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Oxford University Press, 1998 - Reference - 448 pages
English grammar has changed a great deal since the beginning of the Twentieth Century, and it is a subject that can provide a complex minefield of uncertainties within the language. This accessible and comprehensive dictionary comes to the aid of both the general reader and the student orteacher, offering straightforward and immediate A-Z access to 1,000 grammatical terms and their meanings. All the currently accepted terms of grammar are included, as well as older, traditional names, controversial new coinages, and items from the study of other languages. Concise definitions of the wider subject of linguistics, including phonetics and transformational grammar, are accompanied byexamples of language in use, and frequent quotations from existing works on grammar.

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I, Muhammad Shamim a private teacher of English from secondary to graduate students at my home and in coaching centers has studied so many Grammars books of Pakistan and also studied a the book of WREN and MARTIN that is being publishing in New S. Chand & Co. New Delhi India.
At first would like to discuss about Grammar of English language.
The grammar of any language depends on other language just as Grammar of Urdu depends on Persian and most of it’s words adopted from Hindi, Persian, Arabic, English and other languages.
Similarly Grammar of English depends on Latin Language and most of its words are adopted from Greek Persian and other European languages.
Grammar is rule that can be defined as:
Grammar is a rule that teaches us to write, read and speak correctly and to write a paragraph, story, column and speak before an audience can be explained a advance grammar.
Words of any language can be defined as speaking and writing tools.
Words are composition of letters these words are picked from alphabet. A word helps to understand something but cannot clear a perception. Two single letters A and I play a role of word.
Sentence Almost all books of English grammar published in Pakistan and even the book of WREN & MARTIN is publishing from S. Chand and Company from New Delhi India defines a sentence in it’s ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE SENTENCE as:
“We have learnt a sentences is a set or group of words which makes complete sense”
I learnt with my teaching experience that sentence can be defined as:
In my view a sentence can be defined as:
A sentence is a set or group of words that must contain a finite verb in it which create complete sense. For example:
1- I writing a letter.
2- She written a letter.
What are missing in these two groups of words?
In group 1, am and was in missing.
In group 2 am, was, has, have are missing.
These are verbs and without these words of above two sentences are unable to establish any sense.
Before discussing the finite verb we must aware the about verb:
WREN & MATRIN Grammar book defines verb as:
“A verb is word that tells or asserts something about a person or thing. Verb comes from Latin Verbum, a word. It is so called because it is the most important word in sentence”.
A verb may tell us:
1- What a person or thing does; as
Hari laugs. The clock strikes.
At first we have to know about forms of verb.
There are forms of verbs Only WREN AND MARTIN describe three forms of verb
Almost all English grammar books we found four forms of verb i.e. Present, Past and Past Participle and ing form of verb. Wren and Martin described that there are three forms of verb that are Present, Past and Past Participle. I do agree with WREN AM MARTIN.
What is ing with verb, it is added with base form of verb to clear for the continuation of action of a subject as s OR es are added with the base from of verb when subject of the sentence is third person singular.
Table 1
1st form Past
2nd Form Past Participle Form
3rd From Ing Form
4th Form Remarks
Finite Verb Infinite Verb Not a Verb Ing is addition in present form of verb that shows the continuation of any action of subject.
Following tables are used to clear the time of action’s continuation.
Such as is, am, are for continuation in present time.
Was and were for continuation of future time.
Will be and shall for continuation of future time.
Write Wrote Written Writing
Drink Drank Drank Drinking
Play Played Played Playing
Table 2
The table of simple sentence that shows time.
Present Past Past Participle
Are Were
1st form Past
2nd Form Past Participle Form
3rd From Ing Form
4th Form
Finite Verb Infinite Verb Not a Verb
If table is deeply observed we understand the infinitive verbs show present and past time and without time the sentence is unclear and nothing can be understood.
Sentence without infinite of finite verb. Sentence with infective verb Results with infinitive verbs.
I Written I have written
I had written


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About the author (1998)

Edmund Weiner is co-editor of the OED, Second edition, and author (with Andrew Delahunty) of the Oxford Guide to English Usage. Sylvia Chalker is the author of Current English Grammar, and a contributor to the Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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