Duke-Elder's practice of refraction
The purpose of this book is to introduce students and practitioners to the essential principles, theory and practice of correcting defects in the optical system of the eyes and their associated muscles.
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The clinical importance of
The principles of refraction
The refraction of the eye
19 other sections not shown
accommodation ametropia amount anisometropia anomalies aphakia aphakic appears astigmatism atropine axes axial axis becomes bifocal binocular vision blurred cataract ciliary muscle clinical concave condition considerable contact lens convergence convex lens cornea correction curvature curve cyclophoria cycloplegia cycloplegic cylinder defect degree deviation diameter dioptres dioptric diplopia direction distance distant vision divergent effect emmetropia emmetropic examination exophoria eye-strain focal frequently front fundus fusion glass heterophoria horizontal hypermetropia illumination increase indicate lens wear measured meridian metre mirror movement myope myopia nearer neutralisation normal object oblique occurs ocular ophthalmoscope optic zone parallel rays patient peripheral physiological plane position posterior presbyopia presbyopic principal focus prism produced pupil rays of light reading reflex refractive error refractive power relative retina retinal image retinoscopy rotation seen soft lens spectacle lenses sphere spherical squint surface symptoms technique test types treatment trial frame usually vertical visual acuity wherein