Disobeying Hitler: German Resistance After Valkyrie
On July 20, 1944, Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg was executed in the courtyard of the Third Reich's military headquarters in Berlin for attempting to assassinate Adolf Hitler. A member of the unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Nazi government -- codenamed Operation Valkyrie -- Stauffenberg was shot by a firing squad along with his co-conspirators, and their bodies were dumped in a shallow grave.
Most discussions of German resistance during World War II end here, with the failed July 20 plot and the subsequent execution of its leaders. And yet this was far from the last act of disobedience carried out against the Nazi regime, as Randall Hansen reveals in his fascinating new book. Although "resistance" as a commitment to regime change all but ended with Stauffenberg, Hansen shows that if we consider resistance as disobedience -- of orders to detonate a bridge, to wreck a factory, to destroy a harbor or to defend a city to the last man -- then a very different picture emerges. Resistance-as-disobedience continued, and indeed increased, throughout late 1944 and early 1945. And it had a more profound and lasting material effect on the war and its aftermath than did the military resistance culminating in Stauffenberg's attempt on Hitler's life. From the refusal to destroy Paris and key locations in southern France to the unwillingness to implement a scorched earth policy on German soil, disobedience in the Third Reich manifested in numerous ways after 1944, and ultimately impacted the course of the war by saving thousands of Allied and German lives, keeping supply lines open, and preserving cities and infrastructure.
In a period of thorough and at times fanatical obedience, the few instances of disobedience against the Nazi regime become all the more striking. Considering various forms of oppostion across the Western Front, Disobeying Hitler is a significant contribution to the literature on German resistance.
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WAR ATROCITIES RESISTANCE
THE COUP AGAINST HITLER
FROM FAILING HANDS The Coup in Paris
PARIS JULY 20 1944 The SS Locked Down
THE RESISTANCES LAST HOPE Rommel against Hitler
DID A PRUSSIAN SAVE PARIS?
THE SIEGE OF DÜSSELDORF
DYING SO THAT THEY MAY LIVE Central Germany
NUREMBERGS DESTRUCTION HEIDELBERGS SALVATION Southern Germany
A CITIZENS REVOLT Augsburg
WE THE WOMEN OF FREIBURG BEG YOU The French Occupation of Southern Germany
A HOUSE OF CARDS The Soviet Assault on the Reich
SAVING CASPAR DAVID FRIEDRICHS CITY
FINISHING THE JOB THAT BOMBER HARRIS STARTED Hamburg
TO DESTROY THE CITY OF LIGHT
PARIS IN REVOLT
PARIS LIBERATED PARIS SPARED
NORMANDY SOUTH The Invasion of Southern France
FORTS AND FORTRESSES Toulon
EUROPES LIFELINE Marseille
VIOLENCE COMES HOME Preparing the Defence of the Reich
TO DESTROY GERMANY Hitler and Scorched Earth
FIGHTING TO THE LAST MAN The Allies at the Rhine
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26 Août Albert Speer Allies Americans APPP April Army Group Arnim artillery attack Augsburg August August 21 BArch BArch RH battle Bericht Berlin Blumentritt Boineburg bombing Bormann bridges British Choltitz city’s civilian commander Corps coup Dansette defended destroy destruction Düsseldorf east Einsatzgruppen Feldmarschall fight fire forces France Freiburg French front Führer Gadolla Gauleiter Generalleutnant German army German Resistance Germany’s Gestapo Gotha Greifswald Hamburg harbour Heidelberg Himmler Hitler Hofacker Hoffmann Ibid Infantry Division Jews July 20 Jürgens Kaufmann Keitel kilometres launched Libération libération de Paris Liberation of Paris Luftwaffe March Marseille mayor Military Resistance moved Müller National Socialist Nazi Nordling numbers Oberstleutnant Odenthal officer Operation Dragoon Patton Petershagen police port Reich Reichhelm Report Rhine Rommel Sauver Paris Schäfer Soviet Speidel Stadtarchiv Stauffenberg Stülpnagel surrender tanks tion Toulon troops Übergabe der Stadt UKNA USAMHI Volkssturm Wehrmacht Wenck West white flag Widerstand Wiedenhofen Wolz Zaloga