About Method: Experimenters, Snake Venom, and the History of Writing Scientifically
Scientists’ views on what makes an experiment successful have developed dramatically throughout history. Different criteria for proper experimentation were privileged at different times, entirely new criteria for securing experimental results emerged, and the meaning of commitment to experimentation altered. In About Method, Schickore captures this complex trajectory of change from 1660 to the twentieth century through the history of snake venom research. As experiments with poisonous snakes and venom were both challenging and controversial, the experimenters produced very detailed accounts of their investigations, which go back three hundred years—making venom research uniquely suited for such a long-term study. By analyzing key episodes in the transformation of venom research, Schickore is able to draw out the factors that have shaped methods discourse in science.
About Method shows that methodological advancement throughout history has not been simply a steady progression toward better, more sophisticated and improved methodologies of experimentation. Rather, it was a progression in awareness of the obstacles and limitations that scientists face in developing strategies to probe the myriad unknown complexities of nature. The first long-term history of this development and of snake venom research, About Method offers a major contribution to integrated history and philosophy of science.
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Introduction A matter so obscure so difficult and likewise so new
Chapter 1 Argument Narrative and Methods Discourse
Chapter 2 Many Many Experiments
Chapter 3 Trying Again
Chapter 4 Newtonian Poison
Chapter 5 Experiment as the Only Guide
Chapter 6 Thousands of Experiments
Chapter 7 Practical Criticisms
Chapter 8 Controlling Experiment
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About Method: Experimenters, Snake Venom, and the History of Writing ...
Limited preview - 2020
Allan Franklin American animal argument bacteriology Bernard biological biomedical bite bitten blood body Boyle Boyle’s causes chapter Charas Charas’s chemical commitment to experimentalism comparative experimentation con concepts concern context crotoxin debates described detail discussion disease early modern effects Ehrlich’s enzymes experimental reports experimental trials experiments explicitly Felice Fontana findings Flexner and Noguchi fluid Fontana Fraenkel-Conrat Francesco Redi Haller Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat hemolysis Hideyo Noguchi History hypotheses Ibid investigators Journal laboratory Mead Mead’s mechanical ments methods discourse Mill’s Mitchell Mitchell’s narrative nature Newtonianism nineteenth century observations organization performed perimental Philosophy of Science physiology pigeons poisons practice principles proper procedure protein protocols reader Redi reference Reichert repetitions Roux Royal Society scientific writing serum Simon Flexner Slotta Smithsonian essay snake venom snakebite specific strategies substances techniques theory therapeutics theriac tion treatise University Press venom poisoning venom research viper meat viper venom wound yellow liquor