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A SPANISH SETTING FOR A FRENCH EPIC
ORIGINS OF FRANCOHISPANIC SYMBIOSIS
A Spanish Saint a French Road and a Christian
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Abadal abbey actually Alfonso already appears Arabs army Baligant Barcelona battle become called Carolingian Catalan Catalonia Cathedral Chanson de Roland chapter Charlemagne Charles Christian chronicle Church clerical Cluny conquest contemporary continued count Crusades death defeat Defourneaux early eleventh century Emperor epic episode España especially Etudes existing fact forced Français en Espagne France Frankish French Gerona geste given hero Historia historical Holy Ibid important included influence Italy James jongleurs king known later Latin legend literary Louis Madrid Menéndez Pidal mentioned monasteries monk Norman notes Olivier oral original Oxford Paris period poem poets points popular possible primitive probably Pseudo-Turpin refers religious remained Roman Roncesvalles route Saint Santiago served shows southern Spain Spanish suggested taking themes throughout Toledo tradition Turpin twelfth century written