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Concerts Colonne, has borne much fruit. The orchestra numbers 107, and the chorus 143. In 1897 M. Colonne organised a new series of concerts at the Nouveau Theatre in order to bring forward symphonies, quartets, concertos, and cantatas by ancient and modern composers. The series runs concurrently with the other scheme. [See Colonne.] In 1873 Lamoureux had organised and directed performancesof many oratorios, etc., at the Cirque des ChampsElysees, and in 1881 he founded the Nouveaux Concerts, afterwards known as the Concerts Lamoureux. They took place successively at the Theatre du Chateau d'Eau, the Eden (from 1885), the Cirque d'Ete (from 1887 to the present time, when they are directed by M. Chevillard). [See Chevillard and LamouReux.] The orchestra consists of ninety-five performers. While Lamoureux did no less than Pasdeloup and Colonne for musical education in France, he was the chief populariser there of the music of Wagner. Passing over some unfortunate speculations of MM. Ed. Broustet and Benjamin Godard, who tried to re-establish the Concerts Populaires Du Cirque D'hiver, we come to the Concerts Eclec- Tiques, founded by M. Eug. d'Harcourt in 1892 in a room built especially for them in Rue Rochechouart; they lasted about five years, and in that time brought to a hearing many works of large dimensions in their entirety, or approximately so; 'Fidelio,' 'Euryanthe,' Schumann's 'Genoveva,' and'Die Meistersinger' were among the works given in concert-form, besides many symphonic works of the usual repertory.
Many attempts were made from time to time to establish concerts in the Opera-house. In Nov. 1869 Litolff gave two such concerts; between Nov. 1870 and March 1871 the artistes of the Opera, formed into a society, gave some concerts which were not successful. In May 1880 two Concerts Historiques were given by the director, Vaucorbeil; and the last scheme was that of MM. Bertrand and Gailhard, the directors, in 1895, intended to encourage the young composers. The first of these ConCerts De L'opera, directed by G. Marty and P. Vidal, included works of Berlioz, Gluck, F. David, Cesar Franck, and Vincent d'Indy, and a series of dances of the olden time was exhibited. These interesting concerts lasted, with a short interval, until March 1897, the encouragement of the public not being sufficient to warrant their continuance.
La Societe Nationals, founded in 1871 by Romain Bussine, still exists, with the excellent object of presenting the works of both orchestral and chamber music of the younger composers. The 305th concert took place on Jan. 10, 1903; many of the most noteworthy French composers have won their first laurels at these concerts.
The Nouvellb Soclete Philharmonique
De Paris has taken a high place within the last few years among the institutions for chamber music in the widest sense; its first concert took place on Nov. 22, 1901.
For the Schoi.a Cantorum, see Bordes and Schola Cantorum. G. F.
CONCERT-ME1STER, the German term for the leader, i.e. the first of the first violins in an orchestra, who sits next the conductor and transmits his wishes to the band. He is, as far as any one player can be, responsible for the attack, the tempo, the nuances of the playing. Ferdinand David, who was the head of the orchestra at the Gewandhaus concerts during Mendelssohn's reign, and till his own death, was the model concert-meister of his time. a.
CONCERT-PITCH. An expression now understood to imply a slightly higher pitch than the standard pitch accepted for an orchestra, due to the higher temperature of the concert-hall or room. For example, the French diapason normal is A = 435 double vibrations per second. An average taken from the leading orchestras in Europe and America shows a performing, or concert-pitch, of A = 439. A. J. H.
CONCERTANTE (Ital.). In the 18th century this name was given to a piece of music for orchestra in which there were parts for solo instruments, and also to comj-ositions forsever.il solo instruments without orchestra. The fine concerto by Handel in C major, for two violins and violoncello, accompanied by strings and two oboes (published in part 21 of the German Handel Society's edition) is in Arnold's old English edition entitled 'Concertante'(see Concerto Grosso). In the present day the word is chiefly used as an adjective, prominent solo instrumental parts being spoken of as 'concertante parts' and a work being said to be 'in the concertante style' when it affords opportunities for the brilliant display of the powers of the performers. For example, those quartets of Spohr in which especial prominence is given to the part of the first violin are sometimes called 'concertante quartets.' His op. 48 is a 'Sinfonie concertante, pour deux Violons avec Orchestre '; his op. 88 a 'Concertante' for the same. See also his opp. 112-115, etc. %. p.
CONCERTINA, a portable instrument of the Seraphine family, patented by the late Sir Charles Wheatstone, June 19, 1829.
It is hexagonal, and has a keyboard at each end, with expansible bellows between the two. The sound is produced by the pressure of air from the bellows on free metallic reeds. The compass of the treble concertina is four octaves (<7 to $'") through which it has a complete chromatic scale. This instrument is double action, and produces the same note both on drawing and pressing the bellows. Much variety of tone can be obtained by a skilful player, and it has the power of being played with great expression and complete sostenuto and staccato. Violin, flute, and oboe music can be performed on it without alteration; but music written specially for the concertina cannot be played on any other instrument, except the organ or harmonium. Nothing but the last-named instruments can produce at once the extended harmonies, the sostenuto and staccato combined, of which the concertina is capable. There are also tenor, bass, and double bass concertinas, varying in size and shape. These instruments are single-action, producing the sound by pressure only, and are capable of taking tenor, bass, and double bass parts without alteration. The compass of the tenor concertina is from c to d", that of the bass from C to c"', and that of the double bass from CC to c", making the total range of the four instruments 6$ octaves. The late Signor Regondi was the first to make the instrument known, and was followed by George Case. Richard Blagrove was subsequently the principal performer and professor. Among the music written specially for the instrument are two Concertos in G and D for solo concertina and orchestra, by Molique; two ditto ditto in D and Eb, by G. Regondi; Sonata for piano and concertina in Bfr, by Molique; Quintet for concertina and strings by G. A. Macfarren; Adagio for eight concertinas in E, by £. Silas; Quintet in D for piano, concertina, violin, viola, and cello, by the same; six Trios for piano, concertina, and violin, by the same. Much brilliant salon music has also been written for it. Messrs. Wheatstone k Co. are the best makers. G.
CONCERTINO (i.e. a little Concert).
I. A term applied to the little band of Solo Instruments employed in a Concerto Orosso—• which see. The title of Corelli's Concertos is, Concerti grossi con duoi Violini e Violoncello di Concertino obligati, e duoi altri Violini, Viola e Basso di Concerto grosso ad arbiirio che si potranno radoppiare. w. s. R.
II. A piece for one or more solo instruments with orchestral accompaniment, which differs from the Concerto in its much greater conciseness. Theconcertinoislessrestricted informthan the concerto; it may be in three shortmovements, which are usually connected ; but it more often consists of one rather long movement, in which the time may be changed or a middle part in slower tempo be introduced episodically. As good examples may be cited Weber's 'Concertino' for clarinet, op. 26, and Schumann's 'Introduction and Allegro Appassionato,' op. 92, for piano and orchestra. For some not very obvious reason the form is much less frequently used for the piano than for the violin or other orchestral instruments. E. p.
CONCERTO (Ital.; Ger. and Fr. Concert). This name is now given to an instrumental composition designed to show the skill of an executant, and one which is almost invariably accompanied by orchestra—one exception being VOL. I
Liszt's 'Concert Pathetique' for two pianos, and another Schumann's Sonata op. 14, originally published as ' Concert sans orchestra.' The word was, however, at one time used differently. It was first employed by Ludovico Viadana, who in 1602-3 published a series of motets for voices and organ, which he entitled 'Concerti ecclcsiastici.' In this sense the word was used as equivalent to the Latin 'concentus,' and such works were called ' Concerti da Chiesa ' (Church Concertos). Soon other instruments were added to the organ ; and ultimately single instrumental movements in the sacred style were written which also received the name of 'Concerti da Chiesa.' The real inventor of the modern concerto as a concert piece was Giuseppe Torelli, who in 1686 published a ' Concerto da Camera' for two violins and bass. The form was developed by Corelli, Geminiani, and Vivaldi. From the first it resembled that of the sonata; and as the latter grew out of the suite, the movements becoming larger in form and with more internal cohesion, so it was also with the concerto: there is as much difference between a concerto by Bach and one by Beethoven as there is between the 'Suites Anglaises' and the 'Waldstein' sonata. In the time of Bach and Handel the word 'Concerto,' though applied exclusively to instrumental music, had a less restricted signification than is given to it in the present day. Many of the specimens of this form in the works of the masters named more nearly resemble symphonies than concertos in the modern acceptation of the term. For instance, the first of Handel's so-called ' Oboe Concertos' is written for strings, two flutes, two oboes, and two bassoons, and excepting in occasional passages these are treated orchestrally rather than as solo instruments; while of Bach we have a concerto for violino piccolo, three oboes, one bassoon, and two horns, with string quartet, and another for three violins, three violas, three violoncellos, and double bass, neither of which possesses the characteristics of a modern concerto. The form, moreover, of the older concerto was much freer than now. With Bach we find a preference for the threemovement form at present in use. In the whole of his harpsichord concertos, as well as in those for one or two violins, we find an allegro, a slow movement, and a finale in quick time—generally 3-8. The two concertos named above are, exceptionally, the former in four and the latter in only two movements. With Handel, on the other hand, the three-movement form is the exception. As examples of the freedom of which he makes use, may be quoted the movements of two of his 'Twelve Grand Concertos' for two violins and violoncello soli, with accompaniment for stringed orchestra. These works are concertos in the modern sense, as regards the treatment of the solo instruments; but their form is as varied as possible. Thus the sixth consists of a Larghetto, Allegro ma non troppo, Musette,
and two Allegros, the second of which (though not so entitled) is a minuet ; while the eighth contains an Allemande, Grave, Andante allegro, Adagio, Siciliana, and Allegro. It should be mentioned here that Handel was one of the first, if not the first, to introduce opportunities for extempore performance on the part of the soloist, thus anticipating the 'cadenza,' an important feature of the modern concerto, to be spoken of presently. In the second movement of his Organ Concerto in D minor (No. 4 of the second set) are to be found no less than six places marked organo ad libitum, and with a pause over the rests in the accompaniments, indicating that the player (that is to say, he himself) was to improvise.
The modern form of the concerto was finally settled by Mozart and though several modifications have been introduced during the last century, the general lines of construction remain the same as those fixed by him. Nearly fifty concertos of his composition for various instruments are in existence, and, while presenting slight differences of detail, closely resemble one another in the more important points. The concerto form is founded upon that of theSoNATA (which see); there are however several variations which must be noted. In the first place, a concerto consists of only three movements, the scherzo, for some not very obvious reason, being excluded. For the sake of completeness it should be mentioned that Litolff s so-called ConcertoSymphonie in E flat, for piano and orchestra, has exceptionally a scherzo as the third of four movements.
The first movement in Mozart's concertos always begins with a tutti passage for the orchestra, in which the principal subjects are announced, much as in the first part of the first movement of a sonata. Sometimes the 'second subject' is omitted in this portion of the piece, but it is more frequently introduced. An important difference in form, however, is that this first tutti always ends in the original key, and not in the dominant, or the relative major (if the work be in a minor key), as would be the case in a sonata. The solo instrument then enters, sometimes at once with the principal subject, and sometimes with a brilliant introductory passage. A repetition, with considerable modification, of the first tutti, mostly follows, now divided between the principal instrument and the orchestra; the second subject is regularly introduced, as in a sonata, and the 'first solo' ends with a brilliant passage in the key of the dominant (or relative major, as the case may be). A shorter tutti then leads to the second solo, which corresponds to the 'Durchfuhrungsatz' or 'working out' of a sonata, and which, after various modulations, leads back to the original key. The principal subject is then reintroduced by the orchestra, but in a compressed form, and is continued by
the soloist with the 'third solo,' which corresponds in its form to the latter part of • sonata movement. A short final tutti brings the movement to a close. In most older concertos a pause is made, near the end of this last tutti, upon the 6-4 chord on the dominant for the introduction of a cadenza by the player. Though very general, this custom was by no means universal; in several of Dussek's concertos—notably in his fine one in G minor, op. 49—no such pause is indicated. The cadenza, when introduced, could be either improvised by the player, or previously composed, either by himself or by some other person. Mozart has left us thirty-five cadenzas written for various concertos of his own, which, though presenting in general no very great technical difficulties, are models of their kind. Beethoven has also written cadenzas for his own concertos, as well as for that by Mozart in D minor. In the cadenza the player was expected not merely to show off his execution, but to display his skill in dealing with the subjects of the movement in which it was introduced. A cadenza consisting entirely of extraneous matter would be altogether faulty and out of place, no matter what its technical brilliancy. It was the invariable custom to finish the cadenza with a long shake over the chord of the dominant seventh, after which a short passage for the orchestra alone concluded the movement. In older works the soloist was silent during these few bars; but in his concerto in C minor (Roche]'* Catalogue, No. 491) Mozart for the first time tried the experiment of associating the piano with the orchestra after the cadenza; and his example was followed by Beethoven in his concertos in C minor, G major, and Eb.
Before proceeding to speak of the modifications introduced into the concerto by Beethoven and other more modern composers, it will be well to complete our description of the form as left by Mozart. The second movement, which might be an andante, a larghetto, an adagio, or any other slow tempo, resembled in its form the corresponding portion of a sonata. Sometimes the variation form was used, as in Mozart's two concertos in Bb (Roche], Nos. 450 and 456); but more frequently the ordinary andante or larghetto was introduced. Two charming examples of the Romance will be found in the slow movement of Mozart's concertos in D minor and D major (Kochel, Nos. 466 and 537), though the latter is not, like the first, expressly so entitled, but simply bears the inscription larghetto. The solo part in the slow movements is frequently of an extremely florid character, abounding in passages of ornamentation. Sometimes a cadenza is also introduced at the close of this movement—e.g. in Mozart's Concertos in A major (Kochel, 414), C major (Rbchel, 415). and G major (Kochel, 453). In such cases, as is evident from the examples written by Mozart himself for the works mentioned, the cadenza should be much shorter than in the first movement.
The finale of a concerto was mostly in rondo form, though examples are to be found in Mozart of the variation form being employed for this movement also; see concertos in 0 minor (Kbchel, 491), and G major (Kbchel, 453). Sometimes this rondo was interrupted by a complete change of tempo. Thus the rondo of the concerto in C major (Kochel, 416), which is in 6-8 time, is twice interrupted by an adagio in C minor, 2-4 ; in the middle of the rondo of the concerto in Ej> (Kbchel, 482) is introduced an andantino oantabile; while another concerto in Eb (Kbchel, 271) has a minuet as the middle portion of the final presto. Short cadenzas were also frequently introduced in the finales; the concerto in Er>, just mentioned, has no less than three, all of which, instead of being left to the discretion of the player, are, exceptionally, written out in full. Similar short cadenzas will be found in the rondo of Beethoven's concerto in C minor, op. 37, while in the finale of the concerto in G, op. 58, a pause is made with the special direction 'La cadenza sia corta'— the cadenza to be short.
The innovations introduced by Beethoven in the form of the concerto were numerous and important. Foremost among these was the greater prominence given to the orchestra. In the concertos of Mozart, except in the tuttis, the orchestra has little to do beyond a simple accompaniment of the soloist, but with Beethoven, especially in his later concertos, the instrumental parts have really symphonic importance. Beethoven was also the first to connect the second and third movements (see concertos in G and E flat), an example which was imitated by Mendelssohn, in whose pianoforte concertos in G minor and D minor all the movements follow continuously. Beethoven, moreover, in his concertos in G and E flat, broke through the custom of beginning the work with a long tutti for the orchestra; in the former the piano begins alone, and in the latter it enters at the second bar. It is worthy of remark that the same experiment had been once, and only once, tried by Mozart, in his little-known concerto in Efc> (Kbchel, 271), where the piano is introduced at the second bar. One more innovation of importance remains to be noticed. In his concerto in Eb, op. 73, Beethoven, instead of leaving a pause after the 6-4 chord for the customary cadenza, writes his own in full, with the note 'Non si fa una Cadenza, ma attacca subito il seguente'—'Do not make a cadenza, but go on at once to the following.' His cadenza has the further peculiarity of being accompanied from the nineteenth bar by the orchestra. Another curious example of an accompanied cadenza is to be found in that which Beethoven has written for his piano
forte arrangement of his violin concerto, op. 61, through a considerable part of which the piano is accompanied by the drums, which give the chief subject of the movement.
It is evident that the example of Beethoven in his Eb concerto led the way to the disuse of the introduced cadenza in the first movement. Neither Mendelssohn nor Brahms has inserted one at all in pianoforte concertos; and where such is intended, composers mostly write out in full what they wish played, as for example Mendelssohn in his violin concerto, op. 64 (where, it may be remarked in passing, the cadenza is the middle of the first movement, and not at the end). Schumann (concerto in A minor, op. 54) and Raff (concerto in C minor, op. 185) have also both written their cadenzas in full.
The concertos written since those of Beethoven have been mostly constructed upon the lines he laid down. The introductory tutti has been shortened (as in Mendelssohn's, Schumann's, and Karl's concertos), though occasionally works are still written in the older form, the most striking example being Brahms's concerto in D minor, in which the piano does not enter till the ninety-first bar. Sometimes also a quickening of the tempo is introduced at the end of the first movement (Schumann, op. 54; Grieg, op. 16). Various other modifications have been made by different composers, of which it is not necessary to speak in detail, as they are merely isolated examples, and have not, at least as yet, become accepted as models of the form. The two concertos for piano and orchestra by Liszt are constructed upon a plan so different from that generally adopted that they should rather be described as fantasias or rhapsodies than as concertos in the ordinary meaning of the term.
Sometimes concertos are written for more than one solo instrument, and are then known as double, triple, etc., concertos as the case may be. The construction of the work is precisely the same as when composed for only one instrument. As examples may be named Bach's concertos for two violins, and for two, three, and four pianos; Mozart's Concerto in Eb for two pianos, in F for three pianos, and in C for flute and harp; Beethoven's triple concerto, op. 56, for piano, violin, and violoncello; Brahms's concerto in 0 for violin and violoncello, op. 102; Maurer's for four violins and orchestra. Mendelssohn's autograph MSS., now in the Imperial Library at Berlin, contain two Concertos for two pianos and orchestra, and one for piano and violin, with strings. E. P.
CONCERTO GROSSO. I. An Orchestral Concerto; i.e. a succession of movements, played by two or more solo instruments; accompanied by a full, or stringed orchestra.
Handel's so-called 'Concertante * is a composition of this kind, written for two solo violins, and violoncello, accompanied by stringed instruments and hautboys. Eleven out of the twelve well-known Grand Concertos, by the same composer, are written for a similar assemblage of solo instruments, accompanied by stringed instruments and continuo only; but No. VII. of this set is of an exceptional character, and contains no solo passages. Few of these compositions contain any bravura passages for the principal instruments, which are used, for the most part, like the wind instruments in works of later date, for the purpose of producing variety of instrumentation; but sometimes, and especially in the ' Concertante,' long passages of great constructional importance are assigned to them.
Handel's six 'Hautboy Concertos' are Concert! Grossi, written for a Concertino consisting of two solo violins, two violoncellos, two hautboys, two flutes, and two bassoons, with the addition, in No. I., of two tenors, and, in No. VI., of an obbligato harpsichord; accompanied, throughout the entire set, by the stringed orchestra and continuo. In some of these, the solo passages are much more brilliant than in the Grand Concertos above mentioned.
An exceptional example, of great interest, by the same composer, will be found in the double concerto, performed at the Handel Festival in 1885. Though unfortunately incomplete, the autograph copy of this work, in the Library at Buckingham Palace, contains nine movements, written for two Concertini, each consisting of two hautboys, one bassoon, and two horns in F, the whole accompanied by stringed orchestra, and continuo.
Corelli's Concerti Grossi are written for the same instruments as Handel's' Grand Concertos.' Sebastian Bach uses instrumental combinations of greater variety, and more in accordance with his own peculiar views of orchestral contrast, as in his Concerto for violin, flute, and clavier, with the usual accompaniments.
In form, all these works bore a close analogy to the ordinary overture, and Suite, peculiar to the middle of the 18th century, the movements consisting of a series of Largos, Allegros, and Andantes, intermixed, occasionally, with Minuets, Gavottes, and even Gigas. After the invention of the Sonata-form, the Concerto Grosso died completely out; for it would be impossible to refer to this class of compositions works like Mozart's Concertone for two violins, his Concerto for flute and harp, or even his serenades.
II. A term applied to the orchestral accompaniments of a Grand Concerto, as distinguished from the Concertino, or assemblage of principal instruments. w. 8. K.
CONCERTSTUCK, i.e. Concert - piece. A term familiar to the English reader through Weber's well-known composition in F minor (op. 79), which is to all intents and purposes a concerto for piano and orchestra. Weber's intention was to make it more dramatic than usual, and to have given the movements expressive
headings, and hence perhaps the variation in the title. In his biography of Weber, Sir Julius Benedict gives the dramatic interpretation authorised by the composer. (See Weber.) Schumann has left a 'Concertstiick' for four horns and orchestra (op. 82), which also is a concerto under another name.
CONCONE, Giuseppe, born at Turin in 1810, was a professor of the pianoforte and singing. He lived for about ten years in Paris, where he gave lessons in both branches of music, and brought out several compositions for the piano, notably a set of studies published by Grus. Richault was the publisher of his vocal music, which is melodious and well written for the voice. But it is chiefly by his solfeggi and vocalizzi that Concone has made a world-wide reputation for usefulness, to which the republication of these works by Peters of Leipzig has greatly contributed. Those that are known consist of a book of fifty solfeggi for a medium compass of voice, fifteen vocalizzi for soprano, twenty-five for mezzo-soprano, and a book of twenty-five solfeggi and fifteen vocalizzi, forty in all, for bass or baritone. This coupling together of bass and baritone is as a rule a great mistake, but in the present case the alternative notes given in passages which run low enable baritone voices to make very profitable use of the vocalizzi, and as they do not run very high, ordinary bass voices can sing them with sufficient ease. There is also a set of thirty very good florid exercises for soprano.
The contents of these books are melodious and pleasing, and calculated to promote flexibility of voice. The accompaniments are good, and there is an absence of the monotony so often found in works of the kind. The book of fifty solfeggi ha* been republished by many houses, and latterly by Curwen, with the Tonic Sol-fa in addition to the ordinary notation.
After the French revolution of 1848, Concone returned to Turin, and became maestro di cappella and organist at the Chapel Royal. He died there, June 1, 1861. H. c. D.
CONCORD is a combination of notes which requires no further combination following it or preceding it to make it satisfactory to the ear. The concords are perfect fifths, perfect fourths, major and minor thirds, and major and minor sixths, and such combinations of them, with the octave and one another, as do not entail other intervals. Thus the combination of perfect fifth with major or minor third constitutes what is known as a common chord, as (a). And different dispositions of the same notes, which are called its inversions, give, first a bass note with its third and sixth, as (b); and, secondly, a bass note with its fourth and sixth, as (c).
Besides these a chord composed of the third and sixth on the second note of any scale is regarded as a concord, though there is a diminished fifth or augmented fourth in it according to the distribution of the notes, as (d) or («)—