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a hole on top for the tuft of hair, and was covered with leather, the ends being used for tying beneath the chin. The Japanese term do takes in trunk armor and leg as well as posterior protective parts. The do-maru was a corselet opening at the side, the hotoke-do was of a single piece of metal wrought into the form of a naked torso. Such pieces are usually black, some covered with shark-skin arc termed same-tsudzumi; when covered with tortoiseshell, velvet, silk, etc., they are called, respectively, bekko-tsudsumi, birodo-tsudzumi, mojitsudzumi, etc., while those covered with leather (kawa-tsudzuma) were given also names according to the styles of leather used such as, gilt, blue, lacquered, diapered, etc. Polished brass, iron inlaid with colored or precious metals, were the material of some do-maru. Folding corselets (tatami-do) had two or four plates (shinai-kane-no do and nimai-kane-no do) hinged at the sides and fastening with clasps and strings. The hato-mune do ("pigeonbreasted") corresponded to the bulging "peascod" European cuirass. The oke-gawa do was a do-maru composed of metal or hard leather scales overlapping. The skirt-pieces (kusadzuri) depending from the corselet, taking the place of European "taces" (see Plate Armor), in old armor were each in a continuous piece lengthening toward the bottom considerably, the lower part having a central slit to facilitate the movement of the legs. In later armor the kusadzuri consisted of a number of taces hanging quite loosely and overlapping; the front portion was divided into three, the back three or four, and one piece at each side. They were laminated plates or scales hung by a row of silk cords. Pieces corresponding to the European Tpalcttes" (see Plate Armor) were the sendanno-ita, for the right side and the hato-wo-noita, for the left side, protecting the front of the armpits. They are only on old and perfect specimens. Right and left had different shapes, hence different names. The former was a narrow board (3 inch x 9 inch) composed of three plates or rows of scales connected t>y cords and lined with leather; the hato-no-wo-ita, smaller than the other, is an oblong piece of metal or thick lacquered leather having a kind of dovetailed projection above. Both are suspended from the watagami (shoulder braces). The sode (epaulid re in European armor) protected the shoulder and upper arm, it consisted of a broad, slightly convex, piece made of laminated steel plates or imbricated scales and lined with leather, and was suspended from the wata-gami by cords of leather. There were several varieties of sode such as the kawara-sodc, nambansode, maru-sode, ha-sode, hiyotan-sode, ki-noha-sode, named according to their make up and shape. The kote, in some respects, answers to the European avant-bras and brassart (see Plate Armor), being a tight defensive sleeve protecting the entire arm. It was of padded cloth, leather or silk, widening at the mouth, where it fits the shoulder, and was tied by strings round the_ chest. The kote is covered in part by mail with additional metal plates and terminates in a metal hand-guard or semigauntlet called tetsu-gai. They only cover the front of the arm and are laced behind. The top plate (karnuri-ita) covers the shoulder, below is a large metal plate (gaku-no-ita) or
scales connected by mail to protect the muscles of the upper arm. A circular plate (hiji-gane) protects the elbow point. The lower part of the fore arm has long parallel splint-like strips of metal connected by chain mail (the ikada) or a single piece of pierced and embossed metal. Attached to this, at bottom, is usually a second plate (tetsugai) rounded to fit the shape of the back of the hand above the knuckles. Gloves also were worn. Kote varieties: tsutsu-gote mail covered and reinforced with plates; tsugigote shaped more like the sode, but smaller. Protecting the thighs, as do European acuissards,9 was the hai-dote hanging loose like a double apron, which was made in different styles known as ita-hai-date, odoshi-hai-date, etc. The Japanese defenses for the lower part of the legs (called sune-ate) are mostly curved plates formed to the calf and fastened by clasps or strings, like the Greek and Roman greaves. Varieties are bishamon-sune-ate made of three continuous metal plates reaching above the knee; shimotate-sune-ate made of plates and strips of chain mail alternating; tsutsu-sune-ate, nivo-sune-ate, kiyahan-suncate, etc. The feet were clad with shoes (kutsu) having pointed curved toes for riding or ceremonies, 'but straw sandals were preferred for marching and fighting. Soles were of stiff leather, uppers of bear's skin. The jim-bauri was a kind of tabard or surcoat worn over the armor for display.
Arms.— The sword was the Samurai's most valued possession; he called it his "soul." But the longbow and the arrow were always a chief weapon. The long sword (katand) was preserved with religious care wrapped in the finest silks and enclosed, often, in the costliest of lacquered and inlaid caskets. Allowing a view of its sheath and blade (Japanese blades are of great perfection and superior to the Western) to a foreigner is a mark of intimate friendship. The short sword (wakizashi) and the katana were so closely associated as to be considered a "pair® and termed daisho, and both had similar mountings and were stuck in the same sheath. A dagger-sword (tanto) was also carried. Great artistic talent was expended on the Japanese warrior's sword "furniture": swordguards (tsuba), ferrule-like pommels (kashiri), ring-bands (fuchi), decorative peg-heads (menuki), to attach blade to the grip. So lovely is the workmanship of the tsuba, depicting life and scenery in marvelous metallic delicacy, that these miniatures in metal (the wealthy carried actual "stocks" for frequent changes of display) are greatly prized by museums and Western connoisseurs, who have numerous large collections. A peculiar instrument was the small knife (kozuka) with its flat ornamented handle; it was used with remarkable precision for throwing. Skewers (kogai) were in the same sheath with the kozuka, used for hairpins, also to "tag" the dead victim with the victor's identity. Pole arms — The spear was a favorite weapon with the Japanese, who were very skilful in its use, the higher classes having many racks full. One old form was the hoko, a guard's spear with six-foot pole and eightinch blade either leaf-shape or waved (like the Malay kris) ; a sickle-shaped horn projected on one or both sides at the joint of blade. A lance (yari) was used by the 14th century with "hog
backed* Wade five inches long. The nagi-nata had a three-foot long scimiter blade fixed on a slightly longer haft. It was a weapon favored by female warriors. They had halberds (see Pole Arms) also. Spear heads were of beautiful construction. While the Japanese in their feudal warfare did not make much use of firearms they had guns, pistols and cannon, mostly imported by 16th century Portuguese traders. Little development occurred in these arms, and from 1853, when Commodore Perry opened up their ports, they copied European types (revolvers, etc.).
Armor.— Helmet, top. Gorget or neckpiece, kanfhah sobha. Cuirass, char'aina ("four mirrors"), Peti. Coat with gorget attached, bhanju. Coat of mail, zirih or zirah. Coat of mail having head and body in single piece, g'hug'hwali. Coat worn over the armor (surcoat), angirk'hah. Armguard, dastana. Horse armor. Quashpah, horse's headpiece.
Arms.— Shields: Ordinary shield, dhal, maru; shield made of cane, udanal. Spears, pointed at 'both ends, tschehontah; sangu, bhala. Bomarangs, katariya. Battleaxes, tarangaleh (common axe), tabar-zaghnol (pointed, crowbill), tabar-zaghnol (double-axe), shushpar (globular head), buckie. Swords. Scimeter, banch, bhelhetah, ayda-katti, khanda, pattisa, pat a (gauntlet sword), dha (short sword), abbasi, gupti (swordstick—concealed). Sabres: Talwar, legha. Daggers: Katar (short dagger), jamdhar (ordinary dagger), jamdhar doulicaneh (dagger ending in two points), jamdhar sehlicaneh (ending in three points), jambiyah, bank, pichangath, gupti kard (long dagger). Bows: Maktah (simple bow), raman (composite bow), tarkash, gttlel (pellet bow). Arrows: Tir (iron-tipped), bitla (hardwoodtipped). Maces. Gargaz or garz. 'Tigerclaw" knuckles, bag'hnak. Guns. Toradar (matchlocks).
Arms.— Single-bow, kasun. Cross-bow, thami. Spear, hak (plain spear), hak sat (seven feet long, thrown by the foot). Lance or javelin, khoum (seven feet long). Swords. Dass (long curved sword), ngao (curved knife or sword 18 inches long with 6 foot pole). Shields. Oblong, dang; round, lo.
Malays use a krts (undulating dagger or sword) and straight sword.
Persia, Kashmir, Afghanistan, etc. Sabre, samsher. Sword, salawar yataghan. Battleaxe, tabar. Daggers, cuirass same as India.
Chinese.—Armor and arms of the Chinese are of little interest. They have had no military caste for many centuries and the little inconsequential armor found is of a "parade* or "costume" form, consisting chiefly of rich vestments with some splints or other reinforcements beneath of little practical defensive value. They used bows and arrows, swords, daggers, maces, trident spears, etc.
Arab Arms.— The jambiya was the characteristic dagger. The sword was termed khanjar; shields were circular and oblong, of hippopotamus hide. Maces were of ebony. Guns and pistols are generally decorated (some very beautifully) with arabesque ornament.
Bibliography.—Churchy A. H, 'The Furniture of the Sword* (in Burlington Fine Arts
Club Catalogue, London 1894); Conder, J., •The History of Japanese Armor* (in Asiatic Soc. of Japan Trans. Yokohama 1881); Dean, B., 'Handbook of Arms and Armor; European and Oriental' (in Metropolitan Museum of Art Collection, New York 1915); Dean, B., •Catalogue of Loan Collection of Japanese Armor in Metropolitan Museum of Art' (New York 1903); Egerton, W., 'A Description of Indian and Oriental Armour' (London 1896); Garbutt, M., 'Japanese Armour from the Inside' (in Japan Soc. of London Trans., London 1912-13); Gilbertson, E., <The Decoration of Swords and Sword Furniture' (in Japan Soc. of London Trans., London 1896); Hawkshaw, J. C, 'Japanese Sword-mounts' (London 1910); Jacoby, G., 'Die Waffen in Alt-Japan' (in Zeitschrift fur historische Waffenlcunde Leipzig 1907); Hara Shinkichi, 'Die Meister der Japanischen Schwertzierathen' (Hamburg 1902); Laking, Sir G. F., 'Catalogue Wallace Collection of Oriental Arms and Armour' (London 1914); MacClatchie, T. R. H., 'The Sword of Japan; its History- and Traditions' (in Asiatic Soc. of Japan Trans., Yokohama 1873); Mosle, A. G, 'Japanische Kunstwerke' (Vol. II, Berlin 1909); Muller-Beeck, G., 'Die wichtigsten Trutzwaffen Alt-Japans' (in Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Natiir und Volkerkunde Ostasiens, Yokohama 1814); Ogawa, K., 'Military Costume in Old Japan' (Tokio 1893) ; Trau, F., 'Japanische Rustungen. Waffen, etc.' (in Heraldisch-genealogischer Verein Jahrbuch, Vienna 1881).
Clement W. Coumbe.
JAPANESE STUDENTS IN AMERICA. In the latter days of her hermitage, under the laws of exclusion and inclusion, formulated by Iyeyasu (q.v.), far-sighted Japanese urged the importation of foreign experts and the sending of young men to study abroad. In 1861, six were dispatched to Holland to master modern naval science. They returned to Japan in 1866 in a warship built at Amsterdam. Of these, Akamatsu and Enomoto rose to be admirals in the Japanese navy. Yokoi Heishiro sent to America his two nephews Ise and Numagawa in 1866 and a youth from Fukui, named Kusakabe. Another party of nearly a dozen lads from Satsuma had got away secretly and some of these were for a time with Thomas Lake Harris, in his settlement on Lake Erie; but all went sooner or later to New Brunswick, N. J., and into the grammar school or Rutger's College. Immediately on the formation of the new Imperial Government in 1868, Dr. Guido F. Verbeck, an American missionary at Nagasaki, who for eight years had urged the matter, went to Kioto and interested high officers in the enterprise, and scores of promising young Japanese were sent abroad. Reporting first to Rev. John Mason Ferris in New York, their adviser, they scattered into other institutions, in order to learn English more rapidly. Within a decade, they were found in almost all the Northern States._ Since 1866 the stream of these passionate pilgrims has been continuous, and with the war in Europe the actual and relative number in the United States after 1914 became larger than ever. Of these students, the majority now come at their own expense, or are sent by relatives, yet the Imperial Department of Education selects and sends regularly special students, most of whom now being previously either professors or graduates of the higher schools in Japan. From very incomplete but suggestive records since 1866, it seems that the overwhelming majority of these seekers after knowledge subsequent to their return home turn out well. Fully one-half fulfil careers above the average of the stay-at-homes. Probably 90 per cent of those coming pursue studies in the physical sciences and useful arts; others in law, history, ethics or political theory; a still smaller but influential minority take courses in the language and literature or attend the theological seminaries. Over 30 are known as professors, instructors or trained assistants in American colleges or in bureaus of research. In the earlier years of this movement not a few inquirers went back more in love with Oriental civilization than before. Many fell victims to climate, overstudy or lack of harmony with their new environment. Soon, however, that elastic power of adaptation, which is part of the national genius, asserted itself. In both physical and mental health and in acceptance of Occidental ideas, these students now go back to hasten that union and reconciliation between the Orient and Occident that must make for the mutually advantageous benefit of the whole world and race. It is probably a moderate estimate that places the number of the Japanese students in America since 1866, who sought the higher institutions in preparation for professional leadership at home, at not less than 20,000. Nor is this interest in education confined to the male sex. In 1872 six girls were sent to America, two graduating at Vassar and one at Bryn Mawr, who were later very influential in Japan; one being the Marchioness Oyama (q.v.), another the Baroness Uryu and a third, Miss Ume Tsuda, who has made a remarkable record as educator of women. She has been the soul of the movement which resulted in the opening of the Woman's Christian University in Tokio, 25 March 1918. Of the first school for girls, under government auspices, in Tokio, 1872, Miss Margaret C. Griffiths was the principal. After its evolution into the Tokio Female Normal School and the Peeress's School, several score Japanese girls have studied or graduated from American women's colleges. The Japanese Student, a periodical which covers the interests of this class, is published in Chicago.
Bibliography.— Lanman, 'The Japanese Students in America' (1872) ; Lewis, 'The Educational Conquest of the Far East' (1903); Burton, 'The Education of Women in the Far East' (1914); Griffis, 'Verbeck of Japan' O900); Brown, S. R., 'A Maker of the New Orient' (1902), 'The Rutgers Graduates in Japan' (1916) ; and Blakeslee, 'Japan and Japanese American Relations' (1912).
William Elliot Griffis. JAPANESE WAIFS IN AMERICA.- The question of the aboriginal peopling of the American continent, presumably from Asia, receives light from the historic record of ships with men and women, mostly fishermen and boat people blown out to sea and into the Kuro Shiwo (q.v.), whence they would drift or be carried to the shores of the Aleutian Islands, the coast of British America and the United States and thence to Hawaii. From time un
recorded, there has existed a current in which boats would be borne northward and eastward and yet for the most part be in sight of headlands by day and be lighted at night by volcanoes, in a part of the Pacific Ocean and in comparatively shallow water, wherein it was not impossible to obtain food. The marine myths of the Polynesians, Filipinos, Formosans and Japanese are reinforced by the numerous traditions of fishermen, sailors and passengers that went out but never returned. So long as the Pacific Ocean was unvexed by the keels of European or other large ships, there 'could be no record, but as soon as these appeared, which was after the edict of Iyeyasu (q.v.) in 1624, which forbade the building of sea-going vessels and commanded the destruction of those already built, leaving only junks and smacks, the record of waifs picked up at sea begins. From 1782 to 1876 there vere collected, by C. W. Brooks of San Francisco, certified instances with dates of 49 Japanese junks wrecked, met or seen on American and Hawaiian shores. Of these, 19 stranded or their crews landed on the Aleutian Islands, 10 in Alaska or British America, 3 on the coast of the United States and 2 on Hawaiian shores. All the others were picked up in the currents which flow from Japan and via Alaska to California and bend to Hawaii. Some of these junks were black with age, full of live fish, water-logged or out over 18 months. An average crew of a junk is 10 men, not counting passengers. Of the number of live human beings noted, the average was 14, of those found dead 7; or, when not definitely stated, many, several, or a number. Reports of other instances of men landing from foundered junks are numerous, but without exact data. For several years after 1876 the writer cut out the references in newspapers to other waifs found, and instances still occur yearly; but probably not so often as in the era of non-ocean-going ships. Only a few instances of females found on board were noted, though Japanese women often live upon and go out on fishing boats with their husbands or kinsfolk. Arguments from language, physiognomy, customs, superstitions, implements, flora, fauna, games and coins found are not wanting. Unaltered Japanese words are found in the Indian vocabularies of the Pacific Coast, and the entire field awaits a competent tiller. Of the waifs rescued, mostly by American captains, some returning to Japan became famous, such as Nakahama Manjiro and Heco (q.v.), who wrote books; Sam Patch, Dan Ketch, Kinzo and others, who acted as interpreters. Consult Griffis, Appendix to the first edition of 'The Mikado's Empire' (1876); Nitobe, 'The Relations Between the United States and Japan' (1890).
William Elliot Griffis. JAPANNING, the art of giving a brilliant finish to a surface by applying several coats of varnish, dried and hardened so as to be fixed. The article to be japanned is first brushed over with two or three coats of priming. It is then covered with varnish, previously mixed with a pigment of the tint desired. This is called the ground color; and if the subject is to exhibit a design, the objects are painted upon it in colors mixed with varnish, and used in the same manner as for oil-painting. The whole is then covered with additional coats"of transparent varnish, dried or baked on and polished. The process is subject to considerable variation, being a combination of painting and partial enameling. See Lacquering; Varnish.
JAPHETH, a son of Noah and progenitor of the branch of the human race called Japhetic, born when- his father had attained his 500th year (Gen. v, 32). For his act of filial respect to his father (Gen. ix, 23-27) he received the latter's blessing and promise of future enlargement, when his descendants would extend over the world, with Canaan his as well as Shem's servant. " Married before the Flood, he and his wife were saved in the Ark. The birth of his seven sons occurred after the Deluge (x, 1). The name has been variously explained. According to Gen. ix, 27, it is derived from an Aramaic root, signifying (<to expand," in allusion to the wide expansion of Japheth's descendants in the west of Europe and north of Asia, including Armenians, Medes, Greeks, Thracians, etc. Others trace it to the root "fair," in reference to the light complexions of his posterity. The former derivation has most in its favor. Arab legend invests Japheth with wondrous powers (Weil, <Bibl. Leg.> viii, 46) and mentions 11 of his sons as founders of as many Asiatic nations. But the gift of imagination was not given to rabbinical and Mohammedan writers alone. Some more modern authors seek to identify Japheth with the Iapetos of Greek fable (Margoliouth in Hasting's 'Diet. Bible'), whose wife, Asia, bore Prometheus, civilization's founder. The word, too, has been loosely employed by some philologists in the term Japhetic or IndoEuropean languages, in contradistinction to Semitic and Hamitic. The homiletical tendencies of the rabbis are exemplified in the Midrashic comment on Gen. ix, 1, when God blessed Noah and his sons. In blessing Japheth He_ promised that all of his sons should be white and gave as their portion deserts and fields. (Pirke R. El. xxiv).
JAPIKS, ja'pfks, Gijsbert, Frisian poet: b. Bolsward, 1603; d. 1666. He was carefully educated and became a schoolmaster at Bolsward. He made translations from French verse and also wrote a number of versions of the Psalms. His original verse was exceptionally meritorious and did much to restore the Frisian dialect to its place in literature. His 'Friesche Rymlerge* (1668), was edited by Epkema (Leeuwarden 1821; with vocabulary and grammar, 1825). Consult Halbcrtsma, 'Hulde aan Gijsbert Japiks' (Bolsward 1824; Leeuwarden 1827).
JARARACA, zha'ra-raTca, a venomous South American serpent of the crotaloid family, classified as Lachesis jararaca, Bothrops jararaca, and also as Trimercsurus jararaca, a closely allied species being _ the labaria, Trimeresurus atrox, from which it is almost indistinguishable. The jararaca ranges from the Amazon regions southward to Sao Paola and westward to Peru and Ecuador. The color is grayish brown, splotched with darker brown above and gray beneath with longitudinal rows of whitish or yellowish spots. The bite is generally fatal.
JARDIN D'ACCLIMATATION, zhar'dan da'kle'ma'ta'syori', Paris, a plot of 50 acres
in the northwest angle of the Bois de Boulogne devoted to the acclimatization of foreign plants and animals. It was founded in 1854. and contains more animals, except beasts of prey, than the Jardin des Plantes. It has also a permanent exhibition of the processes and equipment of a dairy, aviary, greenhouses, poultry and carrier pigeon raising and gardening, and there is a winter garden and an aquarium. It forms a popular resort for pleasure and information.
JARDIN MABILLE, zhar'dari ma'beT, Paris, a popular resort of the demimonde founded by a dancer, Mabille, in 1840 and continuing one of the showplaces of the city until its close in 1875. It was celebrated for its beautiful fittings and for its originations in dancing.
JARDIN DES PLANTES, zhar'dan da plant, Paris, a plot of 74 acres originally known as the Jardin du Roi, founded by Guy de La Brosse, physician to Louis XIII in 1635 as a garden for medicinal herbs. After the appointment of the Comte de Buffon as director, in 1739, the menagerie, galleries of collections, libraries, laboratories and lecture-rooms were established there and since 1794 it has been known as the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle.
_ JARDINE, William M., American agronomist: b. Oneida County, Idaho, 16 Jan. 1879. In 1904 he was graduated at the Agricultural College of Utah and subseauently studied at the Graduate School of the University of Illinois. Until his 20th year he lived and worked on ranches in Idaho and Montana; in 1904 was made assistant in the department of agronomy, instructor in 1905, and professor in 1906 at the Agricultural College of Utah. From 1907 to 1910 he was engaged as assistant United States cerealist in charge of dry land grain investigations. In 1910 he was appointed agronomist of the Kansas State Agricultural College and Experiment Station. For the first quarter of 1913 he was acting director of the Experiment Station and dean of agriculture and since April 1913 has served as director of the Kansas Experiment Station. Mr. Jardine is the author of numerous papers and bulletins on dry farming and crop production. In 1915-16 he was president of the International Dry-Farming Congress and Soil Products Exposition. He is a member of the American Society of Agronomy, of which he was president in 1916-17, and Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Mr. Jardine is one of a group, including Willet M. Hays, Niels E. Hansen and others, who have wrought effectively in the uplift of agriculture in recent years.
JARNAC, zhar'nak, France, town in the department of Charente, on the river Charente, 23 miles west of Angouleme. It has a large trade in brandy and wine and manufactures wine .casks. It was the scene, 13 March 1569, of the defeat of the Huguenot forces under Conde and Coligny by the Catholics under the Duke of Anjou. Pop. 4,894. •
JARNEFELT, yer'ne-felt, Armas, Finnish composer: b. Wiborg, 14 Aug. 1869. He studied under Wegelius and Busoni at the Conservatory at Helsingfors, under Massenet at Paris and Becker at Berlin. He became conductor of the theatre at Magdeburg in 1897, at Diisseldorf in 1898, and principal conductor of the Royal Opera at Stockholm in 1907. He succeeded Wegelius as director of the Helsingfors Conservatory in 1906. Among Finnish composers of the present day he ranks next to Sibelius. Author of a number of overtures, suites for orchestra, choral work with orchestra, male choruses, piano compositions, serenades, fantasies and the symphonic poem 'Korsholm.*
JARO, ha'rd, Philippine Islands, name of two towns: (1) In the northern pa of Leyte Island, 15 miles southwest of Tacloban, in a mountainous district. Pop. about 12,475. (2) In the province of Iloilo, Panay, on the Jaro River, two miles northwest of the capital city, Iloilo. It was founded bv the Spanish in 1584, and in 1903^08 it was a part of the municipality of Iloilo, but resumed its separate identity. It is situated in a rich agricultural district producing sugar, and manufactures silk, cotton and pina tissues. Pop. 10,681.
JAROSITE. A mineral consisting of a hydrous potassium ferric sulphate, KaO 3Fe20. 4SO».6HiO. It is common in many mines of Utah but of no economic value.
JAROSLAU, ya'ro-slou', Austria, town in Gahcia, 17 miles northwest of Przemysl, on the river San, and on the railroad between Lcmberg and Cracow. It is a garrison town, has manufactures of textiles, pottery and brandy, and is an active trading centre. In the European War the town was twice taken by the Russians in the operations around Przemysl. Pop. 24,974.
JARRATT, Devereux, American colonial clergyman: b. New Kent County, Va., 6 Jan. (OS.) 1732-33; d. Bath, Va., 29 Jan. 1801. He was largely a self-educated man. In 1762 he went to England in order to enter the ministry of the Established Church and receive orders. On his return he began his long service of nearly 30 years at Bath, Va. In the beginning of the Methodist movement in America he was very friendly with the leaders, especially Bishop Asbury, who makes frequent mention of him in his 'Journal.* He published 'Sermons on various and important subjects in practical Divinity* (3 vols., 1795). His 'Autobiography* appeared in 1806.
JARRIC, zhar'rek, Louis Etienne, ChevAlier De. West Indian revolutionist: b. Aux Cayes, Haiti, 1757; d. there, 21 Feb. 1791. He was a mulatto, the natural son of a wealthy Creole nobleman and had no claim to the title he assumed, but was well educated and possessed of means. He served as a captain in the French Revolution and was member of the Assembly in 1789. He organized a society "Amis des Noirs'* (Friends of the Blacks) with the purpose of securing equal recognition with the whites. Failing to gain his purpose he engaged with Oge in an armed revolution in San Domingo in October 1790, their forces were defeated and Jarric was captured and put to death by torture.
JARROW-ON-TYNE, England, municipal borough in Durham, on the estuary of the Tyne, about six miles east of Newcastle, and on a branch of the Northeastern Railway. The parish church of Saint Paul was built in 685 and still shows much pre-Norman work, although the tower is Norman. The Benedictine monastery was founded in 681 and was the abode
of the Venerahle Bede. The town was of little commercial importance until the establishment there of large shipbuilding yards and marineengine works. There are also iron foundries, gun factories, chemical works and paper mills, and there are large exports of coal. The town was incorporated in 1875. Pop. 33,726.
JARVES, jar'ves, James Jackson, American art writer: b. Boston, Mass., 20 Aug. 1818; d. Tarasp, Switzerland, 28 June 1888. In 1838, he sailed for the Sandwich Islands and resided for several years in Honolulu where he published the first newspaper, ever printed there, the Polynesian. Before returning to the United States he traveled in California, Mexico and Central America, and subsequently published a 'History of the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands* (1843); 'Scenes and Scenery of the Sandwich Islands* (1844), and 'Scenes and Scenery in California' (1844). He afterward resided in Europe, was United States vice-consul at Florence 1879-82, and engaged in making a collection of old masters the largest part of which, consisting of early Italian masters, eventually became the property of Yale University. Another collection, of Venetian glass, is now at the Metropolitan Museum, New York. For his services to Italian art he was made a chevalier of the Crown of Italy. His later works include 'Parisian Sights and French Principles* (185556); 'Art Hints* (1855); Italian Sights and Papal Principles' (1856) : 'Kiana, a Tradition of Hawaii' (1857); 'Confessions of an Inquirer' (1857); 'The Art Idea' (1864); 'Art Studies: The Old Masters of Italy* (1861); 'Glimpses at the Art of Japan' (1876); 'Italian Rambles' (1884). Consult Bunner, A. C, 'The Jarves Collection of Italian Pictures in the Galleries of the Yale Art School' (in Scribner's Magazine, Vol. LII, p. 253, New York 1912); Siren, O., 'A Descriptive Catalogue of the Pictures in the Jarves Collection belonging to Yale University* (New Haven 1916).
JARVIS, Edward, American physician: b. Concord, Mass., 9 Jan. 1803; d. Dorchester, Mass., 31 Oct. 1884. He was graduated at Harvard in 1826 and at the Harvard Medical School in 1830. He engaged in practice at Northficld and Concord, Mass., Louisville, Ky., and after 1842 at Dorchester, Mass. He made a sanitary survey of Massachusetts under orders of the government in 1855, and in 1860 was appointed by the Secretary of the Interior to tabulate the mortality statistics of the United States census of that year. He was president of the American Statistical Association from 1852 until his death. Author of numerous medical reports and 'Practical Physiology* (1848); 'Primary Physiology for the Schools' (1849).
JARVIS, John Wesley, American portrait painter: b. South Shields, England, 1780; d. New York, 1834. He was a nephew of the great John Wesley and was sent to Philadelphia at the age of five. He was principally self-taught, and settled in New York where his portrait work early gained recognition. He studied anatomy and phrenology in their relation to art, and he was especially successful in securing a characteristic likeness. His sitters included Gen. Andrew Jackson, Gov. Dewitt_ Clinton, Fitz-Greene Halleck, Bishop Benjamin Moore, John Randolph and many