Cognitive Science: An Introduction to the Study of Mind

Front Cover
This landmark textbook introduces students to everything that the world's great thinkers think about thought. Throughout history, different fields of inquiry have attempted to understand the great mystery of mind and answer questions like: What is mind? How does it operate? What is consciousness? Only recently have these efforts in traditional and cutting edge disciplines become more united in their focus. Cognitive Science is the comprehensive result of the authors' drawing together of this work. Cognitive Science is the perfect introductory textbook for cross-disciplinary courses on the mind in psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and computer science.
 

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Contents

Introduction Exploring Inner Space
1
What Is Cognitive Science?
2
Representation
3
Digital Representations
6
Analog Representations
7
Prepositional Representations
8
Computation
9
The TriLevel Hypothesis
10
Evaluating the Connectionist Approach
221
Problems and Disadvantages
222
Meaning in the Web
224
Characteristics of Semantic Networks
225
A Hierarchical Semantic Network
226
Evaluating the Hierarchical Model
228
Propositional Semantic Networks
230
Evaluating Semantic Networks
231

The Classical and Connectionist Views of Computation
13
The Philosophical Approach
15
The Psychological Approach
16
The Cognitive Approach
17
The Neuroscience Approach
18
The Evolutionary Approach
19
The Linguistic Approach
20
The Robotics Approach
21
Categories of Mental Representation
22
Analogical Reasoning
24
The Philosophical Approach Enduring Questions
29
The MindBody Problem
30
Flavors of Monism
33
Flavors of Dualism
34
Evaluating the Dualist Perspective
36
Functionalism
38
Evaluating the Functionalist Perspective
40
The Free WillDeterminism Debate
41
The Issue of Free Will
43
Evaluating the Free WillDeterminism Debate
44
The Knowledge Acquisition Problem
45
Evaluating the Knowledge Acquistion Debate
47
The Mystery of Consciousness
49
The WhatItsLike Argument
50
Mind as an Emergent Property
52
Evaluating the Emergent View of Mind
53
Consciousness and Neuroscience
54
Consciousness and Artificial Intelligence
56
Overall Evaluation of the Philosophical Approach
59
Dennetts Multiple Drafts Theory of Consciousness
60
Decision Making
63
The Psychological Approach A Profusion of Theories
65
Psychology and the Scientific Method
67
The Voluntarist Movement
68
Evaluating the Voluntarist Approach
71
What the Mind Is
72
Evaluating the Structuralist Approach
73
What the Mind Does
74
Evaluating the Functionalist Approach
76
Mental Physics and the Gestalt Movement
77
Evaluating the Gestalt Approach
81
Mechanism and Psychoanalytic Psychology
82
Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Approach
84
The Behaviorist Approach
85
Evaluating the Behaviorist Approach
87
Overall Evaluation of the Psychological Approach
88
Insight Learning
89
Introspection
91
The Cognitive Approach I HistoryVision and Attention
95
Mind as an Information Processor
97
Modularity of Mind
98
Evaluating the Modular Approach
99
Theories of Vision and Pattern Recognition
100
Evaluating Template Matching Theory
101
Feature Detection Theory
103
A Computational Theory of Vision
105
Evaluating the Computational Theory of Pattern Recognition
106
Feature Integration Theory
108
Evaluating Feature Integration Theory
111
Theories of Attention
112
Broadbents Filter Model
113
Evaluating the Filter Model
115
The DeutschNorman Memory Selection Model
116
Kahnemans Capacity Model of Attention
117
Evaluating the Capacity Model of Attention
119
Biedermans RecognitionbyComponents Theory of Pattern Recognition
120
Silhouettes and Object Constancy
122
The Cognitive Approach II Memory Imagery and Problem Solving
125
Sensory Memory
126
Working Memory
127
LongTerm Memory
131
Memory Models
133
The Modal Model
134
Evaluating the Modal Model
135
Evaluating the ACT Model
137
Evaluating the Working Memory Model
139
The Kosslyn and Schwartz Theory of Visual Imagery
140
Image Structures
141
Image Processes
142
Evaluating the Kosslyn and Schwartz Theory
146
The Imagery Debate
147
Problem Solving
149
The General Problem Solver Model
153
Evaluating the General Problem Solver Model
154
The SOAR Model
155
Evaluating the SOAR Model
156
Overall Evaluation of the Cognitive Approach
158
Search in Working Memory
159
Memory Effects
161
The Neuroscience Approach Mind as Brain
163
Methodology in Neuroscience
164
Evaluating Techniques for the Study of Brain Damage
165
Brain Recording Techniques
166
Computerized Axial Tomography CAT
167
Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI
168
The Electrical Stimulation Technique
169
Neuron Anatomy and Physiology
170
Directions in the Nervous System
172
The Cortex
173
The Split Brain
174
The Neuroscience of Visual Object Recognition
175
Visual Agnosias
176
Apperceptive Agnosia
177
Associative Agnosia
178
Face Perception
180
The Neuroscience of Attention
181
Models of Attention
185
Distributed Network Models
186
The Neuroscience of Memory
187
Learning and Memory
188
The Hippocampal System
189
Models of Hippocampal Function
190
Neural Substrates of Working Memory
192
Evaluating the Neuroscience of Working Memory
195
The Neuroscience of Executive Function and Problem Solving
197
Theories of Executive Function
199
Overall Evaluation of the Neuroscience Approach
201
Binding and Neural Synchrony
202
Neural Functions
203
Outline The Network Approach Mind as a Web
207
Principles Underlying Artificial Neural Networks
208
Characteristics of Artificial Neural Networks
210
Early Conceptions of Neural Networks
212
Back Propagation and Convergent Dynamics
215
Artificial Neural Network Typologies
219
Overall Evaluation of the Network Approach
233
NETtalk
234
Free Association
236
The Evolutionary Approach Change Over Time
239
Evolutionary Psychology
240
Selection
241
Evolved Psychological Mechanisms
244
Evolution and Cognitive Processes
247
Memory
248
Logical Reasoning
250
Judgment Under Uncertainty
253
Language
256
Sex Differences in Cognition
257
Evolutionary Computing
261
Artificial Life
263
Neural Darwinism
265
Evaluating Evolutionary Psychology
266
Overall Evaluation of the Evolutionary Approach
269
A Stage Theory of Evolution
270
Memory for Object Location
272
The Linguistic Approach Language and Cognitive Science
275
The Nature of Language
276
Language Use in Primates
278
Evaluating Language Use in Primates
280
Language Acquisition
282
Evaluating Language Acquisition
284
Evaluating Language Deprivation
287
The Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
288
Evaluating the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
290
The Role of Grammar
291
Evaluating Universal Grammar
294
Evaluating the WernickeGeschwind Model
297
Natural Language Processing
298
Speech Recognition
299
Syntactic Analysis
301
Pragmatic Analysis
302
Evaluation of Natural Language Processing
303
Overall Evaluation of the Linguistic Approach
304
Modern Conceptions of the Lexicon
307
Conversational Pragmatics
308
Artificial Intelligence I Definitional Perspective
311
Historical and Philosophical Roots
312
The Quest for Mechanical Life
313
Philosophical OriginsMan as a Machine
315
Evaluating Descartes Approach
316
Defining Artificial Intelligence AI
320
Evaluating the Concept of AI
322
Applied AI
323
AI Methodologies
331
The Computer as the Tool of Al Research
333
Evaluation of the Computer as a Model of Brain Organization
334
Programming
335
Evaluation of Programming Languages
336
Evaluation of the Turing Test TT and Turings Detractors
341
The TT and Behaviorism
344
Summarizing the Meaning of AI
345
Behaviorism and Ned Block
347
Evaluating the Block Approach
349
Play the IG Game
350
Artificial Intelligence II Operational Perspective
353
The Practical World of Artificial Intelligence
354
Approaches to the Design of Intelligent Agents
356
Machine Intelligence Knowledge and Machine Reasoning
357
Evaluation of the Cyc Project
359
Characteristics of Knowledge Representation
360
Knowledge Representation Technologies
362
Semantic Networks
364
Frames
365
Cases
366
Machine Reasoning
367
Logical Reasoning Deduction Abduction Induction
370
Drawing Inferences
372
Inductive Reasoning
379
Expert Systems
380
MYCIN
383
Evaluations of Expert Systems
384
Fuzzy Logic
386
Representation of Information in the Fuzzy World
387
Fuzzy Logic Rules
389
Fuzzy Advice for Decision Making or Management
390
Artificial Neural Nets ANNs
392
Overall Evaluation of the Operational Perspective
393
Decision Making
396
Robotics The Ultimate Intelligent Agents
399
Some Robotic Achievements
402
Evaluating Robotic Potentials
404
Evaluation of the LorenzTinbergen Approach
409
Transferring Behavioral Models to Robotics
410
Evaluation of the Biological Basis of Robotics
411
Foundations of Robotic Paradigms
412
Evaluation of Paradigm Foundations
413
Robotic Paradigms
414
Evaluation of the Hierarchical Paradigm
415
The Reactive Paradigm
416
Evaluation of the Reactive Paradigm
419
The Hybrid DeliberativeReactive Paradigm
420
Evaluation of Hybrid Architectures
423
Overall Evaluation of Robots as Ultimate Intelligent Agents
425
Autonomous Robot Architecture AuRA
426
Evaluation of AuRA
429
Conclusion Where We Go From Here
433
An Example of an Integrated Program of Study
434
The Philosophical Approach
435
The Neuroscience Approach
437
The Evolutionary Approach
438
The Robotics Approach
439
Specific Issues Facing Cognitive Science
440
Emotions
441
Consciousness
443
Physical Environments
444
Social Environments
446
Individual and Cultural Differences
448
Enhancing Cognitive Science
449
The Role of Integration
452
Integration Across Disciplines
453
Integration Across Methodologies
454
Multiagent Systems
455
Evaluating Theories of Mind
457
Glossary
459
References
483
Name Index
505
Subject Index
513
About the Authors
Copyright

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About the author (2006)

Jay Friedenberg is Associate Chair and Associate Professor of the Psychology Department at Manhattan College, where he directs the Cognitive Science program. He obtained his Ph.D. in cognitive psychology in 1995 at the University of Virginia . His academic interests are in the areas of vision and philosophy of mind. He teaches courses in introductory and physiological psychology, sensation and perception, and research methods. Dr. Friedenberg has an active research program, investigating the visual estimation of center of mass. He has published articles on symmetry detection and face perception. Dr. Friedenberg is a member of the New York Academy of Sciences, The Psychonomic Society, Phi Beta Kappa, and Sigma Xi. He is a yoga instructor and lives in Riverdale New York with a fat cat called Mimi.

Gordon Silverman is Chair of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Manhattan College, where he has taught since 1991. He holds degrees from Columbia University and Polytechnic University (Ph.D. in System Science). He has close to 40 years of industrial, research, and teaching experience and is particularly interested in the engineering applications of computers with special emphasis on instrumentation, data acquisition, and biomedicine. In addition to numerous research papers, he recently published his fourth book.

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