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los, where she gave birth to Apollo and Di ana. Apollo, as soon as he was born, attacked the monster and killed him with his arrows, and in commemoration of the victory which he had obtained, he instituted the celebrated Pythian games. [Strabo says, that Python was no other than a famous villain whom Apollo d estroyed. Dickinson, in his "Delphi Phoenicizantes," maintains the Pv thou of the Greeks to be the Typhon of the Phoenicians; and the Typhon of the Phoeni
cians to be the Og of Scripture, while lit will have Apollo, who slew it, to have been Joshua.] Strab. 8.—Paut. 2, c. 7, 1. 10, c. 6,—Hygin—Ovid. Met. 1, v. 438, fcc-X*can. 3, v. 134.
Ptthonissa, a name given to the priestess of Apollo's temple at Delphi. She is more generally called Pythia. (vid. Pythia.) The word Pythanissa was commonly applied to women who attempted to e*plain futurity.
Pttka, a part of Mount Ida.
(ofcUADI, an ancient nation of Germany near the country of the Marcomanni, on the borders of the Danube, in modern Moravia. They rendered themselves celebrated by their opposition to the Romans, by whom they were often defeated, though not totally subdued. [The original seat ot the Quadi
the city, received the name of Urbtnz When the Romans were masters of all Italy, four more were created, A. U. C. 498, to attend the pro-consuls and pro-prxtors in their provinces, and to collect all the taxes and customs which each particular district owed to the republic. They were called Pnva
seems to have been on the eastern banks of ciadrs. Sylla the dictator created 20 qua*
the Danube towards the TheU, as far as the settlements of the Gets. The incursions of
the Jazyges and the Gttx compelled them to that the quxstors ranked as senators in the
migrate to the west.] Tacit, in Germ. 42 and 43. An. 2, c. 63.
Quadratus, a surname given to Mercury, because some of his statues were square. The number 4, according to Plu tarch, was sacred to Mercury, because he was born on the 4th day of the month. Plut. in Symfios. 9.
Quadkifrons, or Quadriceps, a sur-j_.._ ,. ......
name of Janus, because he was represented'their possession when the armies were not* with four heads. He had a temple on the'an expedition. ITiey required every general Tarpeian rock, raised by L. Catulus. (before he triumphed to tell them, upon bis
Quastorks, two officers at Rome, first oath, that he had given a just account of the created A. U. C. 269. [There are two opi- number of the slain on both sides, and that nions respecting the origin of the Quxstoriai
tors, and J. Caesar 40, to fill up the vacant seats in the senate; from whence it is evident
senate. The quaestors were always appointed by the senate at Rome, and if any person was appointed to the quaetorship without their permission he was only called Proqucstor. The quxstores urbani were apparently of more consequence than the rest, the treasury was intrusted to their care, they kept an account of all receipts and disbursements, and the Roman eagles or ensigns were alway> in
office. According to the first, the institution of Quxstors seems to have been nearly as ancient as the city itself. They were first appointed by the kings according to Tacitus; and then by the consuls to tiic year 307, when they began to be elected by the people at the Comitia Tributa. Others say that two qucstors were chosen by the people from among the patricians, soon after the expul sion of the Tarquins, to take care of the treasury, according to a law passed by Va lerius Poplicola ] l'hey received their name, a quarendo, because they collected the revenues of the state, and had the total management of the public treasury. The quxstorship was the first office which could be had in the state. It was requisite that the candidates should be ?4 or 25 years of age, or, according to some, 27. [In the time <>f Cicero it seems to have been 31.] In the year 332, U. C. two more were added to the others, to attend the consuls, to take care of the pay of the armies abroad, and sell the plunder and booty which had been acquired by conquest. These were called Peregrini, whilst the others, whose employment was in
le had been saluted imfierator by the soldiers, i title which every commander generally received from his army after he had obtained a victory, and which was afterwards confirmed and approved by the senate. The city quxstors had also the care of the ambassadors, they lodged and received them. [They took care also of the funerals of those who were buried at the public expense. Augustus took from them the charge of the treasury and gave it to the prxtors, or to those who had been prxtors, but Claudius restored1 it to the quaestors. Afterwards prxfects of the treasury seem to have been appointed. Augustus, as a compensation for depriving them of the care of the treasury, allowed tM quiestors the charge of the public records, which the tediles had formerly exercise^ He introduced also a kind of quiestors, cau« Quastores Candidal), who used to earn tne messages of the emperor to the '*Da,e'j"~ who were called Candidati >>ecauscJI1i;' sued for higher preferment, which by the mterest of the emperor they were sure f0.0^ tain. Constantine instituted a new J""0 quaestors, called QuestorcsPatatii, wl|°*c, much the same with what we call thaw*
Iors.i The tent of the qusestor in the camp was called questorium. It stood near that of the general. Varro. dc L. L. 4.—Liv. 4, c. 43 —Dio. 43.
Querquetuljnus, a name given to mount Ccelius at Rome, from the oaks which grew there. Tacit. Jin. 4, c. 65.
Qcietis Fanum, a temple without the walls of the city of Rome. Quies was the goddess of rest. Her temple was situate near theColline gate. Liv. i.e. 4.—August. dcCtv.D.4,c.l6.
QUINCTIA PRATA. fid QulNTIA.
Quinctujst. a Roman consul who gained some victories over the iEqui and the Vnlsci, and obtained a triumph for subduing Pre; #neste. A Roman celebrated for his frugality, [vid. Cincinnatus.] Hirpiuus. vid.
Quindecimviri, an orderof priests whom Tarquin the proud appointed to take care of the Sibyline books. They were originally two, but afterwards the number was increased to ten, to whom Svlla added five more, whence their name. (yid. Decemviri am! Duumv.ii ]
Quujojjatkia, a festival in honour of Minerva at Rome, which continued during five days. The beginning of the celebration was the 18th of March. The first day sacrifices and oblations were presented, but, however, without the effusion of blood. On the second, third, and fourth days, shows of gladiators were exhibited, and on the filth day there was a solemn procession through the streets of the city. On the days of the celebration, scholars obtained holidays, and it was usual for them to offer prayers to Minerva for learning and wisdom, which the goddess patronised; and on their return to school, they presented their master with a gift which has received the name of Mmrrvul. They were much the same as the Panathenaca of the Greeks. Plays were also acted and dis nutations were held on subjects of literature. They received their name from the^w days which were devoted for the celebration.
Quinouenxales Ludi, games celebrated by the Lilians in honour of Homer ever) fifth year. There were also some games among the Romans which bore this name. They are the same as the Actian games. vid. Actia.
Quintia Pkata, a place on the borders of the Tiber near Rome, which had been cultivated by the great Cincinnatus. Liv. 3, c. 26.
Quintilianus, Marcus Fabius, a celebrated rhetorician, born [about.the year 42 of the Christian era, in the reign of the emperor Claudius. He is supposed to have been descended from a family originally Spanish, but that his father or grandfather had settled at Rome. The place of his birth is not clearly ascertained, but it seems certain that he was educated at the capital, where he studied rhetoric under Domitius Afer, a celebrated orator. The opinion of some that
he was born at Calaguris in Spain, is entitled to little if any credit.] He opened a school of rhetoric at Rome, and was the first who obtained a salary from the state as being a public teacher. After he had remained twenty years in this laborious employment and obtained the merited applause of the most illustrious •Romans, not only as a preceptor, but as a pleader at the bar, Quintilian, by the permission of the emperor Domitian, retired to enjoy the fruits of his labours and industry. In his retirement he assiduously dedicated his time to the study ot literature, and wrote a treatise on the causes of the corruption of eloquence. [This has not come down to us.] Some time after, at the pressing solicitations of his friends, he wrote his institutional oraloria, the most perfect and complete system of oratory extant. It is divided into 12 books, in which the author explains from observations, as well as from experience, what can constitute a good and perfect orator, and in this he not only mentions the pursuits and the employments of the rhetorician, but he also speaks of his education, and begins with the attention which might to be shewn him even in his cradle. He was appointed preceptor to the two young princes whom Domitian destined for his successors on the throne, but the pleasure which the rhetorician received from the favours and the attention of the emperor, and from the success which his writings met in the world, was embittered by the loss of his wife and of his two sons. It is said that Quintilian was poor in his retirement, and that his indigence was relieved by the liberality ol his pupil, Pliny the younger. He died A. 1). 9.5. [The style ot Quintilian is said by critics to exhibit tokens of the deterioration of the Latin tongue, and of the introduction of a false taste. It wants the ease and simplicity of good prose, and is in many instances better adapted to the poet or the orator than to the philosopher, the Clitic, or the rhetorician.] His institutions were discovered in the 1415th year of the Christian era, in an old tower of a monastery at St. Gal, by Poggio Bracciolini, a native of Florence. The best editions ol Quintilian arc those of Gesner, 4to. Gotting. . 38; of L. Bat. 8vo. cum notis variorum, 1665; of Gibson, 4ta Oxon. 1693; that of Rollm republished in 8vo. London, 1792, [and that of Scalding, Lips. 1798-1816, 4vols. 8vo.]
Quintillus, M. Aurelius Claudius, a brother of Clau.lius who proclaimed himself emperor, and 17 days after destroyed himself by opening his veins in a bath, when he heard that Aurelian was marching against him, about the 270th year of the Christian era.
Quintus Curtius Rufus, a Latin historian, who flourished as some suppose, [either during the reign of Claudius, A. D 54, or under that of Vespasian, A. D. 69.] He has rendered himself known by the history of the reign of Alexander the Great. This history
was divided into 10 books, of which the two
Quikinalia, festivals in honour of Romu lus surnamed Quirinus, celebrated on the
13th of the calends of March
Quirinahs, a hill at Rome, originallv'4, oil. 14, v. 1. Varro. de L. L. called Agonius, and afterwards Cotlmus.l, c. 13.—Ovid. Fast. 2, v. 479.
The name of Quirinalis it obtained from the nhabitants of Cures, who settled there under their king Tatius. It was also called Caba'inus, from two marble statues of horses, me of which was the work of Phidias, and the other of Praxiteles. Liv. 1, c. 44 — Ovid Fast. 375. Met. 14, v. 8 *>.——One if the gates of Rome near mount Quirinalis.
Qcirinus, a surname of Romulus when he iad been made a god by his superstitious subjects, i The name is derived either from Quiris, i Sabine term for a spear, or from Cure*,
i Sabine city.] Ovid. Fast. 2, v. 475.
Sulpitius, a Roman consul born at Lanuvium. Though descended of an obscure family, he was raised to the greatest honours by Augustus. He was appointed governor of Syria, ■ and was afterw ards made preceptor to Caius, the grandson of the emperor. He married /Emilia Lepida, the grand-daughter of Sylla and Pompey, but some time after he shamefully repudiated her. He died A. D. 22. Tacit. Ann. 3, &c.
Quirites, a name given to the Roman citizens either because they admitted into their city the Sabines, who inhabited the town of Cures, and who on that account were called Quirites, [or from Quiris, a Sabine term for a spear.] After this union,the two nations were indiscriminately and promiscuously called by that name. It is, however, to be observed that the word was confined to Rome, and not used in tlu- armies, as we find some of the generals applying it only to such of their soldiers as they dismissed or disgraced. Even some of the emperors appeased a sedition, by calling their rebellious soldiers by the degrading appellation of Quirites. tiueton. Ctes. 70.— I^am/irid. 53.—Lucan. 5, v. 558.—Horat.
JkvABIRIUS, C. a Roman knight, who lentlthree centuries instituted by Romulus. Af
an immense sum of meney to Ptolemy Au letes, king of Egypt. The monarch afterwards, not only reuised to repay him, but even con fined him, and endangered his life. Rabin us escaped from Egypt with difficulty, but at his return to Rome, he was accused by the senate of having lent money to an African prince, for un awful purposes. He was ably defende.l by Cicero, and escaped with difficulty. Cic. firo Rab. A Latin poet in the
age of Augustus, who wrote, besides satires and epigrams, a poem on the victory which the emperor had gained over Antony at Ac
tium. [Another, accused and condemned
before the Decemviri for having slain in
ter the Roman people had been divided into three tribes, the monarch elected out of each 100 young men of the best and noblest families, with which he formed three companies of horse. One of them was called Rhamnenses or Ramnes, either from the tribe of which it was chosen, or from Romulus. Another was called Tatienses or Titienses, from Titus Tatius, and tlie third Luceres; [either from Lucumo an Etrurian,or'from lucus. the grove which Romulus made an asylum. The Rhamnenses consisted of Romans, and inhabited the Palatine hill, the Tatienses of Sabines, and dwelt on the Capitoline hill; the Luceres were composed of all the foreigners who came successively to Rome, after the union with the Sabines. This arrangement, however, was subsequently altered, vid. Equites.j Varr. de L. L. 4, c. 9.—Liv. 1, c. 13.—Horat. de Art.fioet.UO—Piut. in Rom. Ravenna, a town of Italy on the Adriatic,
which became celebrated under the Roman
Raur Aci, a peopleof Gaul, whose chief town is now August on the Rhine. Ctt*. G. i,c.5.
Reate, a-pleasant town [in the country of the Sabines, on the nver Velinus, a branch of the Nar.] It was built, as some suppose before the Trojan war. Cybele was the chief deity of the place. It was famuus for its
asses. Strab. 5.—Dionys. Hal. 1 Varro.de
R. R. 1>—Uv. 25, c. 7, 1.26, c. H, 1. 28, c. 45. Cic. Cat: JV. D. 2, c. 2.
Redicolus, a deity whose name is derived from the word redtre, (to return.; The Romans raised a temple to the imaginary deity on the spot where Annibal had retired when he approached Rome, as if to besiege it. Festus de V tig.
Redones, a nation among the Amorici, now the people of Rennes and St. Motoct, in Britanny. Ctes. B. G. 2, c. 41.
Regill.*, or Regillum, a town in the country ot the Sabines in Italy, about 20 miles from Rome, celebrated for a battle which was fought there, A. U. C. 258, between 24,000 Romans, and 40,000 Etrurians, who
were headed by the Tarquins. TheRomans obtained the victory, and scarce 10.000 of the enemy escaped from the field of battle. Castor and Pollux, according to some accounts, wereseen mounted on white horses, and fighting at the head of the Roman army. IJv. 2, c. 16.—Dionns. Hal. 5.—Plat, in Cor.—Pal Max. l.—Flor. I. Suet. Tib. I.
Regillianus, Q. Nonius, a Dacian who entered the Roman armies, and was raised to the greatest honours under Valerian. He was elected emperor by the populace, who were dissatisfied with Gallienus, and was soon after murdered by his soldiers, A. D. 262.
Regillus, a small lake of Latium, whose waters fall into the Anio, at the east of Rome. The dictator Posthumius defeated the Latin army near it. Liv. 2, c. 19.
Regium Lepidum, a town of Modem, now Regio, at the south of the Po. Plin. 3,c. 15—Cic. U,/am. 5, I. 13, ep. 7.
M. Attilius Regulus, a consul during the first Punic war. He reduced Brundusiiim, and in his second consulship he took 64 irid sunk 30 gallies of the Carthaginian fleet, on the coast of Sicily. Afterwards he landed in Africa, and so rapid was his success, that in a short time he defeated three generals, and made himself master of about 00 places of consequence on the coast. The Carthaginians sued for peace, but the conqueror refused to grant it, and soon after he was defeated in a battle by Xanthippus, and ;0,000 of his men were left on the field of battle, and 15.000 taken prisoners. Regulus wastin the number of the captives, and he was carried in triumph to Carthage He was afterwards sent by the enemy to Rome, to propose an accommodation, and an exchange of prisoners; and if his commission was unsuccessful he was bound by the most solemn oaths to return to Carthage without delay. When he came to Rome, Regulus dissuaded his countrymen from accepting the terms which the enemy proposed, and when his opinion had had due influence on the senate, Regulus retired to Carthage agreeable to his engagements The Carthaginians were told that their offers of peace had been rejected at Rome by tlie means of Regulus, and therefore they prepared to punish him with the greatest severity. His eye-brows were cut, and he was exposed for some days to the excessive heat of the meridian sun, and afterwards confined in a barrel, whose sides were every where filled with large iron spikes, till" he died in the greatest agonies. His sufferings were heard at Rome, and the senate permitted his widow to inflict whateever punishment she pleased on some of the most illustrious captives of Carthage, who were in their hands. She confined them also in presses filled with sharp iron points, and was so exquisite in her cruelty, that the senate at last interfered, and stopped the barbarity of her punishments. Regulus diet! about 251 years before Christ, Sit. 6, v. 319. Fkr. 2, c 3.—Horat.2, od,5.—Cie.deOff. 1, e. 13 Val Max. I, c. 1, 1. 9 c. 2.—Liv.
ep. 16. Memniius. a Roman made governor of Greece by Caligula. While Regulus was in his province the emperor wished to bring the celebrated statue of Jupiter Olympus, by Phidias, to Home; but this ■was supernaturally prevented, and according to ancient authors, the sh p whicl was to convey it was destroyed by light ning, and the workmen who attempted to remove the statue, were terrified away by
sudden noises. Dio. Cisx A man wb
condemned Sejanus. Roscius a man who
held the consulship but for one day, in the reign of V tellius.
Remi, a nation of Gaul, whose principal town Duriiortorium, is now Rheims. Plin. 5, c. 17.—Cas. B G. 2. c. 5
Rkmmia Lex rfejudiciis, was enacted to punish all calumniators. The letter K was marked on their forehead. This law was abolished by Constantine the Great. Cic./iro Ros.
Rkmulus Sylvius, a king of Alba,'des troyed by lightning on account of his impiety. Ovid. Trim. 4, v. 50.
Remuria, festivals established at Rome by Romulus, to appease the manes of his brother Remus. They were after ards called Lemuria, and celebrated yearly.
Remus, the brother of Romulus, was ex posed together with him, by the cruelty of his grandfather. In the contest which happened between the two brothers about building a city, Romulus obtained the preference, and Remus, for ridiculing the. rising walls, was put to death by his brother's orders, or by Romulus himself [yid. Komulus.] The Romans were afflicted with a plague after this murder, upon which the oracle was consulted, and the manes of Mem us appeased by
the institution of the Remuria. Ovid.
One of the auxiliaries of Turnus against JEneas. Virg- JEn. 9, v. 330.
Res.cn A, [orTheodosiopolis, now Ras-vin, or Mnverdah, a town of Mesopotamia, on the banks of the Chaboras.] It was fa inous for the defeat of Sapor by Gor dian.
RiiA, a large river, now the Volga, of Rus sia. [The name Rha appears to bean appellative term, having affinity with Rhea or
Reka, which,in the Sarmatian or Sclavonian language, signifies a river ; and from the Russian denomination of Vclika Reka, or Great River, appears to be formed the name of Volga. In the Byzantine and other writers of the middle ages, this stream is called Atel or Etel, a term in many northern languages, signifying great or illustrious. The approximation of the Tana is to this river, before it changes its course to the Palus Mxotis, is the occasion of the erroneous opinion of some authors, that it is only an emanation of the Rha taking a different route.]
Rhacius, a Cretan prince, the first of that nation who entered Ionia with a colony. He seized Claros, of which he became the sove
reign. He married Manto, the daughter of Tiresias, who had been seized on his coasts. Paus. 7, c. 3.
Rhacotis, an ancient name of Alexandria, the capital of Egypt. Strab.—Paus. 5, c. 21. Rhadamanthus, a sen of Jupiter and Europa. He was born in Crete, which he abandoned about the 30th year of his age. He passed into some of the Cyclades, where he reigned with so much justice and impartialiu, that the ancients have said he became one of the judges of hell, and that he was employed in the infernal regions m obliging the dead to confess their crimes, and in punishing them for their offences. Rhadamanthus reigned not only over some of the Cyclades, but over many of the Greek cities of Asia. Paus. 8,c. 53— Ovid. Met. 9, v. 435 — Diod. 5.—Plato—Homer. 1U 4, v. 564.— Virg. JEn. 6, v. A66.
Rhadamistus, a son of Pharnasmanes, king of Iberia. He married Zenobia, the daughter of his uncle Mithridates, king of Armenia, and some time after put him to death. He was put to death by his father for his cruelties, about the year 52 of the Christian era. Tacit. Ann. 13, c 37.
Rhati, or Rati, an ancient and warlike nation of Etruria. They were driven from their native country by the Gauls, and went to settle on the other side of the Alps. vid. Rhaetia. Plin. 3, c. 10 —Justin. 20, c. 5.
Rh.etia, [a country of Europe, which occupied a part of the Alps, and was situate to the north of Italy and east of Helvetia. It is not easy to ascertain its limits to the north, but we may say that it was bounded in that quarter by Vindelicia, and in general that it corresponded to the country of the Grisont, and to the cantons of Uri, Glaris, Sec, as far as the Lake of Constance : it extended also over the Tyrol. This country Was called western Illy ricum,and was subjected tothe Romans by Drusus, in the reign of Augustus. Soon afterwards Vindelicia was reduced by Tiberius, so that the Roman possessions extended to the Dauube. This double conquest formed a province called Rhauia, comprehending Vindelicia, without obliterating altogether the distinction. But in the multiplication that Oioclesian and some other emperors after him made of the provinces, Rhxtia was divided into two, under the names of Prima and Secunda: a circumstance which caused Rhxtia proper and Vindelicia to reassume their primitive distinctions.] Virg. G. 2, v. 96.— Strub. 4.—Plin. 3, c. 20,1. 14, c. 2, &c—Horat. 4, Od. 4 and 14.
Rhamnus. a town of Attica, famous fora temple of Amphiarius, and a statue of the goddess Nemesis, who was from thence called Rhamnusia. This statue was made by Phidias, out of a block of Panan marble which the Persians intended as a pillar to be erected to commemorate their expected victory over Greece. Paus. 1.—Plin. 36.
Rhamnusia, a name of Nemesis. rfeft Rhamnus.