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battles he fought, it is said, he killed no less than 800 men with his own hand. In his triumph, he exhibited to the Romans people of 15 different nations, all of which he had conquered. He was the first emperour who wore a diadem. After a glorious reign of six years, as he marched against the northern barbarians, he was assassinated near Byzantium, A. D. 275, 29th January, by his soldiers, whom Mnestheus had incited to rebellion ainst their emperour. AURELIUS, emperour of Rome. [Wid. ANTox1 Nus Bassi ANus.]—Victor, an historian in the reign of Julian, two of whose compositions are extant; an account of illustrious men, and a biphy of all the Caesars to Julian. AURPOLUS, a general who assumed the pnrple in the age of Galliennus. AURIN’IA, a prophetess held in great veneration by the Germans. #.
AURORA, a goddess, daughter of Hyperion and Thia, or Thea. She married Astraeus, by whom she had the winds, the stars, &c. Her amours with Tithonus and Cephalus are also famous; by the former she had Memmon and HEmathion, and Phaeton by the latter. [Wid. CEPHALUs and T1Thoxvs.] Aurora is generally represented by the poets drawn in a rosecoloured chariot, and opening with her rosy fingers the gates of the East. Nox and Somnus fly before her, and the tonstellations of heaven disappear at her approach. She always sets out before the sun, and is the fore-runner of his rising. The Greeks call her Eos. Homer, &e. AURUN'CF, an ancient town of Latium, built by Auson, the son of Ulysses by Calvpso. Virg. AU'SES, a people of Africa, whose virgins yearly fight with sticks, in honour of Minerva. She who behaves with the greatest valour receives unusual honour, &c. Herodot. AU'SON, a son of Ulysses and Calypso, from whom the Ausones, a people of Italy, are descended. AUSO'NLA, one of the ancient names of Italy, which it received from Auson, the son of Ulysses. If Virgil makes JEneas speak of Ausonia, it is by anti§§ Virg. AUSONIUS, a poet in the fourth century, preceptor to Gratian, son of the emperour Valentinian, made consul by the means of his pupil. His compositions have been long admired. The thanks he returned the emperour Gra
tian is one of the best of his poeias. He wrote the consular fasti of Rome, a useful performance, now lost. AU'SPICES,a sacerdotal order at Rome, nearly the same as the Augurs. Wid. August Es. AUSTER: he was one of the winds blowing from the South, whose breath was pernicious to ilowers as well as to health. He was also parent of rain. Virg. Wid. Vexti. AUTOCH'THONES, the original inhabitants of a country who are the first possessours of it, and who have never mingled with other nations. The Athenians called themselves Autochthoues, and boasted that they were as old as the country which they inhabited Paus. Tacit. &c. AUTOL'YCUS, a son of Mercury by Chione, a daughter of Daedalion. He was one of the Argonauts. His craft as a thief has been greatly celebrated. He stole the flocks of his neighbours, and mingled them with his own, after he had changed their marks. He did the same to Sisyphus, son of Æolus; but Sisyphus knew his own oxen by a mark which he had made under their feet. Autolycus was so pleased with the artifice of Sisyphus, that he immediately formed an intimacy with him, and even permitted him freely to enjoy the company of his daughter Anticlea, who became pregnant of Ulysses, and was soon after married to Laertes. Hugin. &c. Vid. Sisyphus, LAERTEs. AUTOM'ATE, one of the Cyclades in the AEgean sea—Daughter of Danaus. AUTOM'EDON, a son of Dioreus, who went to the Trojan war with ten ships. He was charioteer to Achilles, after whose death he served Pyrrhus in the saune §§§ Homer. AUTOM'ENES, one of the Heraclidae, king of Corinth. At his death B. C. 779, annual magistrates, called Prytanes, were chosen at Corinth, and their power continued 90 years,till Cypselus and his son Periander made themselves absolute. AUTON'OF: the most remarkable of this name is a daughter of Cadmus, who married Aristaeus, by whom she had Actaeon, often called .Autoneius heros. The death of her son [Wid. Actoos.] was so painful to her that she retired from Boeotia to Megara, where she soon after died. Paus. &c. AX'ENUS, the ancient name of the Euxine sea. The word signifies inhospitable, which was highly applicable to the manners of the ancient inhabitants of the coast. Ovid.
AXI'ON, brother of Alphesiboea, murdered Alcmaeon, his sister’s husband, because he wished to recover from her a goes necklace. Wid. AlcM EoN and Alph Esi Buza. AXO'NA, a river of Belgick Gaul, now ./lisme, which joins Isara, and falls with it into the Seine, below Paris. AX'UR and ANX’UR, a surname of Jupiter, who had a temple at Trachis, inThessaly. He was represented as a beardless youth. A'ZAN, a mountain of Arcadia, sacred to Cybele.—A son of Arcas, king of Arcadia, by Erato, one of the Dryades. He divided his father's kingdom with his brothers, Aphidas and Elatus, and called his share Azania. There was, in Azania, a fountain called Clitorius,
to those who drank them. Ovid. Paus. AZARl'AH, See AHAZI’AH. AZARIAH or UZZIA II, king of Judah. In the first part of his reign he was pious and prosperous, and his military strength was very great. Prosperity however rendering him proud he of. fended God and was strick with the leprosy. 2 Kings. 2 Chron.—A prophet who encouraged Aso in the retormation of his kingdom. 2 Chron—Two sons of Jehoshaphat murdered with four other brothers by Jehoram. 2 Chron.—There were several other persons of this name, it being a very common one among the Jews. 1 Kings. 1 & 2 Chron. Ezra, A’ef. AZONAY, a man who taught Zoroaster the art of magick. P.n.
whose waters gave a dislike for wine
AZO'RUS, one of the Argonauts.
B*A*. a name which was perhaps first applied to the true God as it signifies “Lord.” It was afterwards a common name for idols. Under this name the Sun was worshipped by the Phoenicians. Baal was adored also by the Moabites and occasionally by the Hebrews...Wum. Psal. Judg. 1, 2 Sam. 1, 2 Chron. 1, 2 Kings, Jerem. BA'ALAII, Kerjath Baal.Josh–A city transferred from the tribe of Judah to the Simeonites. Josh. oath, a city of the tribe of Dan. oan. BA'ALATH-BEER, BA’AL, a city of the Simeonites. BA'AL-BE'RITH, an idol worshipped by the Israelites after the death o Gideon. Judg. BA’AL-GAf, a city in the valley of Lebanon. Josh. BA'AL-HANAN, a king of the Edomites. Gen. BA’AL-HAZOR, a city between Bethel and Jericho where Absalom murdered his brother. 2 Sam. BAALIS, king of the Ammonites when their country was devastated by the Chaldeans. Jer. BA'Al-ME'ON, BEON, a city of the Moabites. JWumb. Ezek. BA'AL PE'OR, an idol of the Moabites and Midianites for worshipping whom
24,000 of the Hebrews were destroyed. umb. Psalms. BA’AL-PERA'ZIM, a place in the valley of Rephaim where David routed the Philistines. 2 Sam. BA’AL-TAMAR, a place near Gibeah where the Benjamites were almost destroyed by the other tribes. BA'AL-ZEBUB, the idol god of Ekron worshipped by Ahaziah. 2 Kings. BA’ANA and RE'CHAB, two Benjamites who were punished by David for the murder of Ishbosheth. 2 Sam.David had a warriour, and Solomon two vernours of this name. 2 Sam. 1
BA/ASHA, commander of the forces of Nadab whom he murdered and usurped his crown. He was warned by John that for his idolatry he should be extirpated in a similar manner. 1 Kings.
BA'BEL, a famous tower which was built in the plain of Shinar southwest of Ararat by the whole of the human race. It was commenced about 102 years after the flood, three years were employed in making preparations and 22 in building it. Its progress was there stopped by a miraculous confusion of languages which induced mankind to separate and disperse themselves over the world.—Babel or Babylon. See BABYLon.
BABTLUS, an astrologer in Nero's age, who told the emperour to avert the darker which seemed to hang upon his head, from the appearance of a hairy comet, by putting all the leading men of Rome to death. His advice was faithfully followed. Sueton.
BABYLON, a son of Belus, who, as some suppose, founded a city which bears his name.—A celebrated city, the capital of the Assyrian empire, on the banks of the Euphrates. It had 100 brazen gates; and its walls, which were cemented with bitumen, measured 480 stadia in circumference, 50 cubits in thickness, and 200 in height. It was taken by Cyrus, B.C. 538, after he had drained the waters of the Fuphrates into a new channel, and marched his troops by night into the town, o the dried bed. Babylon became mons for the death of Alexander, and for the new empire which was afterwards established there under the Seleucidae. [Wid. Srnia.] The place where it stood is now unknown to travellers. The inhabitants were early acquainted with astrology—There is also a town of the same name near the Bubastick branch of the Nile, in Egypt.
Phn. BABYLONIA, a large province of Assyria, of which Babylon was the capital—Here Peter wrote one if not both of his epistles to the Jews. 1 Peter. -Here also since the destruction of Jerusalem, the Jews have had synaby a Rabbi of one of which their large Talmud was framed. PsalmsRome is sometimes called Babylon on account of its idolatry, lewdness, and persecution of Christians. Rev. BABYLONII, the inhabitants of Babylon, famous for their knowledge in astrology, first divided the year into 12 months, and the zodiack into 12 signs. BA’CA, a place near Jerusalem so called from containing many mulberry trees. *Paul. BACCHAE, the priestess of Bacchus. BACCHANA'LIA, festivals in honour of Bacchus at Rome, the same as the Dionysia of the Greeks. Wid. Droxysia. BACCHANTES, priestesses of Bacchus who are represented at the celebration of the Orgies almost naked, with garlands of ivy, with a thyrsus and dishevelled hair. Their looks are wild, and they utter dreadful sounds, and clash different musical instruments together. They are also called Thyades and Memades. Ovid, &c.
rinthian family, descended from Baechia, daughter of Dionysius, or more probably from Bacchis, son of Prumnis. In their nocturnal Orgies, they, as some report, tore to pieces Actaeon, son of Melissus; which so enraged the father, that before the altar he entreated the Corinthians to revenge the death of his son, and immediately threw himself into the sea. Upon this the Bacchidae were banished, and went to settle in Sicily, where some suppose o they built Syracuse. Ovid, Strah.
e. BAC'CHI8 or BALUS, king of Corinth, succeeded his father Prunanides. His successours were always called Bacchille, in remembrance of the equity and moderation of his reign. The Bacchidae increased so much, that they chose one of their number to preside among them with regal authority. Cypselus overturned this institution by making himself absolute. Strab. BAC/CHIUS and BITHUS, two celebrated gladiators, of equal age and strength; whence the proverb to express equality, Bithus contru Bacchium. Horat. BAC'CHUS, was son of Jupiter and Semele, the daughter of Cadmus. After she had enjoyed the company of Jupiter, Semele was deceived, aud perished by the artifice of Juno, who assumed the shape of Beroe, Semele's nurse, and persuaded Semele that the lover whom she entertained was not Jupiter, but a false lover; and that, to prove his divinity, she ought to beg of him, if he really were Jupiter, to come to her bed with the same majesty as he courted the embraces of Juno. The artifice succeeded; and when Jupiter promised his mistress whatever she asked, Semele required him to visit her with all the divinity of a god. Jupiter was unable to violate his oath; and Semele, unwilling to retract it, therefore, as she was a mortal, and unable to bear the majesty of Jupiter, she was consumed, and reduced to ashes. The child, of which she had been pregnant for seven months, was with difficulty saved from the flames, and put in his father's thigh, where he remained the full time he naturally was to have been in his mother’s womb. From this circumstance Bacchus has been called Bimater. There are different traditions of the manner of his education, which show that there have been many of the same name. Diodorus speaks bf three of this name, and Cicero of a greater number, but among them all, the son of Jupiter and Semele seems to have obtained the merit of all the rest. Bacchus is the Osvris of the Egyptians, and his history is drawn from the Egyptian traditions concerning that ancient king. His expedition into the East is celebrated. He marched, at the head of an army composed of men, as well as of women, all inspired with divine fury, and armed with thyrsuses, cymbals, and other musical instruments. The leader was drawn in a chariot by a lion and a tiger, and was accompanied by Pan and Silenus, and all the Satyrs. His conquests were easy, and without bloodshed; the people easily submitted and gratefully elewated to the rank of a god, the hero who taught them the use of the vine, the cultivation of the earth, and the manner of making honey. Amidst his benevolence to mankind, he was relentless in punishing all want of disrespect to his divinity; and the punishment inflicted on Pentheus, Agave, Lycurgus, &c. is well known. #. has received the name of Liber, Bromius, Lyaeus, Evan, Thyonaeus, Psilas, &c. which are mostly derived from the places where he received adoration, or from the ceremonies observed in his festivals. As
he was the god of wine, and of drinkers,
he is generally represented crowned with vine and ivy leaves, with a thyrsus in his hand. The panther is sacred to him, because he went in his expedition covered with the skin of that beast. The magpie is also his favourite bird, because in triumphs people were permitted to speak with boldness and liberty. The festivals of Bacchus, generally called Orgies, Bacchanalia, or Dionysia, [Vid. Dionysia.] were introduced into Greece, from Egypt, by Danaus and his daughters. Cic. Paus. Herodot. &c. BACCHYL'IDES, a lyrick poet of Cos, nephew to Simonides, who, like Pindar, wrote the praises of Hiero. Some of his verses have been preserved. JMur
BACTRA, the capital of Bactriana, on the river Bactros, in Asia. Virg.
BACTRI & BACTRIA!NI, the inhabitauts of Bactriana, who live upon plunder, and are always under arms. They give to their dogs those that die through old age or disease, and suffer slaves and strangers to take whatever liberties they please with their wives. They were conquered by Alexander the great. Curt.
BACTRIA!NA, a country of Asia, fruit
ful as well as extensive. It formed once part of the Persian empire, on the eastern parts of which it is situated. Zoroaster was the most ancient king of this country, who taught his subjects the art of magick and astrology. Diod. BAC'TROS, a river on the borders of Asiatick Scythia, from which Bactriana receives its name. BAETIS, a river of Spain, from which a part of the country has received the name of Baetica. It was formerly called Tartessus, and now bears the name of Guadalquiver. The wool produced there was in high estimation for its fineness and superiour quality, so that Boeticus became an epithet of merit, when applied to garments. Paus. Plin. &c. BAGO/AS & BAGO’SAS, a name common to many eunuchs of the monarchs of Persia, the most remarkable of whom was an Egyptian eunuch, in the court of Artaxerxes Ochus, so powerful that nothing could be done without his consent. He led some troops against the Jews, and profaned their temple. He poisoned Ochus, gave his flesh to cats, and made knife-handles with his bones, because he had killed the god Apis. He placed on the throne Arses, the youngest of the slaughtered prince’s children, and afterwards put him to death. He was at last killed, B.C. 335, by Darius, whom, after raising te the crown, he had attempted to poison. Diod. BAG'RADA, a river of Africa, near Utica, where Regulus killed a serpent one hundred and twenty feet long. Plin. BAHU'RIM, a city of the Benjamites, where Ahimaaz and Jonathan hid themselves as they carried information to David. 2 Sam. BA/IHE, a city of Campania, near the sea, founded by Baius, one of the companions of Ulysses. It is famous for its delightful situation and baths, where many of the Roman senators had country houses. JMartial, Horat. &c. BA'JITH, a city of Moab. Isa. BA'LAAM, the son of Beor, a prophet of the city of Pethor, who was desired by Balak the king of Moab to curse the Hebrews. Tempted by the presents of Balak, he wished to go but was warned by God not to do so. Upon a second solicitation he was permitted to go. On his journey he met the Angel of the Lord and smote his ass for turning out of the way to avoid the minister of God. The ass miraculou reproved him, and the Angel made himself visible, and rebuked him for his cruelty. At Balaam’s request, Balak erected altars to God, and offered sacrifices on them, but being forbidden by God, Balaam refused to curse the #..., he blesses them and predicted the downfal otAMoab. He was killed tot iong after in a war with the Misianites. JWumb. Deut. Josh. JWeh. -Mic.—Some false teachers of the Apostolick age are compared to Balaam. Jude, Ret. BAL'ADAN, the same with Belesis, Belessus, Nabonassar, &c. He was the son of Pul, king of Assyria, and had Babylon for his portion. Isa. 2 Aings. BALA(NUS, a prince of Gaul, who assisted the Romans in their Macedonian war, A. U. C. 581. C. BALBIL'LUS, a learned and benevolent man, governour of Egypt, of which he wrote the history under Nero. T.cit...?rin. BALBI'N US, a Roman, who, after governing provinces with credit and honour, assassinated the Gordians, and seized the purple. He was some time after murdered by his soldiers, A. D. 2.38. BAL BUS, a mountain of Africa, famous for the retreat of Masinissa, atter he had fought a battle against Syphax. BALEX’ssos, three islands in the Mediterrauean, modernly called Majorca, Minorca, and Y vica, on the coast of Spain. The word is derived from Exxon, to throw, because the inhabitants were expert archers and slingers, besides great pirates. Florus relates that in these isles mothers never gave children their breakfast before they had struck with an arrow a certain mark in a tree. BATLIUS, a horse of Achilles. Homer. BA1. NE.E, (baths, J were very numerous at Rone, private as well as pubHick. In the ancient times simplicity was observed, but in the age of the emperours they became expensive; they were used after walking, exercise, or labour, and were deemed more necessary than luxurious. The Roman emperours generally built baths, and oil endeavoured to eclipse each other in the magnificence of the building. It is said that Diocletian employed 40,000 of his soldiers in building his baths, and, when they were finished, he destroyed all the workmen, Alexander Severus first permitted the people to use them in the night. They generally read in bathing, and we fiya many compositions written in using the bath.
BALEPA"TRA, a town of India, supposed to be modern Patara. BA/MAH, a high place where Jews worshipped their idols. Ezek. BA'MOTH, a place in the borders of Moab, where the Hebrews had their 42nd encampment. .N’umb. Josh. BAMBY'CE, an ancient name of Hierapolis, in Syria, called Magog by the inhabitants of the country. Plin. BAN TIAE, a town of Apulia, whence Buntinus. Horat. L. BANTIUS, a gallant youth of Nola, whom Annibal found, after the battle of Cannae, almost dead among the heap of slain. He was sent back home with great humanity, mpon which he resolved to betray his country to so generous an enemy. Marcellus, the Roman neral, heard of it, and rebuked Bantius, who continued firm and faithful to the interest of Rome. Liv. BAPTAE, the priests of Cotytto, the goddess of lasciviousness and debauchery at Athens. Her festivals were celebrated in the night; and so obscene was the behaviour of the priests that they disgusted even Cotytto herself. The name is derived from 6array, to wash, because the priests bathed themselves in the most effeminate manner. Juv.–A comedy of Eupolis. BARAB'BAS, a notorious robber, who in conformity to a custom, and to the wishes of the Jews, was released by Pontius Pilate, in preference to our Saviour. Matt. John, . Mark. BARAET, a people of Colchis and Iberia, who burn the bodies of their friends who die by disease, but give to the fowls of the air such as fall in the war. .AE/ian. BA'RAK, see DEBORAH. BARBARI, a name originally applied to those who spoke inelegantly, or with harshness and difficulty. The Greeks and Romans generally called all nations, except their own, by the despicable maine of Barbarians. BARBA'R1A, a river of Macedonia. Liv.–A name given to Phrygia and Troy. Horat. BARC E.I, or BAR'CITAF, a warlike nation of Africa, near Carthage. Virg. BAIt’CE, the nurse of Sichaeus. Virg. —A large country of Africa—Also a city, about nine miles from the sea, founded by the brothers of Arcesilaus, king of Cyrene, 515 years before the Christian aera. Strab. BAR'CHA, the surname of a noble family at Carthage, of which Amilcar and Annibal were descended. By means of their bribes and influence