America Is Elsewhere: The Noir Tradition in the Age of Consumer Culture
America is Elsewhere provides a rigorous and creative reconsideration of hard-boiled crime fiction and the film noir tradition within three related postwar contexts: 1) the rise of the consumer republic in the United States after World War II 2) the challenge to traditional notions of masculinity posed by a new form of citizenship based in consumption, and 3) the simultaneous creation of "authenticity effects" - representational strategies designed to safeguard an image of both the American male and America itself outside of and in opposition to the increasingly omnipresent marketplace. Films like Double Indemnity, Ace in the Hole, and Kiss Me Deadly alongside novels by Dashiel Hammett and Raymond Chandler provide rich examples for the first half of the study. The second is largely devoted to works less commonly understood in relation to the hard-boiled and noir canon. Examinations of the conspiracy films from the Seventies and Eighties-like Klute and The Parallax View—novels by Thomas Pynchon, Chester Himes and William Gibson reveal the persistence and evolution of these authenticity effects across the second half of the American twentieth century.
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aesthetic African American alternative American identity argues artiﬁcial Big Clock Big Lebowski black authenticity Blade Runner book’s central Chandler chapter character Coens commercial space conﬂation conﬂict conspiracy narrative conspiracy texts consumer capitalism consumer culture consumerist consumption corporate counterconspiracy counterculture create crime critics critique Crying ofLot 49 cyberpunk cyborg deﬁned deﬁnition describes Dude economy emerges femme fatale ﬁction ﬁfties ﬁgure Film Noir ﬁlm’s ﬁnal ﬁnds ﬁrst ﬂoor Frady gas station genre ghetto Gibson’s global hard-boiled detective Harlem Himes Himes’s Hollywood Hudsucker Proxy Iameson Ianoth identiﬁed images imagined inauthentic Inherent Vice kind landscape logic Long Goodbye mainstream male Marlowe Marlowe’s masculinity metaphor modernist movie national identity neo-noir Neuromancer noir tradition noir’s Norville novel offers ofthe opposition organization Parallax View political postmodern postwar production Pynchon reﬂects representation represented scene sixties social spatial speciﬁcally story Stroud suggests sumer supermarket symbolic takes tion urban Vineland vision