The Arctic Tundra and adjacent Boreal Forest or Taiga support the most cold-adapted flora and fauna on Earth. The evolutionary capacity of both plants and animals to adapt to these thermally limiting conditions has always attracted biological investigation and is a central theme of this book. How the polar biota will adapt to a warmer world is creating significant and renewed interest in this habitat. The Arctic has always been subject to climatic fluctuation and the polar biota has successfully adapted to these changes throughout its evolutionary history. Whether or not climatic warming will allow the Boreal Forest to advance onto the treeless Tundra is one of the most tantalizing questions that can be asked today in relation to terrestrial polar biology. Tundra-Taiga Biology provides a circum-polar perspective of adaptation to low temperatures and short growing seasons, together with a history of climatic variation as it has affected the evolution of terrestrial life in the Tundra and the adjacent forested Taiga. It will appeal to researchers new to the field and to the many students, professional ecologists and conservation practitioners requiring a concise but authoritative overview of the biome. Its accessibility also makes it suitable for undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in tundra, taiga, and arctic ecology.
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Arctic climate history
The Holocene at high latitudes
Human arrival in the Arctic
Taiga and bog
Arctic survival in mammals birds and Insects
Plant survival in cold habitats
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adapted Alaska animals Arctic Fox areas beavers Beringia Birch birds boreal forest breeding Brown Bears Canada Canadian carbon caribou cause circumpolar climate change climatic warming cold cycles decline diversity Dryas Dwarf ecological environment Eurasia Figure flora freezing genetic grazing Greenland growing season growth Gyrfalcon habitats herbivores herds High Arctic high latitudes Holocene human hunting ice sheets Iceland increase Inuit land Last Glacial Last Glacial Maximum layer lemmings levels lichens mammals mammoth metabolic migration mire moss Muskox Muskoxen North America northern Norway nutrient Peninsula period permafrost Photo courtesy Pleistocene Polar Bear polyploid populations predation proteins Ptarmigan R.M.M. Crawford range recent refugia regions reindeer Reproduced with permission Russian Saxifraga oppositifolia sedges Siberia snow Snowy Owl soil species Spitsbergen Spruce sub-species summer survival Svalbard Taiga Taymyr Taymyr Peninsula temperatures tion tissues trees Tundra Tundra-Taiga vegetation voles wetlands winter Wrangel Island zone