## The Physics of Information TechnologyThe Physics of Information Technology explores the familiar devices that we use to collect, transform, transmit, and interact with electronic information. Many such devices operate surprisingly close to very many fundamental physical limits. Understanding how such devices work, and how they can (and cannot) be improved, requires deep insight into the character of physical law as well as engineering practice. The book starts with an introduction to units, forces, and the probabilistic foundations of noise and signaling, then progresses through the electromagnetics of wired and wireless communications, and the quantum mechanics of electronic, optical, and magnetic materials, to discussions of mechanisms for computation, storage, sensing, and display. This self-contained volume will help both physical scientists and computer scientists see beyond the conventional division between hardware and software to understand the implications of physical theory for information manipulation. |

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### Contents

Noise in Physical Systems | 14 |

Information in Physical Systems | 36 |

Electromagnetic Fields and Waves | 51 |

Circuits Transmission Lines and Waveguides | 76 |

Optics | 112 |

Lensless Imaging and Inverse Problems | 128 |

Semiconductor Materials and Devices | 141 |

Generating Detecting and Modulating Light | 165 |

Magnetic Storage | 187 |

Measurement and Coding | 203 |

Transducers | 231 |

Quantum Computing and Communications | 252 |

Problem Solutions | 286 |

347 | |

362 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

1/f noise amplifier angle angular momentum antenna applied approximation atoms band bandwidth called capacitance capacitor channel Chapter charge circuit clock coefficient components conductor constant defined density depend devices dielectric difference differential differential entropy dipole dissipated distance distribution electric field electromagnetic electrons energy entropy equal equation error exponential Fermi Fermi energy ferromagnet filter flux Fourier transform frequency gate Gaussian gradient impedance input integral interaction interface inverting Johnson noise lens light limit linear loop magnetic field match material matrix Maxwell's equations measurement operator optical output particles phase photon physical plane polarization possible potential Poynting vector probability Problem quantum computer quantum mechanics qubit radiation ratio relative resistor rotation semiconductor shown in Figure signal ſº spectrum spin surface temperature Theorem theory thermal transistor vanishes vector voltage wave function wavelength wire