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family at Rome.—A censor of that name, A U. C. 442. Horat. 1, Sat, 6.

APPIU's CLAUDIUs, a decemvir who abused his power. He attempted the virtue of Virginia, whom her father killed to preserve her chastity. This act of violence was the cause of a revolution in the state, and the ravisher destroyed himself winen cited to appear before the tribunal of his country. Liv. 3, c. 33.−Claudius Caecus, a Roman orator, woo built the Appian way and many aqueducts in itome. 'hen Pyrrhus, who was come to assist the Tarentines against Rome, demanded peace of he senators, Ap

caused himself to be carried to the senatehouse, and by his authority, dissuaded them from granting a peace which would prove dishonourable to the Roman name. Ovid. Past. 5, v. 203.—Cic. in Brut. & Tusc. 4. A Roman who, when he heard that he had been proscribed by the triumvirs, divided his rich ts among his servants, and embarked with them for Sicily ; in their passage the vessel was shipwrecked, and Appius alones oved his life. -Z//iian 4. Claudius Crassus, a consul, who, with Sp. Naut Rutulius, conquered the Celtiberians, and was defeated by Perseus, king of Macedonia. J.iv. Claudius Pulcher, a grandson of Ap. Cl. Caecus, consul in the age of Sylla, retired from grandeur to en joy the pleasures of a private life. Clausus, a general of the Sabines, who, upon being illtreated by his country inch, retired to Rome with 5000 of his friends, and was admitted into the senate in the early ages of the reptib lic. Plut. i. Positic Herdonius, se zed the capitol with 4000 exiles, A. U. C. 292, and was soon after overthrown. Liv 3, c. 15–Flor. 3, c. 19 The name of Appius was common in Rome, and particularly to many consuls whose history is not inarked by any uncommon event. APR1Es and APR Us, one of the kings of Egypt [in the year before Christ 594,] Supposed to be the Pharaoh Hophra of scripture. He took Sidon, and lived in great prosperity till his subjects revolted to Amasis, by whom he was conquered and strangled. Horodot. 2, c. 1 9, &c.—Diod. 1. Apsinthii, a people of Thrace, [on the coast, east of the Hebrus.) They received their name from a river called Apsinthus, which flowed through their territory. Dunys. Perieg. Apsis Us, an Athenian sophist in the third century, author of a work called Præceptor de frte Rhetorica. APsus, a river of Macedonia falling into the lonian sea between Dyrrhachium and Apollonia. | Now the Crevasta. Lucan. 5, W. 46 APTERA. an inlandtown of Crete [It lay west of Cydonia. Its port was Kiss mos. The modern name is...atteria, or Paleocastro. Ptol—Plin. 4, c. 12. [APulkia, LEGEs, proposed by L. Apu us Saturninus, A, U.C. 693, tribune of the

plus, grown old in the service of the republic,

commons; about dividing the public lands among the veteran soldiers settling colonies, punishing crimes against the state, furnishi corn to the poor at 10 12 of an ass, a bushel. APULEIU's, a learned man, born at Madaura in Africa, [and lived in the 2d century, under the Antonines.] He studied at Carthage, Athens, and Roune, where he inarrieti a rico w okow called Pudentilla, for which the was accused by soine of her relations of using magical arts to win her heart. His apology was a masterly composition. In his youth, Apuleius had been very expensive : but he was, in a naturer age, more devoted to study, and learnt Latin without a master. LApuleius, in consequence of the unfounded accusation above mentioned, was ranked ano g the professors of inag c, and after his death, miracle's were ascribed to him.] The most famous of his works extant is the golden ass, in eleven books, an allegorical piece. [He wrote also a philosophical work on the doctrines of Plato, a latin translation of Aristotle's treatise “de Mundo,” &c.] The best editions of Apuleius are the Delphin, vols. 4to. Paris, 1688 [that printed at Gouda in isolland, cum notis Pricati et Variorum, 8vo, 50, which, after all, is not a very superior one ; and that printed at Leyden, 1786, in 4to, with Oudendorp's notes and a preface by Ruhnken. Only one volume of this last edittion however was ever published.] . APULIA, now Puglia, a country of Magna Græcia in Italy, lying along the Adriatic, from the river Frento or Fronto in the northwest, to the promontorium Iapygium. The lower part however is more commonly denominated lapygia or Messapia and also Calabria. The coast of Apulia was called Daunia to the north, from Daunus the father-inlaw of Diomede, immediately below which was Peucetia. Its principal mountains were Garganus, and Vultur: its chief rivers, the Fronto, Aufidus, and Brodanus.] It was famous for its wools, superior to all the produce of Italy. Some suppose that it is called after A ulus, an ancient king ot the country before the Trojan war Plin; 3. c. 11–Cuc. de Div. 1, c.43.-Strab. b.-Meta. 2, c. 4.—Martia'. an -1/, /t/l. A QUILEIA, or AQUILEGIA, a town founded by a roman colony, called from its grandeur, Roma secunda, and situated [on the northern coast of the Sinus Tergestinus, or Gulf of Triest.] he Romans built it chiefly to oppose the frequent incursions of the barbaraos. The Roman emperors enlarged and beautified it, and often inade it their residence. It derived its name from the aquila, or legionary standard of the Romans who had long encamped here. This city was taken, and sacked by Attila. Since that time a few fishermen’s huts point out where it stood.] Ital. 8, v 605.-Martial. 4, ep 25–44ela. 2, C. 4. AQUILIus NIGER, an historian inentioned by Sueton. in Aug. 11–Marcus, a Roman consul who had the government of Asia

which his posterity possessed, was called after his name, and so was the sea which adjoined it. The Greeks, however, not u derstanrting the reason of the appellation translated is in Hebrew the Sea of Edom, into wui{ • biktirti Thence comes the Latin form Mare rubrum. and the modern name R< d Sea. It is other* ise called Golfo d<- Mecca.}

[arabius, Arabis,or Arbis, a riverof Gedrosia, near its eastern boundary, running into the Indian Ocean, now the Aruba or IIMend. Arrian, 6, r. i.]

Aracca and Arkcca, a city of Susiana, [east of the Tigris, now Wasit. It has attracted the attention ot the learned by reason o: the affinity of it name with that of Erech, mentioned in the Old Testament among the cities constructed by Nimrod.] Tibul. 4, el. 1.

Arachni•'., a woman of Colophon, daughter to ldnion a dyer. She was so skilful in working with the needle, that she challenged Minerva, the goddess of the art to a trial of skill. She represented on her work the amours of Jupiter with Eun pa, Antiope, Leda, Astena, D .nue, Alcmeua, &c. but though her piece was perfect and masterly, she was defeated by •iinerva, and hanged herself in despair, and wasc auged into a spider bv the

goddess. Ovid. Met. 6, Jab. 1, &c A city

of Thessaly

Ahachosia, [a province of Persia, west of tie Indus, and north of Gedrosia. It was anciently inhabited by the Arimaspi The ancient Anchosia is traced oy Maj ir Rennell in the mod. rn Arokhage. Captaia Wilford, charges IV Am ille with a mistake in placing this province south of Cunda/iar.~)

Arachotje and Arachoti, a people of India, who received their name from the river \r chorus, which flows down irom phrates is about 1800 British miles, and itsl mount Caucasus. [ They arc styled AinxK*"" mean breadth, 800.—That pait of it which from their linen attire.] Dijnijs. Pcr.ig.— bordered on Judia was called Iduma:a or Curt. 9, c 7.

Edom, and was possessed by the posterity of [arachotus, a city of Arachosia. built by Esau. The Arabians recognize for their Seiniramis, on a Like of the same, name and

ancestors Jectan or Kahtan tue son of Eber, called by her Coplies. A river of Aracho

and Ismael the so.i ot Abrah im—The soil of si a, rising in the hills north-east of the modern G.izni, and losing itself in a marsh about 4 miles to the south of Candahar. Its mo

Minor. Justin. 36, c. 4. Sabinus, a lawyer of Rome, surnamed the Cato of his age. He was father to Aquilia Severa, whom

Heliogabalus married. Severus, a p et

and historian in the age of Valentinian.

Aquilo. a wind blowing, [according to Vitruvius, from the north north east point of the horizon.] Its name is derived, ac cording to some, from A./uila, on account of its keenness and velocitv.

AoU'LO Ia, a city ot [Apulia, on the road from Beneve.ituin in Simnium to Venusia.] Liv. 1 , c. 3d.

AquTNUM, a town of Latium, [south-west of Venafrum,] where Juvenal was born. A dye was invented there, which greatly re sembled the real purple. Horn'. 1, ep 10, v, 27.—StrabItal. 8, v. 04.—Juv. '■ v. 319.

AqutTANiA, a country of Gaul, [between the Garumna or Garonne and Pyrenees. The Aquitani were of Spanish origin. As Aquitania was less than either of the other two divisions of Gaul, Augustus extended it to the Ligeris or Loire, vid. Gallia.] Pirn. 4, c. i7.— Strab. 4,

Aha, a con tcllation, consisting of seven stars, near the tail of the Scorpion. Ovid. Met 2, v 138.

A A Luo-'unevsi3, an altar at the confluence of the Arar and Rhone, [consecrate. I to Augustas by sixty cities of Gaul, A U. C. 742, called by the writers of the middle ages Attanacum, now the point of Annai.] Juv. , v. 44.

'Arabta, a large country of Asia, forming a peninsula between the Arabian and Persia: gulfs. It is generally divided into three dif terent parts, Petraea, Deserla, and Felix. It was famous for its frankincense and aronatic plants. [Its length from the cape of Babi! w.aniel to the extreme1 angle on he Eu

the country is in general sandy and barren, either wholly destitute of water, or supplied only with scanty springs. Arabia Felix was famous in former davs for its spices, and general fertility. Few if any traces of its ancient opulence remain] Htr dot. 1, , 3, and Mod. 1 and i.—Plin. 12 and 14.—Strab. 16. -Xenjfih. -Tibuti.'.', el. 2Curt. 5. c- 1. — Virg. G. , v. 57.

Arabicus Sinus, [that part or branch of the Mare Ervthrxun, whicli interposes itself between Egypt and Arabia It is now called the Red Sea. The meaning of this modern appellation must be looked for in the name of Idumea or the land of Edom, whose coasts this sea touches on the north. Edom in the Hebrew tongue signifies red. and was the name given to Esau for selling his birthright for a mess of red pottage .This country,

deniname is Abeh-Tarnic, or the river Tarv.c]

AiiACHTHUs, or Arkthon,oneof the four capit-il rivers of Epirus, falling into the bay of A ubiacia. [Ambracia was situate upon it. It is now Arta.) Strab. 7.

Aracyn I Hds, [a mountain of iEtolia, north west of Catydon, towards the river Achelous.]

Aradus, [a town in an island of the same name, on the coast of Phoenicia, built, according to Strabo, by exiles from Salon. The island is called .-ir/iad in the Scriptures, and its modern name is Rou-lVadde.~\ Ar.e, vid. /egimurus.] AR.e 1'niLJi.NO, Um [vid. Philxni.] Arar, Cow tik Saone, [a very stow smooth

ruming river of Gaul. It rises near Mons Vogesus, and after a southern course, falls in to the Rhodanus, at Lugdunum.] ARATUs, a Greek poet of Cicilia, about 277 B. C. He was greatly esteemed by \n. tigonus Gonatas, king of Macedonia, at whose court he passed inuch of his time, and b, whose desire he wrote a joem on astrono ny, in which he gives an account of the situations, rising and setting, number and motion of the stars. Cicero represents him is unacquainted with astrology, pet capable of writing upon it in elegant and highly finished verses. which, however, from the subject, admit of little variety. Aratus wrote besides, hymns and epigrams, &c. and had among his inter preters and commentators many of the learned men of Greece, whose works are lost, b sides Cicero, Claudius, and Germanicus Cæsar, who, in their youth, or moments of relaxation, translated the fi aenomena into Latin verse. . [St. Paul quotes from it, Arts 17, c. 8. The best editionof Arutus, is that of Buhle, Lofts. 1793–1801, vols. 8 voj Cic. de Mat. D 2, c. 1–P us 1, c. 2.-Ovd. ..fmr. 1, el. 15, v. 26 The son of Clonias, was born at Sicyon in Achaia. [B. C. 273.J When he was but seven years of age, his father, who held the government of Sicyon, was assassinated by Abantidas, who made himself absolute. After some re volutions, the sovereignty came into the hands of Nicocles, whom Aratus murdered to restore his country to liberty. He was so, jealous of tyrannical power, that he even de stroyed a picture which was the representa tion of a tyrant. He joined the republic of Sicyon to the Achaean league, which h strengthened, by m king a treaty of alliance with the Corinthians, and with Ptolemy king of Egypt. He was chosen chief commander of the forces of the Achaeans, and drove away the M icedonians from Athens and Corintin. He made war gainst the Spartans, but was conquered in a battle by their king Cleo menes. To repair the losses he had sustain. ed, he solicited the assistance of Antigonus, Doson, and drove away Cleonenes from Sparta, who fle to Egypt, where he killed himself The AEtolians soon after attacked the Act acans; and Aratus, to support his character, was obliged to call to his aid Philip, king of Macedonia. His friendship with this new ally did not long continue. Phill showed himself cruel and oppressive ; and put to death some of the noblest of the Achac ans, and even seduced the wife of the son of Aratus. Aratus, who was now advanced in years, showed his displeasure by withdraw. ing himself from the society and friendship of Philip. But this rupture was fatal. Philip dreaded the power and influence of Aratus, and therefore he caused him and his son to be poisoned. Some days before his death, Aratus was observed to spit blood; and when apprised of it by his friends, he replie. , Such are the rewards which a connex on with kings will produce.” He was buried

with great pomp, by his countrymen; and two solemn sacrifices were annually made to him, the first on the day that he delivered Sicyon from tyranny, and the second on the dav of his birth. During those sacrifices, which were called Arateia, the priests wore a ribbon bespangled with white and purple Spots, and the public school-master walked in procession at the head of his scholars, and was always accompanied by the richest and nost eminent senators, adorned with garlands. Aratus died in the 62d year of his age, B.C. 213. He wrote a history of the Achaean league, much commended by Poly'ius. P'ut. in vita.-Paus. 2. c 8. Cic. de Offic. 2, c. 23.—Strab. 14.—Liv. 27, c. 31.— Polish. 2. A R Ax Es, S. river of Armenia Major, issuing from Mons Abus, on the side opposite to that whence the southern arm of the louphrates flows. It runs east until it meets the mountains which separate Armenia from northern Media, when it turns to the north, and after receiving the Cyrus, falls into the Caspian sea. It is now the Arras. Another in Persia, running by Persepolis, and falling into the Medus, now Bend- Emir. Xenophon calls the Chaboras by the name of Araxes. vid. Chaboras, and gives the name of Phasis to the Armenian Araxes. Xen. .1nað. A R b \cks, a Mede who revolted with Beless against Sordanapalus, and founded the empire of Mcdia upon the ruins of the Assyrian power, 8.20 years before the christian era. He reigned above fifty years, and was famous for the greatness of his undertakings, as well as for his valour Justin. 1, c. 3.Paterc i, c. 6. AR BELA, (orum) now Irbil, [a city of Assyria in the province of Adiabene, east of Ninus, near the Zabata or Zab. On the opposi e side of this river was fought the decisive battle of Arbela, between Alexander and D trias. Oct. 21 B C. 31. The field of battle was the plain of Gaugamela. The latter, however, being an obscure place, this conflict was named after Arbela.] ARBIs, [vid Araţius.] AR Buscú LA, an actress on the Roman stag, who laughed at the hisses of the populace, while she received the applauses of the knights. Hor. 1, Sat.10, v. 77. ARCADIA, a country in the middle of Peloponnesus, surrounded on every side by land. situate betweeu Achaïa, Argolis, [Laconia, Messenia, and Elis. It received its name from Arcas son of Jupiter, and was anciently called Drymoles, on account of the great number of oaks (3evo) it produced, and aftervards Lycaonia and Pciasgia. The country has been much celebrat q by the poets, and was famous for its mountains. The inhabitants were for the most part all shepherds, and able musicians. [They were a bold and hardy race, living at first in a savage state, but civilized by Pelasgus, the founder of their monarchy. Their insulated position, enabled them to retain their simplicity of manners, even whei the surrounding states were sunk in luxury Pan was their tutelary deity, and often in voked bv them with music and song.] Strab. 8.—Plin. 4, c. 6—Paus. 8, c. 1,. 2, &c— Atlten. 14

Arcadius, eldest son of Theodosius the Great, succeeded his father A. D. 393, [who at his death, divided the empire between his two sons, giving Arcadius, the eastern, and Hononus the western division.] After tins separation of the Roman empire, the two powers looked upon one another with indif ference ; and soon after, their indifference was changed into jealousy, and contributed to hasten their mutual ruin In the re gn of Arcadius, Alaricus att icked the western em pire, and plunde ed Rome. Arcadius mar ried Eudoxia, a bold, ambitious woman, and died in the 1st year of his ap;e, after a reign of 1 i years, in which he bore the character of an effeminate prince, who suffered himself to be governed by favourites, and who aban cloned his subjects to the tyranny of minis ters, while he lust himself in the pleasures of a voluptuous court.

Arcanum, [an estate of Cicero's brother near Minturnx.] Cic. 7, cp. ad Ate 10.

Aucas, a son of Jupiter and Callisto. He nearly killed his mother, whom Juno had changed into a bear. He reigned in Pelas gia, which from him was c lied Arcadia, and taught his subjects agriculture, and the art of spinning wood. After his death, Jupiter made him a constellation, with Ins mother As he was one day hunting, he met a wood nymph, who begged liis assistance, because the tree over which she presided, and on whose preservation her life depended, was going to be carried away by the impetuous torrent of a river. Areas changed the course of the waters, and preserved the tree, and married the nymph, by whom he had three sons, Azan, Aphitlas, and Elatus, among whom he divided his kingdom. The descendants of Azan planted colonies in Phrygia. Ahhidas received for his share Tegca, which on that account had been called the inheritance of \phidas ; and Elatus became master of mount Cyllene, and some time after passed into Phocis. Paus. 8, c. 4.— Hutfin. tab 155 and 176.—i/iollod. 3, c 8 —Strab.

8— Ovid. Fast. 1, v. 470 One of Ac

t xon's doga.

[AhrK, a city of Phoenicia, east of Tripoiis, where Alexander Severus was born]

Arcesilaus, son of Battus, king of Cyicne, was driven fr>>m his kingdom in a sedi tion, and died B. C. 575. The second of that name died B. C. 55 . Polyan. , c. 41.—

Herodot. 4, c. 159 ()ne of AlexanderV

generals, who obtained Mesopotamia at the general division of the provinces after the

king's death A chief of Catana, which

he betrayed to Dionysius the elder. Diod.

'. Is—A philosopher of Pitauc in Alolia, dis

ciple of Polemon. He visited Sardes an<? Athens, and was the founder of the middle academy, as Socrates founded the ancient, and Carneades the new one. [He was accu-tomed to maintain, that whatever certainty there may be in the nature of things, every thing is uncertain to the human understanding.] He acquired many pupils in the character of teacher; hut some of them left him for Epicurus, though no Epicurean came to hnn; whicli gave him occasion to say, that it is easy to make an eunuch of a man, but impossible to male a man of an eunuch. He was very fond of Homer, and generally divided his time among the pleasures of philosophy, love, reading, and the table. He died in his 75th year, B C 241. or 300, according to

some. .Di'jq. in vita Persius. 3, v. 8.—

CV. de t-inb

Archjexnax of Mitylene was intimatewith P.sistratus tyrant of Athens. He fortified Sigxum with a wall from the ruins of ancient Troy. Strab. 13.

Archagathus, son of Archagathus, was slain in Africa by his soldiers, B. C. 285 He poisoned his grandfather Agathocles, tyrant of S) I'dcuse, Diod. 20.Justin. 22, c. 5, &c. sav s that he was put to death by Archesilaus

Archegetes, [a surname of Hercules, in the island of Malta, whither his worship was brought from Tyre. The same title was also given to Appollo.]

Auchelaus a name common to some kings 01 Cappudocia. t >ne of them was conquered by Sy 11a, for assisting Uilhridates.-— \ persou of that name married Berenice, and uade himself king of Egpt; a dignity he enjovel only six months, as he was killed by the s Idiers of Gabnius, B. C. 56. He had been made priest of Comana by Pompey. His grandson was made king of Cappadocia by Antony, whom he assisted at Actiuui, and he maintained his independence under Augustus,

till lib.rius perfidiously destroyed him.

A king of Macedonia, wno succeeded his father Perdiccas the second: as he was but a natur >1 child, he killed the legitimate heirs to gain the kingdom. He proved himself to be a great monarch: lie was at last killed by me of his favourites, because he had promised him his daughter in marriage, and given her to another after a reign of 3 years. He patronized the poet Euripides. Diod. 14.—Justtrt 7,c. 4—JElian. V. H. 2, 8, 12, 14.—A king oi the Jews, [son of Herd the Gnat.] H<- married Glnphyrc, daughter of Archelaus, k'ug of Macedonia, and widow of his brother Alexin ler. Augustus banished him f r his cruelties, to Vienna, [or Virnne, in

Gaul] where he died. Dii. A king of

Lacedzinon, son of Agesilaus. He reigned 4-' vears with Charilaus, of the other branch ..f the family. H ndot. 7 c. 204.—Paus 3,

c. 5. A general of Antigonus the younger,

appointed governor of Acrocorinlhus with the philosopher Pcrsaeus. Polyan. 6, C. 2. \ celebrated general rf Mithridatcf,

against Sylla. Id. 8, c. 8–A philosopherivented, if he had not deferred to the morrow (born either at Miletus or Athens,] son of the reading of a letter which he had received * Apollodorus, and successor to Anaxagoras from Archias the Athenian high-priest, and He was preceptor to Socrates, and was call which gave him information of his danger. ed. Physicus, [from the celebrity he ac-Plut. in Pelos.--A high-priest of Athens, quired in teaching the doctrines of Anaxago contemporary and intimate with the poleras respecting natural bodies.] He supposed march of the same name. Id. ibid.—A that heat cold were the principles of all Theban taken in the act of adultery, and puthings. [In ethics, his fundamental principlenished according to the law, and tied to a post was that there was no essential difference be-in the public place, for which punishment he tween right and wrong, but that it resulteo bolished the oligarchy. Aristot. from P. institution, and consequently At CHIBI A DES, a philosopher of Athens, that all actions are indifferent till human laws who affected the manners of the Spartans, 5.—Diog. in vita—Augustin. de cit'. Dei, 8, isures of Phocion. Plut. in Phoc. An amA sculptor of Priene, in the age of Claudius. bassador to Byzantium, &c. Polyan. 4, c

[ocr errors]

He made an apotheosis of Homer, a piece of 44.

sculpture highly admired, and said to have

been discovered under ground A. D. 1658. ARch EMXchus, a Greek writer, who pub

lished an history of Euboea. Athen. 6

declare them to be good or evil..] Cic. Tusc land was very inimical to the views and mea

ARchibius, the son of the geographer Ptolemy.

ARCHIDAM IA, a priestess of Ceres, who on account of her affection for Aristomenes

ARCHEMöRus, or Opheltes, son of Lycur-restored him to liberty when he had been tagus, .#. by Eurydice, was brought ken prisoner by her female attendants at the

ypsipyle, queen of Lemnos, who had fied to Thrace, and was etoployed as nurse in the king's family. Hypsipyle was met by the army of Adrastus, who was going against Thebes; and she was forced to show them a fountain where they might quench their thirst. To do this more expeditiously, she put down the child on the grass, and at her return found him killed by a serpent. The Greeks were so afflicted at this misfortune, that they instituted games in honour of Archemorus, which were called Nemacan, and king Adrastus inlisted among the combatants, and was victorious. Afollod. 2 and 3.− Paus. 3, c. 48.-Stat. Theb. 6. ArcheptoLEMUs, son of Iphitus, king of Elis, went to the Trojan war, and fought against the Greeks. As he was fighting, near Hector, he was killed by Ajax, son of Telamon. Homer. Il. 8, v. 128. ARchestr Ktus, a tragic poet, whose pieces were first acted during the Peloponnesian war. Plut. in Arist. A follower of Epicurus, who wrote a poem in commendation of gluttony. Archias, a Corinthian descended from Hercules. He founded Syracuse B. C. 732. Being told by an oracle to make choice of health or riches, he chose the latter. Dionys. Hal. 2. A poet of Antioch, intimate with Lucullus, [Metellus Catulus Crassus, and other persons of the most distinguished rank and character at Rome, whither he came in the consulship of Marius and Cao tulus, B. C. 102.] He obtained the rank and name of a Roman citizen by the means of Cicero, who defended him in an elegant oration, when his enemies had disputed his privileges of citizen of Rome. He wrote a poem cn the Cimbrian war, and began another concerning Cicero's consulship, both are now lost. Some of his epigrains are preserved in the Anthologia. Cic, firo Arch—A polemarch of Thebes, assassinated in the conspi

celebration of their festivals. Paus, 4, c. 17.
A daughter of Cleadas, who, upon hear-
ing that her countrymen, the Spartans, were
debating whether they should send away
their women to Crete against the hostile ap-
proach of Pyrrhus, seized a sword, and ran
to the senate-house, exclaiming that the wo-
men were as able to fight as the men. Upon
this the decree was repealed. Plut. in Pyrr.
—Polyacn. 8, c. 8.
ArchIDAMUs, king of Sparta, son of Anax-
idamus,succeeded by Agasicles Another,
grandson of Leotychidas, by his son Zeuxida-
mus. He succeeded his grandfather, and
reigned in conjunction with Plistoanax. He
conquered the Argives and Arcadians, and
privately assisted the Phocians in plundering
the temple of Delphi. He was called to the
aid of Tarentum against the Romans, and
killed there in a battle, after a reign of 23
years. Diod. 16–Xenofun. Another, who
conquered the Helots, [who had made an in-
surrection after a violent earthquake.] Diod.
11. A son of Agesilaus, who led the Spar-
tan auxiliaries to Cleombrotus at the battle
of Leuctra, [in which action he commanded
the left wing and lost his life.]
ARchid EMus, a stoic philosopher, who
willingly exiled himself among the Parthians.
Plut. de eril.
ARchi DIUM, a city of Crete, named after
Archidius, son of Tegeates. Paus. 8, c. 53.
ARCHIGallus, the high-priest of Cybele's
temple, [always chosen from one of the most
distinguished families.] vid. Galli.
ARchig ENEs, a physician, born at Apa-
mea, in Syria. He lived in the reigns of Do-
mitian, Nerva, and Trajan, and died in the
73d year of his age. [He is highly commend-
ed by Galen, and appears to have been in high
repute from the frequent and honourable men-
tion of his name in Juvenal. He wrote on
Pharmacy, on local affections, on the cure of
chronic diseases, &c. Only a few fragments

racy of Pelopidas, which he could have pre

of his writings remain.] Juv. 6, v. 235.

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