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pauses of unsatisfactory results obtained in spraying with whale-oil soap. Sometimes the insect pests were destroyed anil sometimes not. In some cases the foliage was uninjured, while in others the foliage was killed and the trees also. A brief account is given of the methods of making commercial soaps, the composition of soaps in general, and definitions of various component elements of soap. Analyses were made of 9 samples of commercial whale-oil soap. In these samples the water content was found to vary from 11.15 to 54.85 per cent, the real soap from 14.9 to 59.27 per cent, and the free fatty acids from 0 to 17.2 per cent. There was usually no free alkali. It was found that few manufacturers of commercial whale-oil soaps are willing to guarantee the composition of the soap. Horticulturists can not be certain of the commercial soap. On this account, experiments were undertaken in the manufacture of fish-oil soap at home. For this purpose the following formula is suggested: Caustic soda, 6 lbs.; fish oil, 22 lbs., and water, 1J gal. This quantity will make 40 lbs. of soap. Experiments in the use of homemade soap showed that when used at the rate of 1 lb. in 7 gal. of water, entirely satisfactory results were obtained in destroying plant lice without injury to the foliage of apple, pear, plum, currant, cherry, and peach trees. Soaps were made so as to contain quantities of free alkali varying from 1 to 50 per cent. It was found that injury was done to the foliage when the amount of free alkali reached 10 per cent. With the usual market prices for the materials employed in the manufacture of fish-oil soap, it was found possible to make such soap for al>oiit 2J cts. per lb. Homemade fish-oil soap, therefore, possesses the advantages of greater uniformity of composition, greater reliability, and less cost.

Homemade soap for spraying, F. H. Hall, L. L. Van Slyke, anil F. A. Urner (New York Stale Sla. Bui. 2~i7, popular ed., pp. 6, fig. 1).—A popular edition of Bulletin 257 of this station noted above.

Carbon bisulphid, its nature and uses, C. Fuller {Natal Agr. Jour, and Min. Rec, 7 (1904), So. 9, pi>. S.10-84.r>).—The chemical properties of carbon bisulphid are described in considerable detail. This remedy has been successfully used in the destruction of granary insects, white ants, red ants, tobacco weevils, phylloxera, mole crickets, insects in furs, carpets, etc., moles, rabbits, rats, and land crabs in dams. Directions are given for the application of the remedy under different circumstances.

Effect of free arsenious oxid on foliage, A. B. Cordley (Oregon Sta. Rpt. 1904, pp. 40-47).—A number of samples of Paris green were furnished by the Bureau of Chemistry of this Department and were tested in spraying experiments in Oregon. The results obtained have already been noted from another source (E. S. R., 16, pp. 76, 77).

In general, the results were very favorable and indicated that it is safe to spray apple, pear, and prune trees with ordinary samples of Paris green. The poison was applied, however, in a fresh condition very soon after being prepared for use. Brief notes are also given on the distribution of San Jose scale and crown gall in Oregon.

Thelohania legeri and a new species of parasite in the larvae of Anopheles maculipennis, E. Hesse (Compt. Rend. .S'oc. Biol. [Pari*], t>7 (1904), No. 36, pp. 570-572, figs. 10).—The parasite described as a new species in this article is a microsporidial organism of which the life history is not yet thoroughly known. Several stages of the parasite, however, are described by the author.

Beneficial ladybugs, F. W. Terry (Hawaiian Forester and Agr., 1 (1904), No. 11, pp. 299S02).—Descriptive notes are given on 8 species of ladybugs which have been found more or less beneficial in the Hawaiian Islands. These species are described in their different stages and their beneficial effects are briefly indicated.

Sericulture in Madagascar in 1903 (Agr. Prat, l'agt Chaiuh, 5 (190X), No. 22, pp. 11-21, fig. 1).—A general account is given of the extent of sericulture in Madagascar, together with especial notes on the organization and work of the government sericultural service, the distribution of mulberry trees, etc.

Power spraying, J. C. Blair (Illinois Sta. Circ. 80, folio).—An announcement of a field demonstration of power sprayers, held in a commercial orchard.

The world's silk production, J. C. Covert ( U. 8. Dept. Com. and Labor, Mo. Consular Rpts. 75 (1904), Xo. 201, pp. 80-88).—Statistical information is given regarding the extent of silk production and the condition of the industry in France, Italy, Spain, Austria, Levant, Syria, Turkey, Balkan States, Greece, China, Japan, and other countries.


Fourth report on food products for 1903, B. W. Kiloore (Bui. North Carolina State Bd. Agr., 25 (1904), No. 1, pp. 69).—The provisions of the State pure-food lanare summarized and the work which has been carried out in 1903 under its provisions reported and discussed.

Besides a general summary, the bulletin contains the following special articles: Vinegar, by W. M. Allen; Tomato Catsup and Sauces, by W. M. Allen; Sugar, Molasses, Maple Sirup, and Honey, by J. M. Pickel; Flour, by C. D. Harris and F. C. Lamb; Corn Meal, by C. D. Harris and F. C. Lamb; Jellies, Jams, Marmalades, Apple Butter, and Preserves, by J. M. Pickel and F. C. Lamb; Breakfast Foods, by F. C. Lamb; Phosphates, Malts, Wines, Beers, Whiskies, Ciders, and Tonics, by W. M. Allen; Nonalcoholic Drinks, by F. C. Lamb; Coffee, by C. D. Harris, and Teas, by C. D. Harris.

In the case of vinegars 18 of the 62 samples examined were not true to name. All the catsups and similar sauces were found to contain coal-tar colors and added preservatives. No adulteration was found in the case of the sugars, flour, corn meal, breakfast foods, and tapioca examined. Three of the 11 samples of molasses contained glucose. The 4 samples of maple sirup, it was believed, might all be genuine.

Of the 68 samples of jams, jellies, etc., examined 54 percent contained coal-tar dyes, 47 per cent Benzoic acid, and 7.4 ]>er cent salicylic acid. Forty-one of the samples did not claim or admit the presence of glucose, yet it was found in 33 of them. Twenty-seven of the samples were sold as compound jellies or preserves, glucose being the main sweetening agent. Sixteen of the 38 samples of coffee examined contained more or less coffee stems, bits of wood, small pebbles, etc. Two of the 21 samples of tea were faced with Prussian blue, and 7 samples fell below the standard as regards the hot-water extract or the soluble ash content, "indicating weak or possibly artificially exhausted leaves, but the deficiency was only slight."

In the article referred to above on breakfast foods proximate analyses of a number of sorts are given. It is pointed out that "oatmeals have been used for a long time, but it is only recently that preparations made from rice, wheat, corn, etc., have come into general use. The breakfast foods derived from oats have a greater food value than those foods derived from other cereals. These are all good, but they are not complete foods, as claimed by some of the manufacturers. In some cases the prices are very high."

Foods and food control. II, Legislation during the year ended July 1, 1904, W. D. Bioklow (U. S. Dept. Agr., Bureau of Chemistry Bid. 83, pt. S, pp. 23).— The legislation enacted during the year ended July 1,1904, in the several States and insular possessions of the United States and the District of Columbia with regard to food has been compiled.

A comparison of green and yellow rye with especial reference to the relation between color, gluten content, and baking quality, J. Wien (Fi'ihling't Landw. Ztg., 53(1904), Nos. IB, pp. 4SS-440; IS, pp. 478-491; 14, pp. 518-527; 15, pp. 658-567; 10, pp. 595-604; 17, pp. 641-648, fig. 1).—The results of an extended series of experiments are reported on the quality and comparative value of green and yellow rye. Among the conclusions reached were the following:

The color of the 2 sorts of grain is constant and transmitted in cultivation. The green-seeded rye under like circumstances gives a larger yield, especially as regards size of kernels, than the yellow-seeded sort, and the seeds contain a larger amount of protein. Flour from both sorts was unusually satisfactory for baking purposes, though that from the green-seeded sort was regarded as superior on account of the lighter color and finer taste of the goods made from it. The baking quality is, of course, dependent upon the gluten and gliadin content.

Rye gluten contains both gliadin and gluten casein. The former is regarded as identical with that found in wheat, while the latter is in many respects like wheat glutenin, but the author believes it may be considered a different body or perhaps a special modification. Rye gluten is much darker in color than wheat gluten, and probably the gluten exercises a marked effect upon the color of the bread crumb, as it is noted that a high gluten content, especially the presence of an abundance of gluten casein, is accompanied by dark color.

The amount of gliadin in the rye flour exercises a decided effect upon the volume of the bread made. If it exceeds certain limits the dough becomes soft and the bread falls. Flour from yellow-seeded rye quite generally showed this property. Different methods of estimating the gluten and gliadin constituents of rye flour are spoken of.

Studies on the Alsop process of bleaching flour, C. Brahm (Sludien ilber das Alsop'wtie Mehllilcich-Verfahren. Berlin: Yersuchs-Anxtalt des Vi'rbandes DeuUclier Miller [1904], pp. IS).—The results of a critical study of the Alsop method of bleaching flour and of the effect of ozone on the color and baking quality of flour are reported.

The Alsop method depends, according to the author, upon the formation of nitrogen dioxid and allowing it to act upon the flour. The odor and baking quality of flour were unfavorably affected and its acid content increased. The color, in the author's opinion, was not improved, nor was the composition altered. The use of ozone for bleaching flour, he believes, can not be recommended, for although the color is improved the ozone imparts an odor to the flour which renders it unfit for use. Furthermore, the ozone affects the protein in such a way that the baking quality of the flour is much injured.

Local meals for storing (Jour. Jamaica Agr. Soc., S (1904), No. 11, pp. 45S460).—The desirability of storing on the island a considerable quantity of food products for use in time of emergency is discussed with special reference to the value of local food products for the purpose.

Analyses are given of Farine (cassava flour) and banana flour, by H. H. Cousins, and of sweet potato meal, by J. 1*. d'Albuquerque. The sweet potato meal had the following percentage composition: Water 5.75, protein 3.29, fat 0.62, nitrogen-free extract 85.79, crude fiber 2.87, and ash 1.68 per cent.

The composition and price of different sorts of meat and sausage, T. Kit A (Arch. Hyg., 51 (1904), No. 2, pp. 1J9-164).—The author studied a large number of samples of meat and sausage with special reference to the amount of edible material supplied, and its composition as compared with the cost per pound, the samples being collected in Leipzig.

Under the experimental conditions he regarded mutton as the cheapest meat, veal as the dearest in relation to the nutrients furnished, and pork as the most satisfactory, especially for those performing muscular work, since for a given price it supplied the largest amount of protien with a generous quantity of fat in a palatable and easily digestible form. Sausages of various sorts are also regarded as economical.

The biology of decay of meat, G. 8alus (Arch. Hyg., 51 (190.',), No. S, pp. 97128, fig*. £).—The author studied the bacteria of decay and the chemical products produced with special reference to the decay of flesh. From decayed flesh he isolated 2 sorts of bacilli, either one of which broke down fibrin with the characteristic products of putrefactive decomposition. Both of these were obligate-endosporus

anaerobic micro-organisms. The experiments and conclusions are discussed at length.

The changes which preserved eggs undergo on storage, M. Wintoek (Zlsrhr. Vntermch. Nnhr. u. Genussmll., 8 (1904), No. 9, pp. 699-5.15).—Preserved egg yolk was examined after storage with a view to determining its fitness for making epg noodles and similar goods. The conclusion was reached that the fitness of such a product for this purpose should lie judged by the same methods as would lie used with egg noodles.

Further analyses of fruit juice and berries, A. Beytiiikx (Ztschr. Vntersucli. Nahr. u. Genussmll., 8 (1904), No. 9, pp. 544-548).—Analyses are reported of raspberry, strawberry, and currant juice, and fruit.

Concerning the composition of fruit juices and fruit sirups, A. Jpckekack and R. Pasteknack (Ztschr. Vntermch. Nahr. «. Genussmll., 8 (1904), No. 9, pp. 548554) —Analytical data are reported.

The composition of orange juice, K. Farnsteiner and W. Stuber (Ztschr. Vntermch. Nnhr. it. Genussmll., 8 (1904), No. 10, pp. 603-606).—Analyses are reported, including mineral constituents.

The occurrence of sulphurous acid in wine, W. Keep (Arb. K. Gesundlieits, 11 (1904), pp. 141-17!>; abs. in Ztschr. Vntersuch. Nahr. u. Genussmll., 8 (1904), No. 3, pp. 209-213).—The literature of the subject is summarized and results of investigations reported.

Government inspection of vanilla beans in Tahiti, W. F. Doty (I'. S. Dept. Com. end Ixiboi; Mo. Consular Rpts., 75 (1904), No. 289, p. 17).—It is pointed out that it is now possible to submit vanilla beans for Government inspection and that those of the proper quality can be packed and sealed for export in the presence of a Government expert.

The influence of the hardness of water upon tea infusion, P. Lascht

Schenkow (Farmazeft, 11 (190.1),pp. 1234, 1235, 1271-1274, 1805-1808; alts, in Ztschr. Vntermch. Nahr. u. Genussmtl., 8 (1904), No. 9, pp. 590, 591).—The author added various salts to the water used in tea making, and found that the alkaline earliohydrates had a favorable effect on the physical properties of the tea infusion. The sulphates of the alkalies and alkali earths gave a light-colored infusion, but did not injure the taste or affect the clearness.

The halogen salts of alkali and alkaline earths did not have any marked effect under the experimental conditions. Free calcium carbonate had a decidedly bad effect, an infusion made from water of 15° of hardness being unfit for use.

The vegetarian cookbook, K. G. Fcltos (Oakland, Col.: Pacific Pre** Pub. Co., 1904, pp. 26t>).—In this volume the term "vegetarian" means abstinence from flesh foods. The numerous receipts given include the preparation of fruits, vegetables, etc., in many ways, as well as dishes in which eggs, milk, and milk products are used.

Concerning the metabolism of phosphorus, I.. F. Meyer (Ztschr. Physiol. Chem., 4-1 (1904), No. 1-2, pp. 1-10).—From experiments with dogs the conclusion was reached that increasing the amount of phosphorus in the food increases the amount retained in the body. The conclusion of other investigators was confirmed that the body can for long periods either gain or lose large quantities of phosphorus.

The chemical union and effect of resorbed phosphorus in the body, I, V. Plavec (Arch. Physiol. [Ptli'iyer], 104 (1904), No. 1-2, pp. 1-63).—The union of free phosphorus with egg yolk, egg white, and other liodies of animal origin was studied, as well as the behavior of free phosphorus when taken into the body.

Can calcium stearate be resorbed in the small intestine, E. A. Ksacer (Arch. Physiol. [Pfluger), 104 (1904), No. 1-2, pp. 89-108).—The experiments reported led to the conclusion that there is no proof of the resorption of potassium soaps by the living intestinal wall.

The blood constituents rendered visible by ultramicroscopic methods, E. Rahlmann (Dent. Med. Wchnschr., 30 [1904), Nos. 29, p. 10-}9; S3, p. 1219; abs. in Zenibl. Physiol., 18 (1904), No. 17, pp. 5#7, &?<?).—Using Siedentopf and Zsigmondy's ultramieroscope (E. S. R., p. 15), the author states that, he was able to identify proto-plasmic bodies with active motion, formed from the leucocytes. The various stages of the formation of a different sort of body from the erythrocytes was also noted, as well as the presence of round swimming bodies in the fresh serum, and other phenomena otherwise not visible.

The conclusion was drawn that proteid exists in the blood and body fluids in minute particles and not in solution, and that, therefore, the cleavage products of the blood cells, according to the needs of the body and the rapidity of the circulation, may be supposed to serve to regulate metabolism.


Steamed silage, A. L. Knisely (Oregon iSKo. lijtl. 1903, pp. 34-38).—In continuing the work with steamed silage (E. S. R., 14, p. 278), large as well as small silos were used. The sugar, acidity, and moisture were determined in the fresh material and at frequent intervals when the silage was removed from the silo, samples being reserved in all cases for complete analysis.

In the case of cut vetch and whole and cut clover the acid in the fresh material ltefore ensiling ranged from 0.18 to 0.27 per cent, calculated as acetic acid, and in the steamed silage when taken from the silo from 0.42 to 0.S8 per cent. The sugar in the fresh material ranged from 1.36 per cent to 2.07 percent, and in the silage from 0.93 to 2.08 per cent. In a test in which the silage was not steamed the fresh clover contained 0.18 per cent acid and the ensiled material 1.01 percent, the proportions of sugar in the fresh and ensiled material being 1.82 per cent and 0.75 per cent. Another sample of ensiled clover, which was not steamed, contained 1.16 per cent acid.

In one of the tests of steamed silage immature corn fodder which had been touched by frost was used. Full analyses of the fresh and ensiled material are reported, the acid in the silage being determined at intervals of a week for about 2 months. The fresh material contained 0.18 per cent acid and 2.43 per cent sugar, and the material when taken from the silo 0.48 per cent acid and 2.15 per cent sugar. For purposes of comparison a full analysis was made of ordinary corn silage. This contained 1.65 per cent acid and 0.49 per cent sugar. A comparison of the two materials led the author to conclude that the ordinary silage "underwent considerably more chemical or biological changes than did the steamed silage, these changes being indicated by the large increase in acidity and decrease in sugar." The steamed corn silage was fed to stock and was found to have suffered very little injury from the frost.

As regards steamed silage in general, the author considers that "the operation was quite beneficial and the steamed silage was much better than that which was not steamed. Stall-fed animals were able to eat, without the least injury, 50 to 75 lbs. of this steamed silage per day."

Protein in vetch hay, A. L. Knibely (Oregon Sta. Rpt. 1903, pp. 45, 46).—The protein in single stalks of 10 samples of common vetch ( Vicia saliva) was determined, all the plants being gathered when the lower pods were well formed but before the seed had begun to develop. The amount of protein in the dry matter ranged from 14.63 to 21.31 per cent.

"These results show that there is a wide variation in the percentage of protein in vetch and it is believed that by careful, systematic selection, the vetch plant can be improved and made more valuable for feeding purposes. It would cost no more to produce vetch hay containing 20 per cent or more of protein than it does to produce hay containing 12 to 16 per cent." The author states that this question will be further studied.

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