S E C T I O N V.

The Countries contained in that Part of the Peninsula^ lying south of the Kistna, or Khrishna River,

THIS tract, which in extent is not a seventh part larger than the Bengal provinces, has, by its political divisions, and by the talents and ambition of its Princes, of late years, furnished more matter for speculation and history, than, perhaps, all the rest of the empire put together. But although it has been the theatre of repeated wars between the European powers and the natives, so ample a supply of geographical matter has not been furnished, as by the wars and negociations in the north. The geography of some of the western parts of this peninsula, are as little known to us, as that of the central parts of Hindoostan.

The figure of this tract is a triangle, of which the course of the Kistna river forms the base, and the coasts of Malabar and Coromandel the sides. Its extent from the Kistna to Cape Comorin, which forms the apex of the triangle, is about 600 British miles; and its breadth in the widest part, that is, from Masulipatam to Gheriah, about 500.

The construction of the sea coasts, has been described in the first section, and that of the course of the Kistna river in page 79.

I understand that the country from Madras to Ooscotta westward; and from about Pondicherry and Tingrecdta southward, to Chandeghere northward; or, in other words, between the parallels of 12 and 14 degrees of latitude, is described from measured routes in Mr. Montresor's MS. map at the East India House; and in the printed map inserted in the second volume of Mr. Orme's elegant

M 2 and and faithful History of the Military Transactions of the British Nation in Hindoostan. And as Mr. Orme, in particular, has had access to all, or most of the surveys of the marches of the British armies, on the fide of Mysore and the Carnatic> I shall take his map for a ground work, after examining his scale of distances.

I find Mr. Orme's map gives the distance between Madras and Ooscotta, the most western point of the survey, 168 G. miles-.; and Mr. Montresor's,. 165. It is impossible for me to determine which of the two is right; but as Mr. Montresor constructed his map on the spot, and was consequently in the way to be best informed with respect to the choice of materials, I am inclined to give the preference to his scale. But as persons, who have not had opportunities of comparing Perambulator distances with those given by observations of latitude, are apt to make too little allowance for the unevenness of ground, in hilly countries, I have taken one mile from Mr. Montresor's distance, to allow for supposed errors of this kind: and then have placed Ooscotta 164. G. miles^ west, a little from Madras.

Bangalore, according to Montresor, is 12 G. miles, west, a little southwardly, from Ooscotta; which, added to 164, makes 176 G. miles between Madras and Bangalore. This, by Mr. Orme's account, would be 180: aud byaFrenchmap published in 1770, 18 w D'Anville makes it 177.

After thus establishing a scale for the difference of longitude, I have copied all that part of Mr. Orme's map, between the parallels of Pondicherry and Chandeghere; and between the meridians of Madras and Ooscotta.

Between Pondicherry and Madura, the maps of Mr. Orme and of Mr. Montresor, are both exceeding faulty, for want of a good line of bearing, between the two places. This I have been able* fortunately, to supply; and the detail of the operation of finding the difference of longitude between them, has been given in page 27 j where i° 30' 30" is found to be the true difference, though 23 minutes less than Mr. Orme has made it. Accordingly, the bearing of the road between Gingee, Tritchinopoly, and Madura, is in my map 4° more southwardly than in Mr. Orme's: and, of course, Caroor, and all other places, whose positions had ft relative dependence on that of Tritchinopoly, are removed proportionably farther to the east.

The Tanjore country is taken entirely from Mr. Orme's map; and the upper part of the course of the Caveri, from Mr. Montresor's. The Madura and Tinevelly countries are from Mr. Orme; who described them according to surveys taken under the direction of Colonel Call.

Shevagunga, Dindigul, Pinee, and several other places in the: neighbourhoods of Madura and Tritchinopoly, are from MSS.

Travancore, is partly from MS. maps, and partly from MD'Anville. The lakes between Quilon and Cochin are from a Dutch MS. map, which bears the appearance of authenticity.

Carroor, in Mr. Orme's history (Vol. II, p. 674) is said to be50 British miles, or 43 G. miles, from Tritchinopoly; and 5 south of the Caveri river: and Montresor gives its bearing from Tritchinopoly about W. b. N. I have placed it accordingly. On this point* in a great measure, depend the positions of all the places between the Carnatic, Coimbetour, and Seringapatam.

Coimbetour, in Mr. Montresor's map, is placed 78 G. miles from Caroor, on a continuation of the same bearing line from Tritchinopoly; and is, I suppose, taken from the journal of Major Wood in 1767. But this position would bring it within 34 G. miles of Tannore on the Malabar coast; which, I believe, can hardly be the case. I have placed it 66 G. miles from Caroor, and 47 from Tannore.

Seringapatam, or ShringaputtM, Hyder Ally's capital, is 66 G. miles in a W. S. W. direction from Bangalore, according to Montresor; and 20 leagues, according to a note in the French map of 1770; which, by the scale of the same Map is about 53 G. miles. I have allowed 54: which places it 85 G. miles from the port of Mangalore, on the coast of Malabar. D'Anville reckons it or.

All the places between Seringapatam, Coimbetour, Carroor, and Ooscotta, are placed according to their proportional distances from some of these four places, in the map of Mr. Montresor. It may be necessary to repeat in this place, that the observations of longitude taken at Bombay and Cochin (See page 3 1) by throwing the Malabar coast so much farther to the east, whilst that of Coromandel remains where it was, reduces very considerably the space that we have hitherto supposed to exist, between the western mountains of the Carnatic, and the Malabar coast.

Sirripy (which I apprehend to be synonymous to Sera) is according to D'Anville.

Bednore, or Hyder-Nuggur, according to the report of Mr. W. Townsend, who travelled from Onore to Bednore and Siringapatam, is about four ordinary days journey to the northeastward of Onore. Goods are sometimes brought down in 5 days. Fryer also reckons it four days journey; and this maybe stated at about 46 cosses. This position agrees with Mr. Montresor's map, in which it is placed 141 G. miles to the northwest of Bangalore. *

Mr. Townsend, according to his way of travelling, was 7 days between Onore and Bednore; and 11 from Bednore to Seringapatam: by which he could not travel much more than 8 cosses per day, between the two latter places. He represents the country of Bednore as being open and fruitful: nor did he meet with any mountains after he passed the Gauts in the former part of his journey.

Chitteldroog, Harponelly, Bilghey, Bincapour, and Roydroog, are all from Mr. Townsend's memorandums.

Sanore-Bancapour is from the map of Mr. Bussy's march from Aurungabad. Bisnagur, or Bijinagur, is from Mr. Orme; who fays it is 30 miles southeast from Sanore.

• The Author of the Life of Hyder Ally (1784) states the distance of Bednore from Mangalore, at 60 French leagues: and that of Seiingapatam from Bangalore, at 30.

The

The road from Goa to Galgala, is from a MS. Itinerary lent me by Mr. Dalrymple. I apprehend it was kept by some Portugueze who visited Aurengzebe's camp at Galgala, in the last century.

The direction of that part of the range of mountains called the Gauts, between Cape Comorin and Calicut, is from Orme and Montresor; and the rest from D'Anville. I have also copied from D'Anville the upper part of the course of the Tongebadra river, and also that of the Roydroog, or Hindenny river; together with the positions of several places, on or near it.

In Jefferies's map, published in 1 768, we find, on the south os the Kistna, a route from Bancapour to Adoni, and Seringapatam j and another from Cuddapah to Canoul. I am informed that he took them from some French MSS: and, in consequence, I made enquiry after them, though to no purpose. They would prove very useful at this time, when we have so much history that requires such kind of illustration.

I have copied the course of the river Pennar, from Nellore to the neighbourhood of Bangalore, from Mr. Montresor, who had it, I apprehend, from the commander of a detachment, who marched that way in 1767. This serves to fix the positions of Cuddapah, Gandicotta, Gutti (or Gooty) &c: and the positions of the intermediate places, between the Pennar river, and the tract copied from Mr. Orme, are placed according to their proportional distances from Cuddapah, Gandicotta, Gutti, Chandeghere, Dalmacherry, and Bangalore; as found in Mr. Montresor's map. Udegherri is corrected by a march of Gen. Caillaud's.

The particulars of the Ongole country are taken chiefly from Montresor; as well as the positions of Currumpoody, and Timerycotta. I have some doubts concerning the truth of the latter: for I think it likely to be too far to the west. However, Condavir, the principal fort in the Guntoor circar, is said by Captain Davis to be about 32 cosses to the east of Timerycotta; and the fort of

5 Ratch

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