tramway to AHeuport-Baim, Ostend, and Furnes, »ee p. 15.

64V2M. Nieuport-Bains, see p. 16. Most of the hotels are within a few hundred yards of the station.

The Railway To Dunkirk continues to run to the W. beyond Dixmude. 48 M. Oostkerke; 49 M. AvccapcUc.

52 M. Furnes, Flemish Veurne (20 ft.; Hotel Royal, in the marketplace, R. 2-2V2, B. 8/4, D. I72-21/2, pens. 5-6 fr.; Hot. de laNoble Rose, near the market-place, R.2, B.l, D.2'/2,pens. 6 fr.; H6t. de France, at the station; Cafe du Sport, in the market-place), now a dull town with 6000 inhab., was formerly of much greater importance. Many strangers are attracted to Furnes by the great procession which has taken place here annually since the 12th cent, on the last Sunday in July. The Story of the Passion is dramatically represented in Flemish on this occasion by groups in costume from among the members of the Confririe de la Sodaliti (begins at 3.30 p.m.; seat in the Hotel de Ville 1 fr.).

The HStel de Ville, in the quaint old "Grand' Place, a Renaissance structure of 1596-1612 by Lieven Lukas, contains some interesting wall-hangings of Spanish leather, a chimney-piece with representations of still-life by Snyders ('?), old Flemish tapestry, and two carved doors (1623). — Adjacent is the old Chiltellenie, now the Palais de Justice, built by Sylvanus Boulin in 1612-1628. The antechamber on the first floor was the former meeting-place of the Inquisition; the main hall contains a painting by Alb. de Vriendt (p. 166), representing Philippe le Bel swearing to observe the rights of Fumes (1500); the adjoining chapel has a timber roof and good wood-carvings in the choir (key in the tavern to the left; fee Vafr.)— On the E. side of the Grand' Place are the old Meat Market, a Renaissance structure of 1615 (now a theatre), and the Gothic socalled Pavilion des Officiers Espagnols (13-14th cent.), the earliest town-hall, restored in 1890-95 for the reception of the municipal archives and library. The so-called Corps de Garde (now the policeoffice), on the S. side of the market-place, is a Renaissance building of 1636.

Behind the Chatellenie rises the massive Belfry, with a spire of 1624. The adjoining Church of St. Walburga is said to have been originally founded by Baldwin of the Iron Arm (p. 22); the present building was designed at the beginning of the 14th cent, on so extensive a scale that only the choir, with its radiating chapels, has been completed. It contains finely carved choir-stalls (beginning of 17th cent.) and a reliquary of the 15th cent, (in the sacristy).

The Hotel de la Noble Rose (p. 46) is a Renaissance edifice of 1572. — The interior of the Church of St. Nicholas, near the S.E. corner of the market-place, a Gothic structure of the 14th cent., with a huge unfinished tower, was thoroughly modernized in 1890-97.

Steam-tramway to Ostend, see p. 15. — Another steam-tramway runs to (19l/a M.) Ypres (p. 40), passing (3*/z M.) Wulv&rmghem, with the chateau of lieauvoorde, built in 1595-1617, and restored since 1875 by M. Merghelynck, and (lO1/? M.) Oostrleleren, with an old screen in the parish-church, brought from St. Martin's at Ypres. NearOostvleterenisthe castle of Nevele (16th cent.).

The next station, Adinkerke-La-Panne, is the last in Belgium. La Panne (p. 17) lies l'/2 M. to the N.W. (tramway, see p. 16). — Ghyvelde is the first French station. Then, Zuydcote, Rosendael.

67 M. Dunkirk, French Dunkerque (Chapeau Rouge, Rue St. Sebastien, R. from 4, B. 11/4, de"j. 3, D. 31/2. °TMn- * fr-5 H6tel de Flandre), a strongly-fortified town with 38,900 inhab., in the De'partement du Nord, is now a busy commercial place and fishingstation. A small English colony resides here (English church). Among the objects of interest are the Gothic Church of St. Eloi (fine stained glass), the Belfry (295 ft.), with chimes, the Town Hall (1896-1901), and the statue, by David d'Angers, of Jean Bart (1651-1702), the famous sailor and privateer of Dunkirk. Atramway (25 c.) runs to the N.E. to Malo-les-Bains, a sea-bathing resort. Comp. Baedeker's Northern France.

3. From Bruges To Courtrai, 33 M., railway in I'/a-i^a nr(faros 4 fr. 5, 3 fr. 6, 2 fr. 5 c). Carriages are changed at Roulers.

Bruges, see p. 20. — 11M. Thourout, see p. 40.—14M. Lichtervelde, see p. 44. Then Gits and Beveren.

19M. Roulers, Flem. Roeselaere (90ft.; Due de Brabant), a town with 23,100 inhab., high above which rises the handsome Gothic tower of the church of St. Michael. Roulers carries on a busy trade in linen goods. Here, on 13th June, 1794, a fierce conflict took placo between the Austrians under Clerfait, and the French under Piche- gru and Macdonald, in which the latter were victorious. This defeat was the prelude to that of Fleurus (p. 238), thirteen days later.

Branch Link To Ypees, 14 M., in i/2-»/« hr. (fares 1 fr. 75, 1 fr. 35, 90 c). Stations Moorslede-Passchendaele, Zonnebeke, Ypres (p. 40). — From Roulers To Menin, 11 M., branch - railway in 22-27 min. (fares 1 fr. 75 c, 1 fr. 15, 70 c). Stations Beythem, Ledeghem-Dadizeele, Menin (p. 49). — To Hooglede and to Thielt, see p. 44.

21 M. Rumbeke possesses a fine Gothic church and a chateau of Count Limburg-Stirum. — 23'/2 M. Iseghem, with 9000 inhab., contains numerous linen-factories. Tobacco is extensively cultivated in the environs. Between Iseghem and (26 M.) Ingelmunster, a small town with noted carpet - manufactories, is the handsome chateau of Baron Gilles. From Ingelmunster branch-lines diverge to Thielt (p. 44) and to Waereghem (see p. 73). — 28 M. Lendelede; 30 M. Heule, with a clumsy Gothic church. Near Courtrai the train crosses the Lys or Leie.

33 M. Courtrai, see p. 73.

6. From Brussels to Courtrai and Ypres.

Railway from Brussels to Courtrai, 55 M., in 1V2-3 hrs. (fares 8 fr. 30, 5 fr. 60, 3 fr. 30 c.); from Courtrai to Ypres, 21 M., in 1 hr. (fares 2 fr. 60, 1 fr. 95, 1 fr. 30 c). — Departure in Brussels from the Station du Nord (p. 83).

From Brussels to (15 M.) Denderleeuw, see p. 2. The line to Ghent and Ostend (R. la) here diverges to the N.W., and that to Grammont and Ath (p. 6) to the S.W. Our line enters E. Flanders, and passes Haeltert, Burst (branch to Alost), and Herzele.

— 27 M. Sotteghem, a small town of 2900 inhab., with several boot and shoe manufactories, is thejunction of the Ghent and Grammont line (R. 19) and of a line to Renaix (p. 73). The church contains the tombs of Count Egmont (p. 100), his wife, and his sons.

— Three small stations.

38 M. Oudenaarde, Fr. Audenarde (45ft.; Hot. du Saumon, Hot. de la Pomme d'Or, both in the market-place and well spoken of; Ville de Oand, H6t. de Bruxelles, with caK-restaurant, both near the station), a very ancient town with 6500 inhab., once celebrated for its tapestries, possesses manufactories of linen and cotton goods. It was the birthplace of Margaret of Parma (b. 1522), regent of the

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