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sixteen men in the fifties made still more favorable reports, probably because they had taken better care of themselves in the previous days. Only two considered the ascent difficult, while the majority noted expressly an increase of vigor after the march.

Five of the participants were in the sixties, and those accomplished the ascent best who had been trained for it by gymnastics and Alpine exercise. Zuntz himself was the oldest of the. mountainclimbers, being sixty-five, and he suffered a lieht attack of fever after the undertaking, because he had to take a rapid journey to Berlin in his wet clothing. He concludes that these experiences afford striking evidence in favor of the value of the mountain climate in winter. The greatest demands were made on the heat-regulating apparatus of the body, and yet the result in the majority of the participants, even though they were not accustomed to such exertion, was entirely advantageous, and showed itself in sound sleep and a feeling of refreshment.

Two definitions of Body Temperature.—In writing to the editor of the Heating and Ventilating Magazine, referring to a paper on "The Physiological Purpose of Ventilation," (published in The Heating and Ventilating Magazine for September, 1913,) Prof. Theodore Hough says: There is one point on which, I fear, I have not made my meaning perfectly clear, as I see I state in some places that those who think with me believe that there is a rise of the body temperature in a badly-ventilated room or in a close atmosphere generally. In physiology we distinguished between the body temperature of internal organs not subject to cooling influences, and the temperature of. the skin. The former is usually constant, or nearly so; the latter is quite variable. The temperature of internal organs is constant because special means are constantly taken to keep it so, and among these means one of the most important is the variation of the amount of warm blood allowed to flow through the skin. On warm days, of course, this amount of blood is increased and the temperature of the skin goes up, thereby keeping radiation, conduction and convection of heat from the body approximately equal to heat production. On cold days, when these physical channels would cause the loss of more heat than is being produced, the blood supply to the skin is lessened to conserve the heat within the body, thereby lowering the temperature of the skin.

In the badly-ventilated room, owing to the lack of air movement, higher temperature and excessive humidity, warm blood is rushed to the skin whose temperature has already begun to rise owing to atmospheric interference with heat loss. This succeeds in getting rid of more heat and in maintaining the tody (or internal temperature, but it is done at the expense of the discomfort which comes from an overheated skin and probably of the deprivation of other organs of their normal blood supply in order to furnish the requisite amount to the skin.

I am only afraid that some people not making the distinction between body temperature and skin temperature may try, in a badlyventilated room, the experiment of taking their temperature in the mouth with a clinical thermometer, and on finding, as they probably would, that it had not changed at all, conclude that the explanation is without basis in fact.

I shall follow with interest the work on the recirculation of air, for it would seem that it cannot fail to contribute important information of the solution of the problems of ventilation.

Physical Directors Will Meet at Emporia, Kans.—Kansas people interested in physical education will form a permanent organization in connection with the State Teachers' Association. The call for the meeting, as we are informed by W. H. Kerr, has been authorized by President L. A. Lowther, of the Association, and is being sent out by Miss Mabel Smith, director of physical education for women, and Clair Turner, director of physical education for men, both at the Emporia State Normal School. The meeting will be held on Saturday morning, November 14, at the Topeka Manual Training High School.


By E. HANG, De Witt Clinton High School. 59th St. and 10th Ave., New York.

The University of Pennsylvania "Relays" to be held in April next year will be a two-day affair. More than 2,000 athletes are expected to be on hand. This new scheme will relieve the pressure of time that seriously handicapped the Penn men in getting through with their immense program on scheduled time.

According to the old schedule there was an interim of 4 minutes between the races. The new schedule will allow of a 6 minutes interim and if necessary a few minutes here and there in case of an upset in the schedule.

The American ic mile championship run was won by Hannes Kolemainen Oct. 31 at South Field, Columbia University, New York City. His time was 52 min. 47 3-5 sec. The world's record for this distance is held by Alfred Schrubb. 50 min. 40 3-5 sec.


Rugby foot-ball is the game now played by the two big universities in lower California—Stanford and the Aniversity of California at Berkeley. It displaced the American game half a dozen

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years ago. Following this lead it has been taken up by the high schools quite generally in the state, with the result that some pretty good players are coming up from the lower schools. This was shown very clearly at Berkeley this year. When the freshman Rugby team was organized it was found to contain better players than some of the regular university fifteen. A rule was in effect that no freshman could be on that team, but so apparent was the superiority of the new players that the rule was rescinded. The result has been a great improvement in the regular line-up.

At the annual meeting of the Amateur Athletic Union Nov. 16 Alfred J. Lill, Jr., of Boston was unanimously re-elected President for the ensuing year. Fred Rubien, President of the Metropolitan District of the A. A. U., was unanimously elected as Secretary-Treasurer to succeed the late James E. Sullivan.

The delegates voted to approoriate $2,500.00 toward providing a Sullivan memorial and appointed a committee consisting of Alfred J. Lille. Jr., Barton S. Weaks. Gustavus T. Kirby, Everett C. Brown, George W. Pawling, John Elliott, Seward H. Simons, Charles H. Carter and George J. Turner, who will determine the nature of the proposed memorial and who will also receive contributions from clubs and individuals. Some of the amendments passed are:

1. That women may hereafter register for swimming contests confined exclusively to women.

2. That professional and amateur contests be barred as stated in the new rule. "No professional contests or exhibitions shall be allowed at games, meetings or entertainments held under the auspices of the A. A. U. A regularly employed instructor, however, may take part with his pupils in group exhibitions only. No competition shall be held between an amateur and a profession, and where both amateur and professional contests are held at the same place and same day, all amateur events must either precede the professional events, or vice versa."

The proposal to allow the cawets of West Point and Annapolis to compete in sanctioned meetings without registration was turned clown. The proposal to let down the bars for collegians so that they could compete for both college and club in open competition also was lost.


60 yds. 5 hurdles, 3 ft. 6 in. high, indoor—8 sees. F. W. Helly, University of Southern California.

120 yds. high hurdles, outdoor. 3 ft. 6 in. high—15 sees. F. W. Kelly, University of Southern California.

Running high jump, 6 ft. 7 5-16 in., outdoor — E. Beeson, Olympic Club.

Throwing the javelin, 180 ft. gyZ in.—H. B. Liversedge, Stanford, Cal.

18 lb. shot (7 ft. circle) outdoor, 46 ft. 2^4 in.—P. J. McDonald, Irish- American A. C.

28 lb. weight with follow, outdoor, 36 ft. 8}4 in.—P. Ryan. Irish-American A. C.

56 lb. weight for height, outdoor, 16 ft. nlA in.—P. Donovan. Pastime A. C.

Rope climbing, 21 ft., 5 3-5 sees.—E. Lindenbaum, Y. M. C A., New York.

Rope climbing, 35 ft.. 11 4-5 sees.—E. Lindenbaum, Y. M. C. A., New York.

Relaly Record, 1200 yds., outdoor, team of 4, each to run 30c yds., 2 min. 6 4-5 sec. New York A. C. (F. P. McNally, D>. A. Kuhn, V. Wilkie, T. Lennon.)

Cornell University is building the largest armory in the country. The drill floor will be 228 ft. wide and 412 ft. long. It will be high enough to permit discus and hammer throwing. The track will be a quarter of a mile and inside of the track there will be room enough for a foot-ball gridiron.



Paris, Nov. 16.—The Olympic games in 1916 may take place in the United States. Baron Pierre de Coubertin, President of the International Committee, says if any circumstances, material or sentimental, prevent their being held in Europe in 1916 they cannot be postponed until 1920, as suggested, but that they might be held in America.

The war, Baron de Coubertin thinks, will not have anything more than a brief, temporary effect upon sport in France. Individual records will suffer, because such stars as Jean Bouin, the great runner, have fallen victims to the great holocaust; others no doubt will follow, and the younger element will not reach their highest form for three years or more, but eventually, the Baron thinks, the war will prove to have been an additional incentive to physical training.

The European War is creating havoc in the sporting world and already the list of dead is unduly large. Among some of the best known athletes who will never again participate in their favorite pastime are: Jean Bouin, one of the greatest and most popular run

ners of the world; Rau, the greatest of German sprinters; Geo. W. Hutson, one of England's champion distance men; Leon Didler, the world's champion motorcyclist. Among the cyclists, some of whom have been seen in America, are the Buysse brothers of Belgium, Gus. Scheuerman of Germany, and the Frenchmen Perchicot, Lapize, Poulain, Faber, Trouseller, Garigan and Lafort. Rutt, the world's champion, will probably never ride again as he is at present confined in a hospital suffering from pneumonia. Carpentier, the idol of the French pugilistic world, is also reported as being seriously wounded.


This winter will see an innovation in the track world and an event which is looked forward to with a great deal of interest; namely, an indoor intercollegiate athletic meet.

It was decided last year by the Intercollegiate Athletic Association to try an indoor meet, and if it should be looked upon favorably to make it an annual event. Rules were drawn up and a program of events arranged. It will have its first trial on March 6 at Madison Square Garden, New York.

Not only is the idea of the meet a new one, but the events are also an innovation. There are to be nine events and in each event each college will be represented by a team of four or five men—for instance, a relay race between teams of five men, each man to run 150 yards. The second event is another relay race between teams of five men, each man to run 300 yards. Then as the length of the distance to run increases, the number of men on each team is lowered to four —as in the 4000-yard relay each man to run ioco yards, and each man running 2000 yards in the 8000-yard race.

The sixth event will be a medley relay, with teams of four men competing, the men in the first relay to run 200 yards, the men in the second 300 yards, in the fourth 500 yards and in the last relay to run 1000 yards.

- There are to be three field events—high jump, pole vault and 16-pound shotput. These events will also be contested by teams of five men, while the points are to be scored as in the intercollegiate cross-country run—that is, first place to count one point, second two points, etc., the team scoring the smallest number of points being the winner.

As this idea is new and primarily to bring the colleges in closer relation to each other and thereby create more interest in the association, it is hoped that the meeting will be a success. From a standpoint of athletics it should be a most interesting affair, and somewhat similar to the annual relay games held at Franklin Field, Philadelphia, each spring, only indoors. It gives each college a chance, in that it requires nearly an unlimited number of men on the whole

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