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1646 he started making a ware that became world renowned. With a blue underglaze of fine quality and lustreless red, green and blue enamels (overglaze) and gold, and, by creating a new style of decoration, on fine paste and milk-white glaze, the product was superb. Avoiding the Chinese system of filling in the spaces with accessories, Kakiemon satisfied himself with carefully painted medallions, a piece of bamboo, or plum or pine, a phcenix, or fluttering birds, leaving the large remaining space as untouched ground color. By 1660 the style was in its perfection; and his descendants continued the now famous Kakiemon style. Early underglaze blue decoration was perfect, but in the later output it has a tendency to "run" when subjected to the second firing, making specimens with unblurred blue in the decoration quite rare. On account of its diaper,


Porcelain Plate. Arita Ware fHizen Province); 18th Century. (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York).

scroll and floral subjects the early Arita pieces were termed Nishiki-dc ("brocade pattern"). In the 17th century already European madcto-order tendencies appear in both shapes and decorations, and lilac blue, russet-brown, purple black and lemon-yellow were added to the enamel palette. Arita "egg-shell" was not made probably till the latter part of the 18th century, and the "warriors in armor" and "courtesans in elaborate costume" figure subj ects are strictly modern, for the most part. Chinese marks prevail. Seto made, besides its earthenware (Toskiro-yaki), porcelain, in fact it became so well known in Japan as to cause all porcelain ware to be termed Setomono. Kutani-yaki (Kaga province) is a porcelain made since middle of the 17th century, but to Goto Saijiro, some years later, is successful work due. Its two wares are Ao-Kutani, with brilliant deep green glaze, also blue, purple, yellow colors in designs of diapers, floral and scroll motifs, etc.; another ware ("red" variety) had, mainly, red and green, assisted by blue, purple, yellow, gold and silver. The soft, opaque Kutani red is noted. The artist Kuzumi Morikaga's Kano school style miniature landscapes, sparrows, "ruffed" flowers, are admired. Ko-Kutani (old ware) vases, plates, small

dishes, cups, sake bottles, censers, incense boxes (kogo) are scarce and prized, but by 1750 only common wares were being made. In 1809 the factory was moved to Yamashiro-mura and KoKutani style revived till 1865 in stoneware body with lustrous glaze colors (green, purple, blue, yellow). Kutani red decoration pieces are known now as Kaga. A Satsuma porcelain kiln was started in 1661, but ran only two years; in 1779 Arita style porcelain <was made here of some merit in its paste, softer and whiter than Imari, its enamel decoration gave place, in 1868, to blue and white. Hirado-yaki — Brinkleysays this is "perhaps the finest porcelain manufactured in Japan." Made at Mikawachi-yama. Originally made heavy reddish stoneware, but fine porcelain stone, discovered at Fukae (1712), mixed with local material produced a body of "exceptional fineness and purity." Matsura, the Hirado chief, subsidized the factory forbidding sales and only court and presentation ware was produced — termed Kenjo-mono. It has a velvet-like, lustrous surface, without the "Old Japan" granulation. Decoration is mostly blue of exquisitely soft and clear tone in details of wonderfully clear details. Pieces are of all forms, even human figures, children, Bodhisatvas, etc. Few of the finest pieces are marked. Japanese porcelain varieties and kilns are innumerable.

The subject of Japanese ceramics would be very imperfectly told without special mention of their great genius, Hozan, second only to Ninsei. He was 11th descendant of a ceramic family_ noted for their fire-boxes (furo). Early in the 19th century he studied at Awata and soon became famous for his celadons, blueand-white porcelain, faience, especially imitations of Cochin China faience. The chief of Kishu (1827) invited him to start a kiln in his castle park, where he made the celebrated Oniwa-yaki (honorable park ware) or Kairaku-en ware. His aubergine porcelains, combinations of turquoise blue, purple and yellow faience glazes were far superior to later ones. His famous "Kinrande" (scarlet-and-gold brocade) style, or "Akaji-kinga* (gold designs on red ground), bear the "Eiraku" stamp. This red was lustrous yet exquisitely soft. In 1840 he opened a kiln in Narikata-machi (in Kioto), where he made faience in Ninsei style. His pieces from this kiln are called "Omuro-yaki." Later he made Mue-under-glaze on Lake Biwa shore, in Akaji-kinga style under the name Butsuya, and died about 1855. Marks: Some are impressed with a seal, some scratched, some painted. They are frequently the names of places where made, as Asahi, Minato, etc., but the potter's name is the most frequent.

Bibliography.—Audsley, G. A., and Bowes, J. L., 'Keramic Art in Japan' (London 1881); Atkinson, R. W., 'Note on the Porcelain Industry in Japan* (in Asiatic Societv of Japan, Yokohama 1880); Blacker, T. R, 'Chats on Oriental China* (New York 1908); Bowes, J. L„ 'Japanese Pottery* (Liverpool 1890); Brinkley, Capt. R, 'Japan: Its Historv, Arts and Literature' (Boston and Tokio 1901-02); Burty, P., 'Japanese Pottery' (in Artistic Japan, London 1889) ; Franks, Sir A. W.. 'Japanese Pottery' (South Kensington Museum Handbook, London 1880); Gasnault, P.. 'La Ceramique de I'extreme Orient' (in 'L'Art

Ancien,> Paris 1879) ; Holme, C, 'The Cha-noyu Pottery of Japan' (in International Studio, London 1909) ; Gonse. L., 'L'Art ceramique du Japon' (in 'Katalog der orientalisch keramischen Ausstellung,' Vienna 1884) ; Julien, S. A., •Memoire sur la Porcelain du Japon' (supplement to 'Histoire et Fabrication de la Porcelaine chinoise,' Paris 1856); Mew, E., 'Japanese Porcelain' (London 1909); Oueda Tokounosouke, 'La Ceramique japonnaise' (Paris 1895).

Clement W. Coumbe.


Lacquers And Lacquerwork.

JAPANESE AND ORIENTAL ARMS AND ARMOR. Nippon's upper classes have, from the very distant past, shown a depth of study and reverence for the fashioning of arms and armor, including a complex etiquette, that amounts to a military cult. Their Samurai were fighting nobles devoted to military achievement as a career. Their warriors (bushi) lived in religious devotion to their martial ethics ■— termed bushido. Mr. Bashford of the Metropolitan Museum of Arts, New York, writes: "Japan is hardly second to Europe in furnishing artistic examples of arms and armor."

Armor (Yoroi).— The earliest armor was of sheepskin or oxhide, then (before the 7th century) it was of leather. By the 7th centuryiron armor was in use; this was a corselet of iron plates rivetted together, a flaring skirt of metal, leather guards for shoulders and the upper arm and a conical helmet. By the 16th century guns were introduced, but the ethics of warriors upheld the use of their revered longbow and arrows (so inseparable was the bow and arrow in their ideals that yumi-ya is synonym of both), and their religiously reverenced sword (katana). And the light and loose-hanging armor continued in constant use, conservatively retaining the same parts though subject to changes in fashion. The headpiece (kabuto) consists of three parts: the hachi or skull, the shikoro or articulated neck protector, and the maye-zashi or peak. At the sides arc curved wing-pieces (fuki-gayeshi), sometimes part of the shikoro. Varieties of the hachi arc: dzu nari and saku nari (shaped like the crown of the head), mono nari (peach shaped), tokamuri (form of the kamuri ceremonial hat), kimen (demon's head), shii nari (nut shaped), tofipai (tall conical form flattened at sides). The bowl {hachi) is of iron or hard-lacquered leather in a single piece or of rivetted strips. The tatami kabuto (folding helmet) is constructed of loosely joined articulate circlets capable of closing up more or less flat. The ordinary hachi's outer surface is composed of numerous elongated triangular ribs running from the lower rim to the socket surrounding the opening in the apex. The outer rim of this socket is termed hachiman-za, and is sacred to the god of war and used for occult decoration, often an embossed or engraved conventional chrysanthemum (kikumon), when it is called kiku-za. A silk cloth sometimes closed this opening against the weather and was fastened by strings to four metal knobs called shi-tenbivo (four Deva knobs). For higher ranks arc added quarrerings in gold and silver in bands extending from the hachimanza to the back ami

front, sometimes also to the sides, thus dividing the helmet ornamentally into two, four or eight parts (termed respectively kata-jiro, shiho-jiro, happo-jiro). Small holes on four sides allow thin leather strips to connect with the inside cap. The shikoro (neck defense) consists of either three, five, six or seven laminated metal plates or stiff leather of a curved form fastened together with silk cords. In some examples the laminations consist of small metal scales (kosane), 100 to 136 in a row. The inner side of the shikoro is usually coated with bright red lacquer (said to reflect fierce color on the warrior's face). The before-mentioned fuki-gayeshi (curved wing pieces) at the sides are generally fastened to the edge of the shakoro plates and curl round projecting at the sides. They are generally covered with ornamented leather and a decorated border, the centre having the metal crest of the wearer. The right side piece is sometimes hinged to be movable when the bow is in action. The peaks or frontlets <maye-hashi) are inside of gilt, red lacquer, or lined with red leather, usually with a metal border. Each has a three-branched metal socket (harai-date); in the centre is a dragon or crest form (mayedate), and on either side are placed curved horn-like metal branches (tsunamoto), broad and thin with foliated ends. Behind the hachi is a decorated brass ring from which to hang a thick tasselled silk cord (kasajirushi no kuwan) hanging in bow form behind, used sometimes for attaching the kasajirushi, a white cloth badge worn as distinguishing mark in battle. In some helmets is another similar ring above this one for attaching the horo, a large bag, filled with cotton or stretched on wicker-work frame, hung at the back for the protection of cavalry from arrowshots. Besides crests (mayedate) other badges (wakidate and ushiro-date) are sometimes worn on the sides or back. The face is protected by a visor (menko or saku-bo) separate from the helmet and attached by strings; it is a metal mask covering the whole features (then termed mempo) with eye and nostril perforations, or only covering the checks and portion below the nose (then termed ho-ate). The masks are named according to the character of the features, as: tsubame-bo (swallow-face), suru-bo (monkey-face), okina-men (old-man's face), shiwadzura (wrinkled face), waradzura (young boy's face), etc. The menko is generally made of one piece, except the nose and upper lip covering which is generally detachable for eating and drinking. Two small holes with metal tubes near the bottom of the mask give egress for perspiration. Hair of the wild boar, horse or deer are furnished for the tipper lip, chin and cheeks, usually, but they are sometimes painted. Deep wrinkles appear, sometimes, on the cheeks to prevent a weapon slipping over the smooth surface into the eyehole. Knobs afford hold for the fastening cords. A kind of gorgette (yodare-gane or yodare-kake or yen-u) hangs from the hottom of the menko made of either laminated plates, leather, or chain mail and widening gradually toward the bottom. The Japanese had a half-helmet (han buri) or skull cap of leather or metal worn instead of the kabuto. some reaching to the temples, some only covering the crown. The former consisted of several hinged plates, and had ear-holes and

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