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cultivating conquering races who guarded the boundaries of their fields. The sacred tree of Ilus, also called Dardanides, or the son of Dardanus, was the wild fig-tre<s which marked his tomb ;1 and this tree, as we have seen, furnished the turning goal of the chariot-races of the sun-horse in India.

But this chariot-race is shown by Indian ritual to be a later reproduction of an earlier ploughing festival, of which we find the ritual in the consecration ceremony of the Kuru Panchiila kings of Central and Northern India. This took place, as the Brahmanas tell us, in the " dewy season," that is, in the season in which (JanuaryFebruary) the month of Miigh, the witch mother, was the chief month. This was the month beginning the year of the first immigrants who brought the knowledge of the cultivation of barley from Asia Minor, the early Jats. They are called in the Rigveda and Mahabharata, the Srinjaya, or men of the sickle (srini), and are represented in Eastern India, the land of the Kuru and Kushika kings, whose capital was Benares, by the Nfiga tribes, the Oraons, Santals, and Cheroos. All these tribes still begin their year either at the date of the earlier year of Orion, beginning in Aghun (November-December), or in the month of Miigh. It is from the latter month, fixed as the primeval new year's month in the JJidlananas, that the Santals reckon their year of thirteen lunar months of twenty-eight days each, or 364 days in all, the year, called in the Mahabharata the year of the thirteen wives of Kashyapa, the father-god of the race descended from the Indian fig-tree or banyan-tree. It was this year which was the year spoken of in the Iliad as that in which Ares, who is, as we shall see, a form of Orion, was bound for thirteen months by the giants Otos and Ephialtes, sons of Aloeus.2 And it is this year, beginning in November, like the Pleiades year, which is that reckoned by the Nootka Columbians of north-west America.3 But these people who celebrated the beginning of their year of thirteen months in Magh are also those who hold their mid-year festival in July—August, when, as the sons of the nut-tree, the predecessor of the fig-tree, the dancers dance round a branch of the sacred almond-tree {Nauclcct parvifolia) and decorate their hair during the dance with shoots of the young barley grown for the occasion by the daughters of the village head man, in sand mixed with turmeric, which makes the shoots a primrose yellow, the national sacred colour.

It is at the initial festival of this year, held now on Miigh 1, that the royal ploughing is ordered to take place, and in this ploughing the king was, as well as I can understand the text, directed to plough two furrows, one to represent the six months up to the midrainy season in July-August, and the returning furrow to represent

1 Homer's Iliad, xi. 166.

'2 Snared Books o/the East, v. 385-387.

3 Ratsel's History of Mankind. Translated by A. J. Butler. Vol. ii. "The Americans " pp. 19, 91, 92.

the second six months from July-August to January—February.1 This festival is one which would never have been made that of the original ploughing festival if it originated in India, and is distinctly marked as the new year's festival of a race of northern origin, who, as the yellow sons of the wolf-mother of Apollo, began their new year with the Lupercalia, held at Rome on February 15, and with our St. Valentine's Day on the 14th of the same month. This was the month of the Heraion, the festival of the marriage of Zeus and Hera, the two year-gods, held in Argos. It was the year of the race born of the pairing birds, the Finn races, who make their household nest their family home, and who, in their northern home, kept the Plough Monday of their annual ploughing festival in JanuaryFebruary. The general ploughing festival in North India is that called the Akkhadi by the Gonds, is that which takes in Baisakh {April-May), and this is equally a foreign festival to that in Magb, for the earth is as hard as iron and the ploughing merely a nominal ceremonial. It is a survival from the days when they ploughed their lands in Syria after reaping the barley harvest in April. This is the year festival of the Kushika sons of the fig-tree, who burned their dead, and who, in the horse-sacrifice recorded in the Afahablidrata, started their sun-horse to run his annual race in the month of Cheit (March-April), and that which opened the year of St. George, the ploughing saint, riding on the sun-horse, and killing the dragon of drought, whose year-day is April 23.

The goal, or turning-point of the plough, in this spring ploughing festival in which two furrows were ploughed, is described as the festival, of the Spit, or ploughing-ox, in the Grihya Sutra, which may, as the text states, be transferred to autumn at the close of the first six months of the year. It was the shrine of three pits, and two huts placed to the west of the sacred-fire altar at the corner of the oonsecrated field. By the pit, overshadowed by the northern hut, the mother-cow of the village herd stood. The ploughing father- ox, called Ish-iina, which is in some rituals sexless, to denote the unsexed procreating sun, was to be placed in the southern hut, and in the centre the young calf, the sun-god of the future year, was to stand by the sacrificial post, the turning-point of the plough. At this post the father-ox was to be sacrificed, and this post was made of the Palusha-tree,2 which is, as we have seen, the parent tree of the Mundas, and a tree of earlier mythological date than the later fig-tree.

Having thus proved that the turning or gnomon post in these primeval annual reproductions of the sun's race round the pole was a sacred shrine, I now return to the Homeric racecourse. The turning goal, the point at which the chariots of the sun-god turned

1 Ruling Races of Prehistoric Times, Vol i. Essay IIT. pp. 198, 199. ! Eggelirg's A'af. Brah. v. 5, 2, 3-5. Sacred Rooks of the East, vol. xli. p. 124. in their backward course, depicting the solstitial movements of the sun from south to north and from north to south, as described by Nestor to his son Antilochus.1 This was marked by an ancient sacrificial post of withered oak or fir wood, six feet high, round which the chariots turn, and, on each side of it, leaving between them sufficient apace for the chariots to move both in going to and coming back from the goal, were two white stone pillars (the stations of the mother cow and father ox, in the Hindu sacrifice of the spit ox), the whole being, according to Nestor, either the old mark of the burial place of some ancient hero or a race goal. This turning point is, as I shall show, the model of the shrine of the god of the race of the deer-sun. The goal post of fir or oak wood is the shrine of the sons of the pine-tree, sacred to the Phrygian goddess Cybele, whose name means in Phrygian a cave, and whose most sacred shrine was her cave on Mount Dindymon, in Phrygia, where her image was a meteoric stone. The pine pillar was thus the gnomon pillar of the cave dwellers, the Finn sons of the pine tree, from which, according to Phrygian belief, Adonis, the sun-god was born.3 This tree trunk, the mother of fire, who bequeathed to her descendants the reverence for the pine cone, the seed of fire, the symbol crowning the Thyrsus or magic wand of Bacchus, and the conical image of the mothergoddess symbolised in the mother-mountain in which the cave-temples were pierced. This became the oak pillar of the Cymric Druid races, worshippers of the Zend and Druid god Hu, whose name is a form of the Finn-Akkadian mother-bird Khu, who, as we have seen, belonged originally to the primeval agricultural race who began their year on the first of November, the first day of spring in the Southern Hemisphere of the Oceanic island continents whence, apparently, agricultural and village communities first arose. The two trees represented those who were the sons of the nut tree, the pine, and oak, who, as we have seen in the Todas and Naga races, were the predecessors of the Fathers who burnt their dead in the later Neolithic and Bronze Ages.

It was in front of this pine and oak tree post that the two sun pillars, the stone Menhirs, were placed. These were the two pillars placed before all Phoenician temples representing the shrines of the mother-cow and father-ox; and the whole was an exact counterpart of the Hindu sacrificial area consecrated for the slaughter of the father-ox at the central sacrificial post of Paliisha wood standing in front of the altar, and fixed in the pit into which the blood of the victim was to flow. These pillars, which in the ritual of sun worship replaced the animal totems of the earlier creed were called by the Phoenicians the pillars of Usof, the Phrygian goat-god, the Akkadian Uz, the Hebrew Esau, whose name is derived by the softening of

1 Homer's Iliad, xxiii. 327-333.
3 Mover's Die Phonizier, p. 203.

the gutturals from the Finnish Uz, or Uk, the great one, the god Ukko, the great begetter. He was the hunter who founded navigation, and his pillar, which, in the days before the worship of the white sun was coloured, was called the green pillar of Baal Khamman. It was the pillar of Solomon's temple called Boaz, the mover. The other pillar, the Jachin of Solomon's temple, was called Chiun, of which Jachin is the Hiphil form.1 They represented the sun of the summer (Usof) and of the winter (Chiun) solstices, and they stood before the porch of the temple raised on steps to represent the mountain shrines of the cave dwellers, worshippers of the deer-sun.

It was on the course consecrated to the gods of this long series of religious evolution that the Homeric chariot race is said to have taken place. It was won by Diomedes, son of Tydeus, that is, of the hammering (tud) god, and his name means the counsellor of Zeus. His father was a Greek form of the smith-god, the German Wieland, the god Thor bearing the hammer in the form of the Tau cross, the Celtic and German sign of fertility. It was the hammer of the Egyptian god Ptah, whose name means the opener, who became the Greek Hephaistos and the god represented in the Patoikoi, the dwarf figures placed by the Phoenicians on the prows of their vessels. He was the original fire-god of the northern fire worshippers who struck fire from flints and iron pyrites, and Diomedes, his son was, in Greek Homeric legend, made the constant companion of Odusseusin all the enterprises they jointly undertook to ensure the victory of Greece in her contest with the Asiatic powers. Odusseus, or Ulysses, was, as I have shown, the Orwandil of the North, whose toe was the star Rigel in Orion.3 Hence he was Orion, the leader of the stars, whose tent was in the centre of the Greek camp,3 who was wedded to the spinner Penelope, the Pleiades, whom, as we have seen, he is said in Hindu mythology to have pursued. It was these two com panions who stole the Palladium or guardian image from Troy, and thus made the city liable to be taken by the Greeks, and they thus made the Trojan goddess Pallas Athene the guardian goddess of the Greeks, and she was always the helper of Diomedes. They were, in Book X. of the Iliad, sent by the Greeks to reconnoitre the camp of the Trojans, and were led by Dolon, the Trojan spy, meaning the deceitful one, to the Thracian quarters, where they slew Rhesus, the Thracian king, and his twelve warriors, taking their horses. The slain or taken horses represent in ancient mythologies of the gods of time the conquered sun-gods of former methods of time reckoning, and these thirteen Thracian chiefs and their horses mean the thirteen lunar months of the year preceding that of the sun-god Achilles, whose year was measured by the passage of the sun through the signs of the Zodiac. It was the more reliable year, which replaced

1 Mover's Die Phonizier, pp. 343-316. 2 Hiding licces of Prehistoric Times, Vol. ii. Essay VII. p. 22. i Homer's Iliad, xi. 5, 6.

the earlier one, which reckoned time by guess without the help of any accurate guide, and the earlier year had to be eradicated from the official calendar before the year of Achilles could take its place.

The sun horses with which Diomedes won the race were not his own, for he was a fire-god, but those taken by him from /Eneas.1 They were one pair out of the brood of twelve horses begotten by Boreas, the north wind, from the mares of Dardanus, the richest of men, son of Ericthonius, ancestor of the Trojan race.2 They were the twelve months of the wheel-year of primevals olar worship, the twelve months of the perfect circle of 360 days or degrees made by the sun round the pole, the sun year measured by the gnomon pillar. In order to ascertain the ethnological source of this year we must inquire into the parentage of ^Eneas. He was the grandson of Assarakos and the son of Aphrodite, and Assarakos was the brother of llus, the founder of Troy. Here we have two systems of theology brought before us, the first that of the mother mountain of the year of three seasons typified in the triangular sign of the mother goddess under which Aphrodite was worshipped at Paphos, which was also the symbol of the Phoenician mother goddess Ba. This was also the year of the Basque Iberian mother goddess Iru, meaning the three, goddess of the spring showers, the mother Ira, Ida, or Ha. She became the Phoenician god II or El, the Trojan llus. It was the year of the semi-matriarchal Iberian cultivators, who made their totem the pig, the prolific sow, and the fighting boar. It was to these parent gods, the boar sun-god, that pigs were offered in Asia Minor, Greece, Italy, Syria, Mesopotamia, India, and Egypt. They were sacrificed to Aphrodite, Demeter and Ceres, to the Assyrian fire-god Adar, and to the Hindu Riihu, and also to Mars or Ares. It was the race of the sons of the pig which used the bath of pig's blood to cleanse the guilty from sin, a custom common to the Phrygians, Lycians, and Greeks. This boar-god was the god who slew Adonis, the sun-god of the ploughing sons of the fig-tree.

But side by side with this worship of the sun-god, the destroying boar, there was also that of the deer sun-god Orion, the god of the yellow Mongolian immigrants from the north-east. This was the god worshipped by the Akkadians as Dara the antelope. His name appears in Darda, the son of Mahol, meaning the supreme god, mentioned in 1 Kings iv. 31 as " the wisest of men." This name becomes in 1 Chron. ii. 6 Dara, the Akkadian name. There he is said to be the son of Zerah, the red twin god, son of Tamar the date-palm tree, which succeeded the fig-tree as the parent tree of South-western Asia. Thus the Dardanian race, led by iEneas,3 were the sons of the antelope or deer god which was, as we learn from the

1 Homer's Iliad, xxiii. 291, 292; v. 270. J lb. xx. 220-225; v. 268-273.

3 lb. ii. 820, 821.

Vol. 147.—No. 6. 2 T

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