## Concepts in Thermal PhysicsAn understanding of thermal physics is crucial to much of modern physics, chemistry and engineering. This book provides a modern introduction to the main principles that are foundational to thermal physics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The key concepts are carefully presented in a clear way, and new ideas are illustrated with copious worked examples as well as a description of the historical background to their discovery. Applications are presented to subjects as diverse as stellar astrophysics, information and communication theory, condensed matter physics and climate change. Each chapter concludes with detailed exercises. The second edition of this popular textbook maintains the structure and lively style of the first edition but extends its coverage of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics to include several new topics, including osmosis, diffusion problems, Bayes theorem, radiative transfer, the Ising model and Monte Carlo methods. New examples and exercises have been added throughout. |

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### Contents

Part I Preliminaries | 1 |

Part II Kinetic theory of gases | 47 |

Part III Transport and thermal diffusion | 75 |

Part IV The first law | 107 |

Part V The second law | 125 |

Part VI Thermodynamics in action | 171 |

Part VII Statistical mechanics | 209 |

Part VIII Beyond the ideal gas | 289 |

B Useful formulae | 462 |

C Useful mathematics | 464 |

D The electromagnetic spectrum | 479 |

E Some thermodynamical definitions | 480 |

F Thermodynamic expansion formulae | 481 |

G Reduced mass | 482 |

H Glossary of main symbols | 483 |

485 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

adiabatic assume atmosphere atoms Boltzmann Boltzmann distribution Bose–Einstein condensation bosons Carnot engine Chapter summary chemical potential collision consider constant cooling defined derive diffusion diffusion equation distribution Earth’s electrons energy density energy levels entropy equation equilibrium equipartition theorem Example expression fermions fluctuations flux frequency gases Gibbs function given heat capacity hence ideal gas implies increases integral internal energy isothermal Joule Joule expansion kinetic energy law of thermodynamics liquid magnetic mass Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution Maxwell’s mean measured microstates mole molecular molecules number of molecules number of particles partition function phase transition photons pressure probability quantity quantum radiation radius reservoir second law Section shown in Fig solid Solution speed star statistical surface temperature thermal physics tion variables velocity volume wave wavelength write zero