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3. Vitis cinerea Engelm. Fig. 2832.
Vitis aestivalis var. canescens Engelm. Am.
Nat. 2: 321, name only. 1868.
Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 679. 1867.
Climbing, branches angled, young shoots and petioles mostly floccose-pubescent; bark loose; pith interrupted; tendrils intermittent. Leaves dentate, or somewhat 3-lobed, often longer than wide, rather densely floccose-pubescent with whitish, persistent hairs on the lower surface, especially along the veins, sparingly so on the upper; inflorescence loose; berries black, without bloom, 3"-4" in diameter, pleasantly acid, 1-2seeded; seeds about 2" long, the raphe narrow.
Illinois to Nebraska, Kansas, Louisiana and Texas. May-June. Downy or ashy grape.
4. Vitis bicolor LeConte. Blue or Winter Grape. Fig. 2833.
Vitis bicolor LeConte. Proc. Phil. Acad. 6 : 272. 1852. Vitis aestivalis var. bicolor LeConte; Wats. & Coult. in A. Gray. Man. Ed. 6, 113. 1890.
High-climbing or long-trailing, the tendrils intermittent, the branches terete. Twigs and leaves glabrous, or somewhat pubescent, bluish-glaucous, especially the lower surfaces of the leaves, the bloom sometimes disappearing by the time the fruit ripens; intemodes long, the pith interrupted at the nodes; leaves usually 3-lobed, cordate at the base, sometimes 12' long, the sinuses rounded, the lobes acute or acuminate; inflorescence compact; berries bluish-black with a bloom, sour, about 4" in diameter; seeds about 2" long, raphe narrow.
New Hampshire to Michigan, North Carolina, Tennessee and Missouri. May-June.
5. Vitis vulpina L. Riverside or Sweet
Vitis vulpina L. Sp. PI. 203. 1753.
Climbing or trailing, glabrous throughout, or more or less pubescent on the veins of the lower surfaces of the leaves; branches rounded or slightly angled, greenish; pith interrupted, the diaphragm thin; tendrils intermittent. Leaves thin, shining, almost all sharply 3-7-lobed, the sinuses angular, the lobes acute or acuminate, the terminal one commonly long; stipules 2"-3" long, often persistent until the fruit is formed; inflorescence compact or becoming loose; berries bluish-black, with a bloom, 4"s" in diameter, rather sweet; seeds 2-4, 2" long, the raphe narrow and inconspicuous.
Along rocky river-banks. New Brunswick to Manitoba, south to Maryland, West Virginia. Arkansas and Colorado. May-June. Fruit heginning to ripen in Julv or earlier, sometimes continuing until October. Winter-, frost-, bull- or Aroyo-grape.
6. Vitis palmata Vahl. Missouri Grape. Fig. 2835.
Vitis palmata Vahl, Symbol. Bot. 3: 42. 1794.
Vitis rubra Michx.; Planch, in DC. Mon. Phan. 5: 354. '887.
High-climbing, glabrous or nearly so throughout, or with slight pubescence on the veins of the lower surfaces of the leaves; twigs bright red; bark separating in large flakes; pith interrupted, the diaphragms thick; tendrils intermittent, forked. Leaves dull, darker green than in V. vulpina, deeply 3-5-lobed, the sinuses rounded, the lobes long-acuminate; stipules ii"-2" long; inflorescence loose; berries black, 4"-s" in diameter, without bloom; seeds 1 or 2, about 3" long; raphe indistinct.
River-banks, Illinois, Missouri and Arkansas. Blooming later and ripening its berries after V. vulpina. June-July.
7. Vitis cordifolia Michx. Frost Grape.
Vitis cordifolia Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 231. 1803.
1890. Not Lam. 1808.
High-climbing, the twigs glabrous or slightly pubescent, terete or indistinctly angled; pith interrupted by thick diaphragms; internodes long; bark loose; tendrils intermittent; stem sometimes 1° in diameter or more. Leaves 3'-4' wide, glabrous, or sparingly pubescent on the veins beneath, thin, sharply and coarsely dentate with very acute teeth, sometimes slightly 3-lobed, mostly long-acuminate at the apex; tendrils forked, intermittent; stipules about 2" long; inflorescence loose or compact; berries black, shining, about 3" in diameter, ripening after frost; seeds 1 or 2, about 2" long; raphe narrow.
Moist thickets and along streams, southern New York and New Jersey to Illinois, Wisconsin, Nebraska, Florida and Texas. Possum-, fox- or winter grape. May-June. Fruit ripe Oct.-Nov.
8. Vitis rupestris Scheele. Sand, Sugar or Mountain Grape. Fig. 2837. V. rupestris Scheele, Linnaea 21: 591. 1848. Low, bushy or sometimes climbing to a height of several feet, glabrous or somewhat floccose-pubescent on the younger parts; pith interrupted; bark loose; tendrils forked, intermittent or often wanting. Leaves smaller than in any of the preceding species, pale green, shining, sharply dentate with coarse teeth, or sometimes incised, abruptly pointed, rarely slightly 3-lobed, the sides often folded together; stipules 2"-3" long; inflorescence compact; berries black, with a bloom, 3"-4" in diameter, sweet, 2-4-seeded; seeds about 2" long; raphe very slender.
In various situations, Pennsylvania to the District of Columbia, Missouri, Tennessee and Texas. April-June. Fruit ripe in August.
I'itis rotundifolia Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. a:
231. 1803. Vitis vulpina T. & G. Fl. N. A. 1: 245.
1838. Not L. 1753Muscadinia rotundifolia Small, Fl. SE. U.
S. 757. 1903
Trailing or high-climbing, glabrous or nearly so throughout; tendrils simple, intermittent, sometimes few; bark close, not shreddy; pith continuous through the nodes. Leaves nearly orbicular, 2'-$' wide, dark green, shining, dentate with large triangular teeth; inflorescence dense; berries few, purple, s"-9" in diameter, without bloom, tough, musky; seeds several, flat, wrinkled, notched at the apex; raphe indistinct.
In moist, often sandy soil, Delaware to Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Kansas, south to Florida, Texas and Mexico. Muscadine grape. The original of the Scuppernong. The berries fall away singly. Mav. Fruit ripe Aug.-Sept.
2. AMPELOPSIS Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 159. 1803.
[Cissus Pers. Syn. 1: 143. 1805. Not L. 1753.]
Climbing woody vines, or some species bushy, the coiling tendrils not tipped by adhering expansions. Leaves simple, dentate or lobed, or pinnately or palmately compound. Flowers polygamo-dioecious, or polygamo-monoecious. Petals 5, separate, spreading. Disk cup-shaped, S-lobed or annular, adnate to the base of the ovary; ovary 2-celled; ovules 2 in each cavity; style subulate. Berry 2-4-seeded, the flesh usually thin and inedible. [Greek, vine-like.]
About 15 species, natives of temperate and warm regions, only the following known to occur in Xorth America. Type species: Ampelopsis cordata Michx.
Leaves coarsely serrate, or slightly 3-lobed. 1. A. cordala.
Leaves 2-3-ninnately compound. 2. A. arborca.
x. Ampelopsis cordata Michx. Simple-leaved Ampelopsis. Fig. 2839.
Ampelopsis cordata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 159. 1803.
Cissus Ampelopsis Pers. Syn. I: 142. 1805. Vitis indivisa Willd. Berl. Baumz. Ed. 2, 538. 1811.
Glabrous or the young twigs sparingly pubescent, climbing, the branches nearly terete; tendrils few or none. Leaves broadlyovate, 2'-4' long, coarsely serrate, rarely slight]}' 3-lobed, glabrous on both sides, or pubescent along the veins, truncate or cordate at the base, acuminate at the apex; panicles small, loose, with 2-3 main branches; corolla expanding its petals; disk cupshaped; berries 2"-3" in diameter, bluish, 1-2-secded, the flesh very thin and inedible; seeds about 2" long; raphe narrow-.
Swamps and river-banks, southern Virginia to Florida, west to Illinois, Nebraska and Texas. May-June.
2. Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Rusby. Pepper-vine. Pinnate-leaved Ampelopsis.
Vitis arborea L. Sp. PI. 203. 1753.
Cissus stans Pers. Syn. 1: 143. 1805.
Viti* bipinnata T. & G. Fl. N. A. 1: 243. 1838.
Ampelopsis arborea Rusby, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 221. 1894.
Glabrous or nearly so, erect or ascending, bushy, sometimes climbing; tendrils often wanting. Leaves bipinnate, or the lowest tripinnate and sometimes 8' in length or more; leaflets ovate or rhombicovate, i'-i¥ long, sharply serrate, acute or acuminate at the apex, obtuse or slightly cordate or the terminal one cuneate at the base, glabrous, or somewhat pubescent on the veins beneath; panicles short-cymose; corolla expanding; berries black,depressedglobose, about 3" in diameter, sometimes pubescent, the flesh thin, inedible; seeds 1-3.
In rich moist soil, Virginia to Missouri, Florida and Mexico. Cuba. June-July.
Ampelopsis heterophylla (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc, a climbing eastern Asiatic vine, with deeply palmately 3-5-lobed leaves and short-peduncled compound cymes, was found as a waif from cultivation at Lancaster, Pa., in 1890.
3. CISSUS L. Sp. PI. 117. 1753.
Mostly climbing vines, sometimes prostrate, the foliage usually succulent. Leaves simple or compound, often trifoliolate, the leaflets readily separating in drying. Flowers mostly perfect. Petals usually 4, spreading. Disk cup-shaped, adnate to the base of the ovary. Berries small, inedible; 1-2-seeded. [Greek, ivy.]
Over 225 species, most abundant in tropical regions. Type species: Cissus vitaginea L.
i. Cissus incisa (Nutt.) Des Moulins. Cut-leaved Cissus. Fig. 2841.
Vitis incisa Nutt. T. & G. N. A. 1: 243. 1838.
Cissus incisa Des Moulins; Durand, Actes Soc. Linn.
A long vine, the stem and leaves succulent. Leaves 3-foliolate or 3-parted; leaflets or leaf-segments ovate or obovate, cuneate at the base, toothed, or the middle one lobed, 2' long or less; inflorescence umbel-like; berries obovoid, 4" long, nearly black, 1-2-seeded, borne on recurved pedicels.
Sandy and rocky soil, Missouri and Kansas to Texas, Florida and Arizona. June-Aug.
4. PARTHENOCISSUS Planch, in DC. Mon. Phan. 5: Part 2, 447. 1887.
[psedera Neck. Elem. 1: 158. Hyponym. 1790.] [quinaria Raf. Am. Man. Grape-vines, 6. 1830. Not Lour. 1790.] Climbing or trailing woody vines, the tendrils often tipped with adhering expansions (disks), or sometimes merely coiling, our species with digitately compound leaves, the leaflets
5-7. Flowers perfect, or polygamo-monoecious, in compound cymes or panicles. Petals 5, spreading. Hypogynous disk obsolete or wanting in our species. Stamens 5. Ovary 2-celied; ovules 2 in each cavity; style short, thick. Berry 1-4-seeded, the flesh thin, not edible.
About 10 species, natives of eastern North America and Asia, the following typical. Besides the'following, another occurs in Texas.
i. Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. Virginia Creeper. False Grape.
American Ivy. Fig. 2842.
Hedera quinquefolia L. Sp. PI. 202. 1753.
Parthenocissus quinquefolia Planch, in DC. Mon.
Phan. 5: Part 2, 448. 1887.
High-climbing or trailing, glabrous or pubescent. ■ Tendrils usually numerous, and often provided with terminal adhering expansions, the vine sometimes supported also by aerial roots; leaves petioled, digitately 5-foliolate (rarely 7-foliolate); leaflets stalked, oval, elliptic, or oblong-lanceolate;
2- 6' long, acute or acuminate, narrowed at the base, coarsely toothed, at least above the middle, pale beneath, dark green above, glabrous or somewhat pubescent; panicles ample, erect or spreading in fruit; berries blue, about 6" in diameter, usually 2-3-seeded; peduncles and pedicels red.
In woods and thickets, Quebec to Assiniboia, Missouri, Florida, Texas and Mexico. Bahamas; Cuba. July. Fruit ripe in October. The foliage turns deep red in autumn. The species consists of numerous races, differing in pubescence, serration of leaflets and in the tendrils. Five-finger-ivy or -creeper. Fiveleaf-ivy. Erroneously called woodbine.
Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Sieb. & Zucc.) Planch., the Ampelopsis Veitchii of the gardeners, a Japanese vine, clinging to walls by its very numerous disk-tipped tendrils, has the leaves sharply
3- lobed .or sometimes 3-divided; it is freely planted for ornament.
Family 84. TILIACEAE Juss. Gen. 289. 1789.
Trees, shrubs or rarely herbs, with fibrous bark, alternate (rarely opposite) simple leaves, mostly small and deciduous stipules, and axillary or terminal generally cymose or paniculate flowers. Sepals 5, rarely 3-4, valvate, deciduous. Petals of the same number, or fewer, or none, alternate with the sepals, mostly imbricated in the bud. Stamens 00, mostly 5-10-adelphous; anthers 2-ceIled. Ovary 1, sessile, 2-10-celled; style entire or lobed; ovules anatropous. Fruit 1-10-celled, drupaceous or baccate. Embryo straight, rarely curved ; cotylendons ovate or orbicular; endosperm fleshy, rarely wanting.
About 35 genera and 275 species, widely distributed in warm and tropical regions, a few in the temperate zones.
i. TILIA [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 514. 1753.
Trees, with serrate cordate mainly inequilateral leaves, and axillary or terminal, cymose white or yellowish perfect flowers, the peduncles subtended by and partly adnate to broad membranous bracts. Sepals 5. Petals 5, spatulate, often with small scales at the base. Stamens 00; filaments cohering with the petal-scales or with each other in 5 sets. Ovary 5-ceIled; cells 2-ovuIed; style simple; stigma 5-toothed. Fruit dry, drupaceous, globose or ovoid, indehiscent, 1-2-seeded. Seeds ascending; endosperm hard; cotyledons broad, 5-lobed, corrugated. [The ancient Latin name.]
About 20 species, natives of the north temperate zone, 1 in the mountains of Mexico. Type species: Tilia europaia L.
Leaves smooth or very nearly so, sometimes glaucous. 1. T. americana.
Leaves mostly densely hairy beneath, not glaucous.
Leaves brown-hairy or rusty-hairy beneath. 2. T. pubeseens.
Leaves white, grey or silvery beneath.
Bracts mostly abruptly narrowed at the base, sessile or nearly so. 3. T. heterophylla.
Bracts mostly attenuate at the base, distinctly stalked. 4. T. Michauxii.