The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction

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OUP Oxford, Nov 24, 2011 - Science - 126 pages
The animal world is immensely diverse, and our understanding of it has been greatly enhanced by analysis of DNA and the study of evolution and development ('evo-devo'). In this Very Short Introduction Peter Holland presents a modern tour of the animal kingdom. Beginning with the definition of animals (not obvious in biological terms), he takes the reader through the high-level groupings of animals (phyla) and new views on their evolutionary relationships based on molecular data, together with an overview of the biology of each group of animals. The phylogenetic view is central to zoology today and the volume will be of great value to all students of the life sciences, as well as providing a concise summary for the interested general reader. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
 

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Animals are one of the most familiar and ubiquitous mental categories. They surround all of us, whether they are minuscule flies or oversize pets, and the human history would have been unimaginably different without our oversize reliance on animals. Aside from our daily experience, we learn about animals in school, but unless we end up majoring in biology very few of us go through the trouble of learning about these creatures on a deeper and more systematic level.
In "The Animal Kingdom: A Very Short Introduction" Peter Holland takes us on a journey of rediscovery of animals in all of their fascinating glory. This book can challenge and radically transform one's understanding of what is meant by the word "animal." It turns out that animals are much more diverse and heterogeneous than what most of us suspect. There are estimated millions of species of animals out there, and we'll probably never get a full catalog of them. Like with all other branches of the tree of life, most animals are extremely small or microscopic, live in regions far away from human habitats, and engage in lifestyles that make them extremely hard to detect and study. Even with the known species of animals, the process of categorization and classification can be extremely daunting. For the most of human history, including the past couple of centuries of rapid scientific progress, animals had been categorized in terms of their gross physiological features. This sort of classification worked more or less well for the larger species, but for some smaller ones it created a lot of puzzles. All of this has changed with the advent of DNA analysis which has put the task of animal classification on a much more rigorous footing. DNA analysis has brought about many interesting surprises, and it has shed the new light on the evolution of animals. Thanks to the combination of DNA analysis and some older techniques today we can classify animals into about 33 different phyla. Most of these phyla are completely unknown to anyone but the specialized biologists, and this very short introduction tries to shed some light on at least some of them.
One of the most wonderful aspects of this little book is that it always tries to keep the big picture in mind. Its aim is to offer understanding, and not just a dry recitation of various animals, species, and phyla. This approach is invaluable and makes even a book that is filled with recondite classification jargon extremely accessible and even fun to read. The evolution of animal life is one of the nature's greatest adventure stories, and Holland manages to convey much of its excitement. It was very hard for me to put this book down, and I found myself reaching for Wikipedia more often than not in order to find out more about some truly amazing animal species. This is definitely one of the best very short introduction books, and one of my favorite overall popular science books. Anyone who has a desire to understand the diversity of animal life will greatly benefit from going through this short and accessible resource.
 

Contents

1 What is an animal?
1
2 Animal phyla
8
3 The evolutionary tree of animals
15
sponges corals and jellyfish
24
building a body
35
wondrous worms
43
insects and nematodes
55
starfish sea squirts and amphioxus
70
the rise of vertebrates
82
vertebrates on land
96
11 Enigmatic animals
109
Further reading
119
Index
121
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About the author (2011)


Peter Holland is Linacre Professor of Zoology and Fellow of Merton College, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford.

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