Shipwrecked: Disaster and Transformation in Homer, Shakespeare, Defoe, and the Modern World

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University of Michigan Press, Apr 22, 2014 - Literary Criticism - 242 pages
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Shipwrecked: Disaster and Transformation in Homer, Shakespeare, Defoe, and the Modern World presents the first comparative study of notable literary shipwrecks from the past four thousand years, focusing on Homer’s Odyssey, Shakespeare’s The Tempest, and Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe. James V. Morrison considers the historical context as well as the “triggers” (such as the 1609 Bermuda shipwreck) that inspired some of these works, and modern responses such as novels (Golding’s Lord of the Flies, Coetzee’s Foe, and Gordon’s First on Mars, a science fiction version of the Crusoe story), movies, television (Forbidden PlanetCast Away, and Lost), and the poetry and plays of Caribbean poets Derek Walcott and Aimé Césaire.

The recurrent treatment of shipwrecks in the creative arts demonstrates an enduring fascination with this archetypal scene: a shipwreck survivor confronting the elements. It is remarkable, for example, that the characters in the 2004 television show Lostshare so many features with those from Homer’s Odyssey and Shakespeare’s The Tempest.



For survivors who are stranded on an island for some period of time, shipwrecks often present the possibility of a change in political and social status—as well as romance and even paradise. In each of the major shipwreck narratives examined, the poet or novelist links the castaways’ arrival on a new shore with the possibility of a new sort of life. Readers will come to appreciate the shift in attitude toward the opportunities offered by shipwreck: older texts such as the Odyssey reveals a trajectory of returning to the previous order. In spite of enticing new temptations, Odysseus—and some of the survivors in The Tempest—revert to their previous lives, rejecting what many might consider paradise. Odysseus is reestablished as king; Prospero travels back to Milan. In such situations, we may more properly speak of potential transformations. In contrast, many recent shipwreck narratives instead embrace the possibility of a new sort of existence. That even now the shipwreck theme continues to be treated, in multiple media, testifies to its long-lasting appeal to a very wide audience.
 

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Contents

1 Shipwreck Narratives
1
2 Shipwreck and Identity in Homers Odyssey
9
3 Shipwreck and Opportunity from Ancient Egypt to the Modern Caribbean
30
4 The Struggle for Power in Shakespeares The Tempest
45
Saint Paul Caliban and Voyages in Outer Space
83
6 Culture and Spiritual Rebirth in Defoes Robinson Crusoe
101
7 The Struggle for Survival in Philoctetes Cast Away and First on Mars
139
8 Competing Narratives in Walcotts Pantomime and Coetzees Foe
157
9 Conflict the Common Good and Redemption in The Mysterious Island Lord of the Flies Lost and Gilligans Island
180
10 Shipwreck and the Selling of Paradise
214
Bibliography
225
Index
239
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About the author (2014)

James V. Morrison has taught at Georgetown University and Davidson College and is currently Stodghill Professor of Classical Studies and Humanities at Centre College.

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