## The Concise Oxford Dictionary of MathematicsAuthoritative and reliable, this A-Z provides jargon-free definitions for even the most technical mathematical terms. With over 3,000 entries ranging from Achilles paradox to zero matrix, it covers all commonly encountered terms and concepts from pure and applied mathematics and statistics, for example, linear algebra, optimisation, nonlinear equations, and differential equations. In addition, there are entries on major mathematicians and on topics of more general interest, such as fractals, game theory, and chaos. Using graphs, diagrams, and charts to render definitions as comprehensible as possible, entries are clear and accessible. Almost 200 new entries have been added to this edition, including terms such as arrow paradox, nested set, and symbolic logic. Useful appendices follow the A-Z dictionary and include lists of Nobel Prize winners and Fields' medallists, Greek letters, formulae, and tables of inequalities, moments of inertia, Roman numerals, a geometry summary, additional trigonometric values of special angles, and many more. This edition contains recommended web links, which are accessible and kept up to date via the Dictionary of Mathematics companion website. Fully revised and updated in line with curriculum and degree requirements, this dictionary is indispensable for students and teachers of mathematics, and for anyone encountering mathematics in the workplace. |

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### Contents

B | 36 |

C | 58 |

D | 118 |

E | 147 |

F | 177 |

G | 196 |

H | 210 |

I | 230 |

X | 509 |

Y | 510 |

Z | 511 |

Appendix 1 | 514 |

Appendix 2 | 515 |

Appendix 3 | 516 |

Appendix 4 | 517 |

Appendix 5 | 519 |

J | 258 |

K | 261 |

L | 268 |

M | 295 |

N | 321 |

O | 337 |

P | 345 |

Q | 387 |

R | 394 |

S | 424 |

T | 465 |

U | 491 |

V | 496 |

W | 504 |

Appendix 6 | 520 |

Appendix 7 | 521 |

Appendix 8 | 523 |

Appendix 9 | 524 |

Appendix 10 | 525 |

Appendix 11 | 526 |

Appendix 12 | 527 |

Appendix 13 | 529 |

Appendix 14 | 531 |

Appendix 15 | 533 |

Appendix 16 | 534 |

Appendix 17 | 535 |

Appendix 18 | 536 |

### Common terms and phrases

Abbreviation algebraic angle Archimedean solids axes axis binary binomial Cartesian coordinates centre circle coefficient coefﬁcients column complex numbers conic converges coordinate system cosh curve deﬁned denoted derivative diagonal diagram differential equation digits directed line segment distance distribution edge element ellipse entries equal example exponential ffiffiffi ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi figure formula function f geometric given graph hyperbola hyperbolic function infinite integer integral intersection interval inverse length linear logarithmic mapping mathematician mathematics meagre set measure method multiplication n-th root notation obtained orthogonal parabola parallel parameter particle perpendicular plane polar coordinates polygon polynomial positive integer quadric radians radius random variable real numbers root of unity sequence shown sides sinh solution square matrix statistics subsets surface symmetry tangent Theorem triangle triangle inequality trigonometric functions truth table unit vector vertex vertices x-axis y-axis y¼f(x zero